- About the apple-tree scab
- Scab on the apple trees - what to treat?
- How to deal with scab on apple trees - about fungicides and fertilizers
- Stable apple varieties to scab
- Fighting scab on apple trees - feedback, exchange of experience
Perhaps you have already seen in your garden the consequences of such a phenomenon as scab on the apple tree. How to deal with it, what methods and means should be used to protect its trees, the fruits of the activity of this fungus-parasite? Alas, sooner or later any gardener encounters a similar problem, getting rid of it is not easy, but still possible..
About the apple-tree scab
The scab is the Venturia inaequalis mushroom, which is activated in conditions of high humidity. Lingering rains, fogs, dampness are favorable conditions for its manifestation. With the advent of early spring, the pathogenic fungus begins to attack young shoots and bark, it seems to cling to them, develops and passes to other parts of the tree. In the advanced stage, the disease causes significant damage to the crop, weakens the vitality of the fruit plantations, and young trees can completely die from its invasion.
Traces of the apple's scab are very easily recognizable: on the ovaries, foliage and fruits, greenish-yellow, marshy spots appear first, which subsequently darken and become covered with cracks. Usually the disease begins with the defeat of young leaves, which are located on the top of the shoot - they are most vulnerable. At first, bright spots are not noticeable, but over time they blacken, increase in size, merge with each other. The diseased leaves shrivel and fall, the affected places on the fruits become hard, cracked and gradually grab the whole apple..
The disease-causing fungus attacks all sorts of apple trees indiscriminately, most of all it likes the thickened gardens and rainy weather, and old and very young trees are the first to enter the risk zone. The disease is exposed to trees growing in any region. The way out of this situation is active prophylactic measures, as well as the identification of the disease at an early stage (removal of all affected fragments). To initially reduce the likelihood of the disease, seasoned summer residents recommend choosing resistant to this disease varieties, they will be discussed a little later.
Scab on apples, photo:
The fungus itself is very tenacious and can safely winter in unharvested foliage. That is why in the autumn it is necessary to rake the fallen leaves into the heap and take them out of the territory. If the leaves remain on the ground, early in the spring, traces of the disease will appear on it - small dark hillocks in which the fungus spores mature.
The release of the dispute is almost constant, and humidity only contributes to this process.
Throughout the summer, the scab fungus emits ripe spores that attack healthy fragments of the tree. It is noteworthy that the activity of the scab does not disturb the process of photosynthesis, the apple tree continues to grow, the fungus continues to capture bark, foliage and fruits. Not only does the quality of apples decrease, but the tree itself becomes vulnerable before the winter colds, outwardly looks weak, sick.↑ back to content ↑
Scab on the apple trees - what to treat?
A radical method of treatment is pruning of affected branches, the destruction of foliage with traces of fungus. After harvesting, all affected fruits and branches should be removed, and the bark cleared so that only a healthy tissue remains. An obligatory rule should be cleaning the fallen leaves with the advent of autumn, it is a kind of "incubator" for the fungus. Leaves must be burned or buried in the ground outside the boundaries of the site (if the terrain allows), the soil in the vicinity of the trunks should be thoroughly digged. It is recommended to whitewash the trunks, and sprinkle the crown with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. If your tree grows on a green lawn, then it must also be treated with a solution of ammonium nitrate (10%)..
Spring processing of apples from the scab is carried out before the buds are dissolved, for this use the "Zircon" (by the way, they can also irrigate the trees in the fall, after harvesting). In spring, the dried branches are removed, the old bark is removed from the trunks (the one that flakes itself), after which the trunk itself is treated with whitewashing. Wound places on the branches are covered with garden fume, and as a whitewash dilute water is used ready powder (sold in special stores) or an aqueous solution of lime with copper vitriol (5 kg + 1 liter per 10 liters water). After the apple blossoms, they should be treated with copper sulfate (1%), preparations "Zineb" or "Kuprozan". After flowering, the tree is treated with the means of Horus, which is valuable in that it is not afraid of rain, it is not washed off from the branches.
Signs of the disease on the leaves, photo:
Also for these purposes, you can use the drug "HOM" (4%), Bordeaux liquid (3%), "Homecin "Vectra". Irrigation with a Bordeaux liquid should be abundant - so that the drug literally drips from the branches. In the people this method is called blue irrigation, because after it branches, the leaves become bluish.
Good results are provided by the preventive treatment of the apple tree with the systemic fungicide "Skor it is very concentrated - 1 ampoule should be diluted in 10 liters of water.
Repeated treatment with the same drugs is carried out after 3 weeks or a month. In this case, the struggle consists not only of irrigation of the trunk and branches, but also of the land in the area of the near-trunk circle, as well as growing plants nearby..
Preventive treatment, photo:
Subsequent spraying is carried out with the arrival of stable warm weather, periodic treatment of scab in the summer suppresses the development of the fungus and protects the trees. Fungicides "Fluodioxonil "Abiga-Peak "Gamair "Rajek" are used for these purposes. Doses and methods of dilution of preparations are always indicated on the package. Note that the last processing of apple trees should be carried out not less than 15 days before the removal of fruits from the branches.
The drug "Phytoflavin" is used in the summer to create a reliable "shield" against the fungus, 3-4 irrigation is recommended for the whole season, the interval between procedures is 15-17 days (20 ml / 10 l of water). Also good results are given by the fungicide Strobi, during the summer season they can process trees up to 3 times, the interval between procedures is approximately 14 days.
Than to process apple-trees from a scab in the summer? If the situation is not too neglected, then it is better to use the "non-toxic" Zircon drug. It is made on the basis of a purple echinacea plant, it is also its main ingredient. This remedy does not adversely affect the environment, pets and people..
If the apple tree is seriously affected, then it makes sense to use the more serious fungicides listed above. Do not forget about the means of protection during the processing of the garden, wear a mask and gloves. It is best to carry out irrigation after the rain, in the evening (or early morning), in windless weather.
How to treat apple from scab in June? At this time, it is best to use an environmentally friendly preparation called "Phytosporin M" or "Baikal EM-1". These biofungicides strengthen the immunity of the tree, are an excellent prevention against a wide list of fungal, bacterial diseases. Thus, the first stage of irrigation is carried out before the leaves are unfolded, the second - before the blossoming of flowers, the third (the most significant) - after the flowers have dropped the petals. Treatment of scab in the summer is carried out (depending on the situation) every 2 or 3 weeks. If the summer was rainy, then the number of procedures should be increased to 5 or 6 times.↑ back to content ↑
How to deal with scab on apple trees - about fungicides and fertilizers
First you need to understand the essence of the matter, the specificity of the "work" of fungicides. The fact is that different manufacturers produce funds with different names, but most often the main active ingredient they have in common. When you buy a fungicide, be sure to study its composition, because from frequent use of the same drug in a scab, it can simply develop immunity to it.
To combat fungus was effective, seasoned gardeners recommend using at least two products with a different "working" substance. Also pay attention to the hazard class of the drug, it is always indicated on the package. For suburban areas, levels III and IV are recommended, and there - do it at your own discretion, but keep in mind that chemicals for horticultural facilities are highly undesirable for use in a summer residence.
How to cure apple from apple is important! Communicate with the neighbors in the country, ask if their garden suffers from this fungus. The fact is that if neighbors have seen signs of illness, all your efforts, at best, will provide protection only for one season. If there is such a problem, then fighting with the scab should be carried out together, only then you can hope for a positive result.
Preventive treatment is also carried out using those fertilizers that are commonly used for foliar dressing. If we consider these supplements as a medicine, then their concentration should be very high, If preventive irrigation is planned, then the percentage of the drug dissolved in water should be low. For these purposes, the means familiar to all horticulturists are used: potassium salt (15%), ammonium nitrate (10%), potassium nitrate (15%), ammonium sulfate (10%). With the advent of autumn, the crowns of trees and the ground beneath them can be treated with a dissolved urea (7%) or nitroammon (10%). Thus, apple trees will be fed, and pests and fungal spores will be destroyed (their overwhelming number).↑ back to content ↑
Stable apple varieties to scab
To date, the efforts of breeders created more than 150 varieties of apple trees that have immunity against scab.
I will list some of them:
- Variety "Uslad has sourish-sweet fruits with pink flesh, the color of the peel is red, with dark raspberry strips. Resistant to cold varietal, characterized by increased yield. Branches are prone to rapid proliferation, so "Uslada" needs frequent crown formation.
- Apples "Medunitsa as it is clear from the name, have a honey flavor, differ in good loneliness (up to 2 months). Begins to bear fruit in the fourth year of life, yields by the end of the calendar summer. Crohn is also prone to sprawl, needs frequent pruning, shaping.
- "Zvezdochka" variety is resistant to colds and most fruit diseases
- Variety "Chudnoe" is distinguished by horizontal growth of branches (self-propelled) and small tree sizes. Fruits have a pronounced yellow tint, their weight can reach 200 g.
- Apple trees of the variety "Moskovskoe Zimnee" grow to large sizes (very high) and have a thick, leafy crown. It is a frost-resistant varietal, the fruits of which are characterized by high keeping capacity (can be stored until April). Fruits ripen by the end of September.
- The variety "Orlinka" is distinguished by high yield and unpretentiousness. Sparrow variety, fruit ripens around mid-August. The shelf life is low.
Also resistant to the scab disease are the following apple varieties: Saffron Peppin, Golden Summer, Nocturne, Ekaterinodar, Dawn, Fairy, Red Amber, Talida, Fortuna, Yunona, Vasilisa, Rodnichok, Orpheus, Soyuz, Margot, Lyubava, Scythian Gold (one of the most successful immune varieties of Ukrainian breeding), Kariot 7, Perlina Kiev, Honei Gold and others.↑ back to content ↑
Fighting scab on apple trees - feedback, exchange of experience
Measures aimed at suppressing the fungus scab should begin with observance of agrotechnical rules when planting, growing apple trees. Between the trees there should be an acceptable distance, the crown should be thinned in time, do not forget about the sanitary pruning of branches and timely feeding.
Now you know what scab on the apple tree is, how to deal with this scourge, how and when to carry out preventive treatments. Pay attention to the first symptoms, because the disease is easier to overcome at an early date.