Cherry, as a woody plant, has been known since ancient times. Juicy and sweet fruits are a favorite treat for children and adults.Among the southern varieties of cherry variety is Valery Chkalov- a bright representative with a relative resistance to frost. The description of this variety can be found below..
Table of contents
- Description of cherry variety Valery Chkalov
- Fruit characteristics
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Planting and care
- Growing conditions
- Features of the variety
- Diseases and pests
Description of cherry variety Valery Chkalov
Sweet cherry of the early maturing variety, obtained in 1953 by breeders M.T. Oratovsky and S.V. Zhukov. Selection is inferred by the joint effort of the Melitopol Experimental Horticulture Station. M.F. Sidorenko and the Central Genetic Laboratory. I.V. Michurin.Pollination of color - Cherry Caucasian Pink.
The variety grows in a temperate continental and subtropical climate. In the sharply continental and monsoon climate the variety is not suitable for cultivation.
- Rostov region;
- Stavropol region;
- Chechen Republic;
- The Republic of Ingushetia;
- Karachay-Cherkess Republic.
Gray-brown curved cherry shoots reach up to 5 mm in cross section.The intensive growth of shoots is restrained by forming pruning. At one-year-old seedlings, lower shoots are left, which later form skeletal branches.
Winter hardiness and frost resistance of the variety, makes it possible at minus temperatures up to 24 ° C, to lose up to 2/3 of the flower buds. This helps preserve most of the crop. To a greater extent, the yield of the variety is high.The yields of the variety in the southern regions, during 10 years of fruiting:
- Crimea:average - 62 kg, the maximum level - 174 kg;
- Krasnodar region:average - 24 - 32 kg.
Large-scale fruit-colored fruit, have a heart shape.Sweet and juicy pulp of reddish hue, with a large stone. The weight of the fruit varies from 7 to 9 grams. A small peduncle is attached to the fruits.
The content in the fruits of substances has the following composition:
- 1,% - dry substances;
- ,% - free acids;
- 1,% - sugar;
- , 1 mg - ascorbic acid.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The merits of the grade include the following qualities:
- early ripening variety;
- large fruits;
- juicy and tasty pulp of fruits;
- high productivity;
- suitability for canning;
- winter hardiness and frost resistance.
The disadvantages of the variety are only one property- medium resistance to fungal diseases..
Planting and care
For planting, cherry trees are selected with good indicators.
Saplings should be with the following parameters:
- age - 1 - 2 years;
- diameter of the trunk is 17 mm, and more;
- absence of wrinkled crust;
- the presence of 3 to 4 branches, up to 40 cm in size;
- the difference between the color of the graft and the rootstock at the inoculation site;
- roots without damage and growth;
- absence of broken branches.
The necessary time for planting cherries - early April, before swelling of the kidneys. At this time, the seedling quickly takes root because of the warm sunny period of the year. It is not recommended to plant cherries in the autumn period. The sapling can not survive so quickly until the winter.
The landing site is protected from drafts. Choose a sunny side on the site.An elevation is required, or an artificial elevation is needed to plant the sweet cherry. Trees pollinators are planted near the variety, for good fruiting. The distance between the trees is left up to 4 meters, so that the trees can easily spread the crown.
The pit for planting is prepared from autumn. The earth is excavated and 2 buckets of humus mixed with fertile soil are introduced.Prepared soil for planting seedlings, in the future will supply the necessary nutrition roots.
Spring planting of the seedling occurs with successive stages:
- Excavated earthwith a prepared pit, the size of a depth of 70 cm, a diameter of 80 cm.
- Sticks in the center of the pit peg, for the support and stability of the seedling.
- Introduced to the bottom of the pitorganic fertilizersin the form of compost or manure.
- sulphate of potassium - 100 grams;
- superphosphate - 300 grams;
- ash - 1 kg.
- Fill up the fertilizerland.
- Straightening the roots, neatlyto sink the seedling into the pit.
- Keeping a tree,fall asleep, taking into account the location of the root neck above the ground level by 5 cm.
- For uniform wateringcreate a trunkin the depth of 5 cm. On the edges of the circle, the earth is made in the form of a shaft.
- Tie a seedlingto the peg.
- Pour the seedlingwater - 2 buckets.
- Keep in mindpeat whiplash circle.
Saplings for the first 3 years regularly watered and loosened the soil. At the same time, the penetration of water into the depths is necessary at a distance of up to 40 cm, taking out the roots.
It is necessary to observe the schedule for watering cherries:.
- before flowering;
- after flowering;
- before harvesting for 3 weeks;
- in October.
Pruning of annual saplings is carried out in the spring, and provides the following actions:
- shortening of seedlingsat a height of 50 cm, with 4 - 5 developed kidneys;
- shortening of lateral shootson 1/3;
- locatingthe central branchabove other branches by 20 cm.
Formation of the crown at trees of the age of five stops, and pruning is subject to:
- height of treesto the level, meters;
- central branchand adjacent shoots, to a level exceeding the nearest horizontal branches by 20 cm;
- strong shoots, which are directed into the interior of the crown;
- apexesvertically growing skeletal branches;
- lateral branchescrowns.
Every year it is required to increase the chain-tree circle to 1 cm.The area of the circle is periodically updated with a mulching coating. Also do the loosening and weeding of weeds. In spring and early summer, fertilizers with nitrogen are used, which accelerate vegetation on trees. Fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium are introduced in the autumn period.The following fertilizers are required:
- dry urea - 120 g;
- urea solution - 30 grams per 1 bucket of water: May - June - 3 times, followed by loosening and watering.
Four-year-old trees are increased by a circular furrow up to 40 cm. This is due to the increase in the number of roots.
At this age, trees require fertilization:
- in the beginning of springadd dry urea - 150 grams and water;
- in autumnadd potassium sulfate - 100 grams, granulated superphosphate - 300 grams.
The trees of the fifth year of life are fed by:
- in spring- 1 bucket of water - 30 grams ammophoski; urea - 200 grams - into the furrow;
- in autumn- for 1 tree - 20 kg of humus.
Preparation of cherries for the winter period consists in whitewashing of trees. This will protect the trees from pests and diseases.
This event is carried out with the breeding of the composition for whitewashing, in 2 variants to choose from:
- PVA glue- 2 tbsp. spoons, lime - 300 grams;
- water- 2 liters, milk - 100 grams, copper sulphate and dust - 1 tbsp. spoon.
Necessarily cover trees with spruce for the winter. Wind the trunk and skeletal branches with a burlap. Update the near-bar with fresh peat.With a correct and constant care, the variety is harvested after planting the seedlings in five years, and in the future annually. Fruiting begins in early June. The average yield of trees 10 - 15 years is 62 kg..
Features of the variety
- Variety - source of multivitamin complex, containing flavonoids, carotene, pectins, sugar, is also enriched with micro- and macro elements.
- Cherry is an excellent remedy for spring vitamin deficiency. Traditional medicine uses cherries as a diuretic for the treatment of kidney diseases. Toning the body, helping to reduce weight and improve the body.
- Thanks to berries of sweet cherry, the walls of capillaries are strengthened, helping with hypertension. Due to the content of coumarin in the cherry, the limit of blood coagulability decreases. Helps in the treatment of anemia and the formation of blood clots and plaques.
- Weakened motility of the stomach is able to restore the juice of sweet cherry. It stimulates the process of digestion, and helps with painful stomach syndrome. It also acts as a regulator, reducing the level of cholesterol in the blood.
- Fruit pods promote regulation of cardiac activity. Favorably affect the body with irritation and neurosis.
Diseases and pests
The attractiveness of the sweet cherry is so great that it attracts people and various ailments with its fruits. Planting seedlings always requires special care for them. However, caring for the cherry can not fully guarantee the protection of trees from all misfortunes. In order to avoid the main diseases and pests with which the cherry is found, the necessary information from the tables will help in the fight against them.
|Name of the disease||Period of infection||Manifestation of a disease||Methods of struggle|
|Cockcomicosis||Mid-July-end of August||Appearance on the leaves of the spots. Falling leaves.||Spray: 2 ml of "Skora" on a bucket of water; 3 g of "Horus" per bucket of water (during the summer period);|
|Moniliasis(fruit rot)||All summer period, mainly during flowering.||It appears mostly amazed by light dots and begins to rot.||2 ml "Topaz" on a bucket of water; 3 g "Horus" on a bucket of water.|
|Klyasterosporiosis(holey spotting)||All summer||The appearance of spots on the leaves, turning into holes.||25 g "Ridomila" for a bucket of water. Treatment of sites with vitriol.|
|Name of pest||Period of appearance||Manifestation of the pest||Methods of struggle|
|Cherry fly||From May to June||Small worms on berries.||10 ml of "Fufanon" on a bucket of water;, ml "Kinmiksa" on a bucket of water.|
|Cherry weevil||From May to June||The appearance of bugs on flowers.||8 g of "Aktar" on a bucket of water; 50 ml of "Lepidocide" on a bucket of water. Burning of damaged leaves.|
|Cherry running moth||In May||Appearance on flowers.||, г "Confidor" on a bucket of water.|
|Cherry aphid||From May to July||Finding aphids on the leaves and pedicels.||10 ml of "Fufanon" on a bucket of water; Application: 200 grams of ground garlic to keep 20 minutes of water entering.|
A fine variety is rightly a great success for most lovers of fruit trees, thanks to amazing qualities. Proper care for cherries will give the most delicious fruits of all lovers of the variety with a worthy reward..