Many gardeners grow plums on their plots.This culture has more than 250 varieties, some of which are grouped together. One of these families is called Renclode, the sorts of it have a number of similar characteristics, but at the same time they differ from each other. Let's look at a detailed description of this type of plum..
Table of contents
- How does Renoclode differ from other varieties?
- Description of varieties
- The collective farm
- History of breeding
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Natural growth region
- Rules for planting seedlings
- Features of care
- Trimming Prunes
- Additional fertilizing
- Preparation for winter
- Diseases and pests
- Plum Reproduction
- Planting seeds
- Root growth
- Root cuttings
How does Renoclode differ from other varieties?
From other sorts of plums the Renklods differ first of all with their excellent taste qualities.Their fruits have dessert taste, tender and melting in the mouth of the flesh.
Also, the trees of this family look neat and beautiful, few in which sorts of crowns need shaping pruning..
Description of varieties
The view of the Renclode includes several varieties that differ in similar characteristics:
- Average,height of a treeis 4-6 meters.
- Crown spherical, small deviations are allowed.
- Young branchesslightly pubescent, easy to bend, painted red-brown or red-green color. Over time, they harden and acquire a greyish shade.
- On veins of leavesalso there is hairiness.
- More oftenfruits have the form of a ball, length of 4-5 centimeters, the color varies from yellow-green to inky-violet. Plums of this family are slightly rough.
- Peduncleshort, pubescent.
- Tastesuch plums are considered dessert.
- Most varieties are self-fruitfuland they need additional pollination.
- Productivitydepends on how dry and sunny the summer was.
The collective farm
This variety was introduced by I.V. Michurin in the late 19th century,As the parent plants, Ternosliva and Rencloud Green. The resulting hybrid is zoned for central Russia, and is successfully grown in these areas. On average, the height of the tree is, meter, the crown is sprawling, but not thick, growing in the shape of a ball.
The size of the pods is considered small, on average, one plum weighs 15-20 grams.Skin yellow-green with a lot of subcutaneous points, with prolonged exposure to sunlight, a brick blush may form. Wax coating is very easy to erase. The flesh of the fetus is tender, juicy, but sourish in comparison with other.
Fruiting occurs at the end of August, on average,from one young tree collect20 kilogramsharvest, and with an adult40. The variety tolerates winter frosts to -30 degrees. Has immunity to many diseases, except fungal. The tree requires additional pollination.
Was withdrawn in the 80's, through cross pollination plum Renklod and Renklada Ulyanischeva, is zoned for the Central Black Earth region. The crown of the tree is not neat, with a small amount of foliage, the branches grow upward, gradually expanding, the growth of the hybrid does not exceed, meters.
Fruits weigh on40 grams, the shape is round. The skin is colored in a dark purple color with a wax coating, a pulp of an amber hue. The taste is sweet, with a slight sour taste.
Renclod Soviet well tolerates frosts to -30 degrees.Fruiting begins at 4-5 years of life, 15-20 kg of harvest are collected from a young tree, and from an adult 40-45. The variety fully ripens by the end of August. Poor resistance to polystigmosis.
Breeded in Ukraine in the 1950s through cross-pollination of varieties Jefferson and Peach. The tree grows to 6 meters, the crown is spherical, not thick.
The weight of one fetus is60 grams, with age the tree yields a smaller crop, 35-40 grams. The plum is round, slightly flattened from the sides, the seam is clearly visible, one half is larger than the other. The skin is colored yellow-orange with a light white coating. Pulp is sour-sweet, with honey flavor. Bone separates badly.
The harvest ripens in late July - early August.The tree tolerates frosts wellup to -30 degreesand intense heat. Fruits are well transported.
The hybrid appeared in the 19th century in the Czech Republic, by spontaneous mutation when grown from the bones of Renklod green. In Russia, it is grown in the Central Black Soil Region.The tree growsup to, meters, crown spherical.
The plums themselves are large,40-45 grams, slightly compressed at the sides. The skin of a salad color is covered with a red-pink blush, characterized by the presence of dark subcutaneous points. The pulp is amber, very delicate and delicious.
The first harvest can be taken as early as the 3rd year of life, the tree brings 35-40 kilograms, then this figure increases to 80 kilograms. Fruiting occurs at the beginning of August, in regions with colder climates this period is delayed by approximately 2 weeks. The hybrid well tolerates drought, frost, disease and attacks of insects. The variety is self-fertilized.
The hybrid was removed by crossing the Renlode green and Skorospelka red. It is cultivated in central Russia.Kidneys are well resistant to frostup to -30 degrees, shoots are less hardy. The height of the tree, the meter, the crown spreading, grows in breadth.
Fruit weight is only20 grams. Plum elongated with a blue-purple skin. The pulp is golden, sour.
The first harvest can be collected in early September for the third year of life.On average, one tree receives15-25 kilogramsfruits. Tambovsky does not resist the klysterosporiosis badly. The variety is self-fruitful. To produce a crop, pollinators are grown nearby.
The Karbyshev's retrograde was withdrawn in the 1950s in the Ukraine.The tree grows very fast, so to form the crown it must be trimmed in time.
Initially, the fruit weighs 50 grams, then their size decreases to 35 grams. The skin is dense, brightly scarlet in color, when overripe, a blue wax coating appears. The pulp of honey color, to taste is considered dessert and highly appreciated by professionals.
Fruits ripen in the second half of August.The tree receives significant damage at temperature-20 degrees. The variety is self-fertilizing, as pollinators are usually used Renclode Early, Renclod Green, Hungarian Donetsk.
The tree grows to a height of 4 meters.
Fruits are matte, white in color, about the size35-40 grams. The flesh is practically transparent, very sweet, juicy, melting in the mouth.
The harvest ripens in late August.The variety is well tolerated by cold and prolonged droughts. The first fruiting begins on the third year of life. Requires additional pollination.
The tree grows to6-7 meters, and the diameter of the oval, spreading crown is equal to the same numbers. In Russia, the variety is grown in southern regions.
Fruits weigh only20 grams, peel green-yellow with a bluish wax coating. Initially, it seems that the flesh has the same shade, but having cleared the plum, it turns out that its flesh is transparent. The taste is very delicate, juicy, sweet. Is the reference.
Fruiting occurs 5 years after the transplantation of the tree into the open ground.Initially, you can get 25-30 kilograms of harvest, but starting from 10 years of life, gardeners collect 45-50 kilograms of plums. Fruits ripen in late August. The variety is well protected against fungal diseases, but is prone to rot. Is self-fertile.
The cultivar was bred in Belgium by accidental mutation of a seedlings grown from a bone of a green progenitor.A tree of medium height, the branches grow in different directions, forming an untidy crown.
Plum yellow-green color with a crimson flush on the sides. The shape is spherical. On the peel thick silver wax coating. The pulp is tender and sweet, with a slight taste of muscat.Fruits transport well and are stored for a long time.
The variety is self-fertile, fruits ripen in mid-September. The yield of such a tree is excellent,at the age of 10 years it brings40-50 kilogramsplums, and in 20 years this number is doubled. Winter hardiness of the variety is poor, but there is immunity to plum moth.
It was bred in the beginning of the 21st century with the help of cross pollination of the plum Eurasia 21 and Renclod Altana. A small growth tree with a neat, spherical crown.
Fruit weight25-30 grams, peel red-violet. The flesh is yellow-orange in color with a slight sourness.
Plums ripen in early September.Fruiting begins with 3 years after planting, on average, from one tree is harvested20-25 kilogramsharvest. The grade differs good frost resistance and transportability. It is self-fertilized, but in the presence of pollinator drainage yields the best yield.
It was bred with the help of varieties Yellow local and Lenya, in the mid-fifties of the last century specifically for the northern part of Russia.The tree growsup to 6 metersin height, spreader crownI. Fruits are fastened on 2 or 3 summer bouquet branches.
Weight of the sink approx.25 grams, the shape is spherical. Lime skin with rounded spots. The flesh is juicy, with sourness, a couple of shades lighter than the skin.
A young tree brings 6-8 kilograms of harvest, and an adult 20-30.Ripen fruit at the end of August.
Frost resistance and resistance to insects are good, the variety is prone to gum. It is also self-fertilized, but the presence of pollinators is welcome.
Was withdrawn with the help of varieties Renlod Altana, Hungarian Azhansky and plum Great Blue.The tree grows up to 4 meters in height, the crown resembles an upside-down broom turned upside down.
Fruits ripen in the middle of September and average weigh 55-60 grams, have the shape of an ellipse. The skin is dense, purple. The flesh is dense, juicy, granular, yellow-orange in color, with a noticeable sour taste.
The variety starts to bear fruit for 4 years of cultivation, initially the yield is12-15 kilograms, then it increasesup to 45. The frost resistance of the variety is excellent, but there is evidence of susceptibility to gum, melilioz, plum moth and aphid. For pollination, varieties of self-fertilizing plums are planted nearby.
As the parent varieties, the plum Tatar yellow, Jefferson, Reklold Reform, and the Local Thorn came out.A tree of small stature, total3 meters. Crown neat, in shape resembles a ball.
Fruits weigh 15-20 grams, the shape is round, with one half of the plum much larger than the other. Peel purple with a bluish bloom, brings bitterness to the taste of the fruit. The pulp is a yellowish shade, granular, not juicy, taste sweet and sour..
The first fruiting occurs at the age of 4-5, the harvest ripens by the middle of September. The variety does not differ frost resistance and tolerance of drought and heat. Often exposed to rust, klyasterosporiozu and attack of the mucous sawmill.
History of breeding
Renklood began to grow in France in the second half of the 16th century.King Francis was the first during his reign to receive a gift of plums taken with the help of Plum Verdicchio. After the king tried the gift, he demanded to name the imported variety in honor of his wife Claudine (Claude), noting that the taste of these fruits is also tender and sweet, like the appearance and character of the queen.
The name of this variety is ReineClaude translated from French, like Queen Claude.
Then gradually began to appear hybrids, similar in taste to Reklode. They began to be united in one group, thus giving each grade its individual, specifying name..
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Renclod differs by its excellentflavoring qualities.
- Also, all the fruits haveattractive appearance.
- Most varieties haveresistant to winter frostsand diseases.
- Most often trees belonging to the species Renclodetying the maximum amount of harvest.
- Nearlyall varieties in the family are self-fruitfuland they need additional pollination.
- Treesare prone to decaying roots.
- A reliableprotection against gusty wind.
Natural growth region
Usually, Rencades are grown in Western Europe.In Russia, such varieties are most often found in the Central region or in the south of the country. Stopping his choice on such a family, it is worthwhile to approach the selection of the subspecies responsibly, so that he could easily transfer the climatic conditions of the growing region.
Rules for planting seedlings
Renclode can be planted only in spring, in April, before the buds are blooming. What would a plum give a good harvest and was healthy,When choosing a landing site, the following factors are repelled:
- The soilshould be fertile and loose, it is best to use a weakly acidic or neutral soil.
- Plot of landmust be open and sunny, in the shadow the amount of harvest will be much less.
- Requiredavoid places with a high level of groundwater, excess moisture can lead to the development of various diseases.
- AlsoIt is impossible to plant a plum in low places, where rain and melt water accumulate.
- The tree is neededProtect against drafts and strong gusts of wind, so they are planted next to a high fence or any other structures.
- Considering that most of the Renclonds are self-fruitful,take into account the location of the pollinating trees.
Planting pit is prepared in autumn. To do this, excavate a pit depth of 60 centimeters and a diameter equal to 80 centimeters. When digging, the top layer of the earth is deposited separately from the lower one.Then prepare the soil mixture:
- Fertile soil layer;
- 2 buckets of humus;
- 50 grams of superphosphate;
- 30 grams of potassium sulfide.
The resulting composition is poured into a pit and flooded with infertile soil. If the pit is not prepared in the autumn period, then you can catch up the lost 2-3 weeks before landing. But in this case the soil will be less fertile.
- Before planting,to place in the pit two support colas.
- When the seedling is lowered into the pit, the root neck should beon5-7 centimetersabove ground level.
- During the fall of the seedlingearth it needs to be slightly shaken, that would fill all the voids between the roots.
- Around the trunk dighole deep40-50 centimeters.
- Thenthe trees are tied to the support, while the rope is not strongly tightened, because it can damage the young plant.
- At the end of the procedure, the plumcarefully wateredclean water, then mulch.
Features of care
The main feature of care for the plums of Renclode isthe need for additional pollination. This procedure can be carried out artificially with the help of special pollen, but many gardeners prefer to plant a number of trees pollinators.
It is carried out strictly at the very beginning of spring, after the leaves are blossoming or at the beginning of June. Such periods are the safest.
- First year. To ensure that the crown of the tree is regular, spherical, 10 skeletal branches should be distinguished, with equal spacing and an angle of retreat from the trunk, which should be equal to 45 degrees.
- Second year. Crop all the resulting growths, leaving the length of only 25 centimeters.
- Third year. It is necessary to shorten shoots grown from skeletal branches and a conductor, their length should be 30 centimeters, the remaining increments are cut to a mark of 15 centimeters.
- Fourth year. Beginning in the fourth year, the crown of a tree is considered to have formed. Therefore now it is necessary to carry out only sanitary trim, in which all dry and diseased branches are removed. It is also necessary to ensure that new shoots do not thicken the crown and let in air and sunlight through them.
Usuallytree begin to feed from 3 years of planting, before that, it receives nutrients from fertilizers introduced during planting.
- In April, before the flowering begins, the following composition is poured under the tree:
- 25 grams of ammonium nitrate;
- 40 grams of potassium salt;
- 300 grams of mineral fertilizers;
- Then drain plentifully watered.
- During the flowering period, the tree is poured with urea solution:
- 5 liters of water;
- 10 grams of urea.
- Then after flowering you need to make:
- ,% Mullein solution;
- 50 grams of superphosphate.
- In the period of ripening fruit plums may require additional strength, which it can give the following additional fertilizing:
- 4 tablespoons of urea;
- 6 tablespoons of nitrophosphate;
- 20 liters of water.
- In the summer, approximatelyfrom 1 to 5 Junethe tree is sprayed with 1% urea solution.
- In the autumn, under the digging,
- 15 kg of manure or compost;
- 150 grams of superphosphate;
- 50 grams of ammonium nitrate.
- AlsoThe plum should be poured with the following mixture:
- 4 tablespoons sulfuric potassium;
- 6 tablespoons of superphosphate;
- 20 liters of water.
Watering the plum should be done using wells, a depth of 35-40 centimeters, it is at this level that the root system is located. It is best to use warm, standing water. Experienced gardeners recommend watering the tree 5-6 times per season. The amount of water used for watering is determined by the age of the tree, on average, it is 4-8 buckets.
Preparation for winter
For the most part, all Renklands are afraid of cold weather, so they need to be prepared for the winter period:
- Young treescover with lapnik, hay or sedge, and it can also be tied with paper.
- Adult treesdo not require such protection, simply whitewash the stem and sprinkle it with humus or sawdust, their layer should be no less than 10 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
Different varieties of the family are distinguished by individual immunity to diseases and attacks of pests.Most often the trees are affected by the following insects:
- Plum moth- eats fruits, from this plum begin to darken, then decay and fall off. To combat this pest, the following treatments are carried out:
- In early spring, the tree is sprayed,% with a solution of Carbofos or,% with a solution of Metaphos.
- During the growing season, the plum is treated with coniferous concentrate, 1 tablespoon per 3 liters of water.
- Plum aphid- plant growth slows down, fruit buds are practically not formed, all foliage withers. To drive out this insect, the plum is treated as follows:
- In the early spring, at a temperature of at least -5 degrees, plum is sprinkled with mineral-oil preparations, which can be purchased at garden stores.
- In April, the tips of young shoots are washed in soapy water (300 grams of laundry soap per 10 liters of water).
- Plum moth- entangles the leaves and fruits of cobwebs, because of what they fade and fall off. To get rid of the pest, follow this procedure:
- Spraying with Chlorophos, 3-4 liters per tree.
The most common diseases include:
- Moniliasis- fungal disease, provoking rotting of fruits. Infection withers inflorescences, leaves are covered with brown spots and fall off, the fruits are gradually covered with white rot, mummified and remain hanging on the branches.To combat the disease use:
- The tree and the soil around it are treated with a 3% solution of the Horus preparation.
- All affected areas must be removed and burned.
- Comedy- the bark of the tree is heavily exhausted and a sticky liquid of amber color begins to ooze out of it.
- To fight the diseaseIt is necessary to remove all streaks and to clean a sore spot with a sharp knife, then necessarily to process with garden wine.
To avoid the appearance of pests or diseases, experienced gardeners recommend the following preventive actions:
- Requiredloosen a trunkduring the autumn work.
- Barrel and skeletal branchescleaned of old bark.
- We must not forget aboutsanitary trimming.
- All damagedbranches and fruits are necessarily burnt.
- Needed regularlyroot outand to clean the near-trunk circle from foliage, branches, etc.
- Whitewash Bastingwill help to avoid the attacks of many insects.
- The crown of the tree should allow good airflow and provideair quality.
- During the execution of various procedures is bestavoid bark damage.
Plum propagation occurs in several ways:
Usually this method is used to obtain rootstocks.To obtain a good seedlings it is necessary:
- Healthy and largeseeds thoroughly washed and cleaned from pulp, then soaked in water for 4 days, while the water must be changed, and the seeds periodically stir.
- After this procedure, carefullyDry and store in a glass jar.
- Then you need tomix seeds with wet sand or sawdustand leave them to infuse at temperatures from +1 to -10 degrees for 180 days.
- Initiallyseeds are germinated in the form of seedlings, after which the seedlings are transferred to the open ground.
This procedure is done during the active movement of the juice, that is, in April-May or July-August.There are 2 main ways of grafting: in the cleavage and behind the bark.
In autumn, the root that connects the mother plant and the appendage is cut off, in the spring the shoots, along with the roots, are excavated and transplanted to a new, separate place.
- At a young treedig up rootsat a distance of 1 meter from the stem, for adult plums the distance increases to, meters.
- Length of roots usedshould be 15 centimeters, and width, centimeter.
- If cuttings were excavated in the fall, then theirstored in a trench, depth of 50 centimeters, sprinkling with a mixture of peat and sand. Also cuttings can be stored in the basement, covering them with wet sawdust and moss.
- In late April, you should prepare the soil, consisting of one part of peat, mixed with 3 parts of sand.
- Then it is inclined or verticallycuttings are planted, then they cover with a film.
- The upper ends are buried 2 centimeters, then theirmulch with sawdust or peat.
- Before the shoots appearedCuttings must be protected from bright lightand drying.
- If several shoots arise, then among themthe strongest.
- Several times per seasonplants feednitrogen fertilizers.
- For the winter period, shoots are moved to the houseand grow to a height of 1 - 1 meter, then the trees will be ready to move into the garden.
Plums related to the varieties of Rencloed have excellent taste qualities.Their flesh is called dessert or marmalade, so every tree grower wants to grow such a tree in the garden. If you take the right choice of seedlings, then such a tree can be planted even in the central region of Russia..