Leaving the country for the country, few people are ready to completely abandon the benefits of civilization, especially when it comes to plumbing. Agree, the importance of water supply dacha is difficult to overestimate.
Water is needed for watering the garden and garden beds, as well as solving household tasks. What to say about the use of household appliances that require connection to the water supply network. For arrangement of water supply, you can attract experts or do it yourself.
To make a water supply system in the country with your own hands, you should first decide on the source of water, select the necessary equipment and materials, study the sequence of work. These are the questions we will help you solve.
For a better understanding of the water supply process, we illustrated the material with visual diagrams and photographs, supplemented the information with video clips.
The content of the article:
Selecting the source of water intake
- Option 1. Plumbing from the well
- Option # 2. Water well
- Option # 3. Connect to the central water supply
- Winter or summer water?
Device of standard plumbing system
- Raise well water - pump selection
- What pipes are suitable for summer plumbing
- Folding and stop valves
- System pressure control
- Water storage tank
- Drain valve for preservation system
- How to organize a sewage disposal system?
Step-by-step installation guide
- Step 1. Action plan
- Step # 2. Preparation of the necessary tools
- Step # 3. Device plumbing
- Step # 4. Choosing a device for heating water
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Selecting the source of water intake
The device of any water supply begins with the choice of the source of water supply. Although the choice is usually not great. This may be a centralized water supply system. well or well.
From where the water will come from, depends not only on its quality, but also on the ways of arranging the entire plumbing system, its technical complexity and cost.
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The device at the cottage own water supply will relieve from the mass of problems inherent in unorganized dacha life
The water supply system will be able to provide summer residents with both cold and hot water, will not allow to forget about the achievements of civilization far from the city
The water supply system laid along the summer cottage will provide an opportunity to fill the tanks in the bath and shower quickly and easily.
This is the easiest and least time-consuming way to extract water for watering greenery and caring for the villa territory.
A plumbing system built with its own hands will help to fill the basin without any difficulties and extra expenses and change the water in it if necessary.
The owner of the installed water supply system will not need to think about the supply of water to fountains and waterfalls.
Suburban plumbing will provide an opportunity to arrange as many points of water pumping as needed by the owners. For example, build a sink in the street for washing hands and shoes of enthusiastic gardeners
It is convenient to arrange a separate sink near the summer kitchen or a zone with a barbecue stove so as not to constantly carry washing products to the house
The organization of a summer water supply system for comfort
Water supply to heating equipment
Water baths and outdoor showers
Water for the care of plants and territory
Filling the swimming pool
Spectacular landscape design
Point of water in the street in front of the entrance to the cottage
Water supply to the summer kitchen
Option 1. Plumbing from the well
The easiest "old-fashioned" method - dig a well. Its depth depends on the occurrence of the aquifer - up to 10 - 20 meters, as a rule. Of course, you can use such water only if filters are installed. Water in wells is often polluted with nitrates and heavy metals.
Well necessarily need to warm. This is done to a depth exceeding the seasonal freezing mark in the region by 20 cm. Foam is used, which covers the entire above-ground part of it. Insulate and pipe that connects the well with pumping equipment
Option # 2. Water well
The best option - equip well. There is no need to do without special equipment - you cannot drill a hole with a shovel. The main advantage of such a source of water supply is clean water.
The depth of the well for a private house starts from 15 m. At this depth, the water is not polluted with nitrate fertilizers, domestic wastewater and other agricultural waste.
It is important to consider the presence of iron or hydrogen sulfide in water. If such impurities are present, water can only be used with good filtration.
Drilling a well is much more expensive than digging a well, and it is not easy to maintain it: constant cleaning, preventive maintenance, flushing. But 1.5 cubic meters per hour, which can be lifted from the well, provide virtually unlimited consumption of clean and fresh water.
Option # 3. Connect to the central water supply
If a centralized water supply system is located near your site, you can connect to it. Among the advantages of this option are constant pressure and water purification. However, in practice, the pressure often does not meet the standards, but there is nothing to say about cleaning.
In addition, just connect to the pipeline you will not get - it is illegal. We will have to write an application to the water utility, provide a site plan with all communications, draw up project documentation and obtain permission from the sanitary epidemiological station. The whole procedure is stretched for several months and flies in a pretty penny.
Connect your site to the central water supply should plumber from the water utility, which has permission for such work. Unauthorized use of water is prohibited.
It is also impossible to use such water uncontrollably, for each cubic meter used you will have to pay at the established rate. Based on all of the above, not only many gardeners, but also residents of private households make their choice in favor of drilling a well in their area.
Winter or summer water?
Depending on the cyclical nature of use, there are two variants of the plumbing scheme:
- all season (winter);
- simplified (summer).
If your site is used exclusively in the summer season, that is, from spring to autumn, it does not make sense to spend money on an expensive major water supply system. In this case, there may be two options - collapsible water supply and stationary.
After the dacha season is over, the hoses of the dismountable water supply system are removed, leaving only the points of discharge. Next year you can connect to them again.
The first is very convenient because at the end of the season all hoses can be removed and folded for storage. So they will not spoil from the cold and will last longer. For the construction of such water supply you do not even have to use a shovel - all communications take place on the surface.
It is necessary to work a little when laying summer water supply stationary type. He also does not assume the presence and installation of complex equipment, but differs in that the pipes are underground and are not removed for the winter. In the right places take collapsible cranes.
The main condition is to completely flush the system out for the winter so that the freezing water does not break the pipes at sub-zero temperatures.
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Summer water supply is not buried in the ground below the depth of seasonal freezing. It is arranged so that it is easy to drain water from the system or even dismantle it before winter.
A summer water supply system usually has several points of dismantling located in places convenient for connecting hoses.
To automate the operation of water supply, it is equipped with a hydroaccumulator and a pressure switch. If the water intake is made by the pumping station, the specified automation components already exist
The summer water pipeline is laid openly on the ground if there are no concerns about theft and vandalism.
If the pipes do not wind up in a country house, next to it is better to arrange a gander with a shut-off ball valve
If there are concerns that the pipeline may be damaged by someone, it is placed in the ground 40-50 cm from the surface
If the automation of the suburban water supply system is not intended, for the formation of pressure, water is first pumped into the storage tank.
In order not to damage the summer water supply by themselves, pipes are laid along the tracks where it is almost impossible to step on them.
Summer version of plumbing
Ball valve for hose connection
The components of the plumbing
Pipe laying over the ground
PVC pipe gander for a set of water in a bucket
Laying summer plumbing in the ground
Systems with storage tank
The nuances of laying pipe system
Summer water supply will be quite enough for basic household and agricultural needs on the scale of one summer cottage. But if you are accustomed to comfort, use the cottage as a place to relax and want to use water just like at home, within the city, then it is better to do it in the country winter version of water supply.
Winter water supply system is much more complicated. Everything should be taken into account - from the natural slope of the terrain to the depth of soil freezing. Be sure to have a pump to ensure water pressure. In short, the dacha winter-type water supply is no different from the water supply system of residential private houses.
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The outer branches of the winter water supply are laid below the depth of seasonal freezing of soils. The system is usually less ramified and includes one outdoor water tap.
The equipment of the automated water supply system is located in the insulated caisson, which is buried below the freezing depth.
If it is not possible to arrange the caisson on the street, the equipment is installed in heated rooms in the house
Inside the dacha building pipes are installed according to standard rules for all systems
Nuances of laying a winter water supply
Equipment in the warmed caisson
The accumulator and filters in the kitchen
Internal wiring of country water supply
Device of standard plumbing system
The water supply system at the dacha consists of several elements:
- pump equipment;
- pipes and fittings;
- pressure switch and pressure gauge;
- device to drain.
In addition to the above, the system may include other elements, such as a storage tank, filters or heaters. Some components can be combined in one complex, for example, a pumping station.
Raise well water - pump selection
Water is supplied from a well or well by means of a pump. Pump selection is one of the main tasks in planning the water supply of the suburban area.
Pump selection depends on:
- well or well depths;
- consumption volume;
- well productivity (debit);
- borehole diameter;
- water pressure;
- financial component.
Some of these parameters cannot be calculated exactly, an approximate estimate is made. To do this, it is better to consult with an experienced master, so as not to make mistakes.
There are two types of pumps:
Surface option is used only for pumping water from the well. It can be placed on the surface or inside the well, but keep afloat. The maximum depth for which the surface pump is suitable is 8 m.
If your well is deeper or we are talking about a well, then this type of pump is not considered.
The pumping station combines several elements: a hydroaccumulator, a pressure gauge, a pressure switch and the pump itself
For wells choose submersible pumpswho are not afraid of water. Their advantages include low energy consumption and quiet operation with a high level of performance.
There are 2 types of submersible pumps, depending on the type of action:
Centrifugalpumps pumped liquid using blades. Under the action of centrifugal force, which occurs as a result of the rotation of the blades, water enters the pipeline and moves along it.
These models are most popular because centrifugal pumps Combine: reliability, high performance and affordability.
The submersible pump has the form of a narrow long capsule. It is placed in the well, in the water column at the depth declared by the manufacturer.
Vibratingpumps have a fine membrane in their structure. The fluid is pumped as a result of the pressure difference from the deformation of the membrane.
Such a pump requires more thorough maintenance, the membrane can become dirty and fail. It is possible to repair such a breakdown, but repair or replacement will be expensive.
What pipes are suitable for summer plumbing
Water is fed into the house and for household needs through the pipeline. The most commonly used pipe diameter is 1 or ¾ inch.
From modern materials for summer plumbing fit:
- polyethylene pipes.
Each of the varieties has its pros and cons. So, polypropylene pipes more expensive than polyethylene. To connect them you need to get a special tool - a soldering iron or a welding machine for pipes.
But on the other hand, you can not buy a soldering iron, but you can rent it during installation, but the savings on connecting fittings are substantial, especially if the pipeline scheme involves many branchings.
Both high pressure polyethylene pipes and polypropylene pipes do an excellent job. They are not subject to corrosion
Pipes made of polyethylene are cheaper, but to connect them you need to buy metal elements, which together cost the most expensive of the pipeline. And it is impossible to guarantee a completely tight connection, as when working with a soldering iron and a polypropylene pipe. Joints - the weak point of plastic water supply.
So that the winter water supply system does not suffer from the low temperature and does not freeze, you need to take care of the pipeline insulation. Modern solution - special tubular "covers" of foamed polypropylene. Such a simple solution can protect your pipes from freezing and cracking.
Insulation is sold in different diameters, in accordance with the diameter of plastic pipes. Wear it before connecting pipes
Another option for insulation is a heating cable. It is laid parallel to the pipeline along its entire length. In the cold season, the cable warms the pipes and prevents freezing. But, of course, there are costs of electricity to ensure constant heating.
Folding and stop valves
Water fittings are also of great importance. The reliability of the whole system depends on its quality. In the country kitchen, bathroom or bath, you can install ordinary faucets, but for installation on the street they are not suitable.
Outside, it is better to install much more reliable and practical cranes with grandbooks or bronze bolts.
The inlet dispensing unit is located on the surface, for example, in the utility room or in a specially designated place in the house. It includes a set of valves, cutting off one or another branching system, a device for measuring, controlling and regulating pressure.
System pressure control
For comfortable use, the pressure in the system should be constant. The normal indicator is from 2.5 to 4 atmospheres. Both too low and too high rates are not allowed. To control this parameter, the system is equipped with a special complex - pressure switch and hydroaccumulator.
Such a system will protect the water supply from water hammer if the pressure rises sharply. If you exceed the system significantly
The accumulator is a tank that is filled with water from the system. After the hydraulic tank install the relay. This device measures the water pressure in the system.
When it reaches the maximum allowable mark, the pump shuts off and water continues to flow from the battery capacity. When the pressure stabilizes, the relay starts the pump again and fills the tank.
Another important device for competent installation of water supply in the country - the lack of water sensor - dry relay. It will turn off the system when there is too little water in the well for some reason and prevents overheating and damage to the pump.
Water storage tank
Pressure in the suburban water supply system is provided by means of a water tank. The role of it, as a rule, is performed by a plastic barrel of a large volume, located on an elevation. If there is a place in the attic - it is placed there.
If, instead of the attic, you have an attic floor, the water drum can be placed on a specially built tower or overpass.
If the tank is located in an unheated room, and the periodic residence at the cottage in the winter is planned, then you should take care of its insulation separately. This may be a protective structure, insulated with foam or mineral wool.
The main thing is to carefully monitor the tank to be tight. Otherwise, particles of insulation, as well as dust and debris can get inside and pollute the drinking water.
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The storage tank in the water supply system of the dacha, not equipped with devices for automatic operation, plays several important roles
The tank serves as a tank for creating a reserve of water. Pumped into it as much as you can spend per day, so that the water does not bloom and does not stagnate
The drive in the dacha system does the work of a small water tower, especially if it is raised on a ramp or at least on brick pillars
The traditional cumulative tank for preparing water for subsequent irrigation according to a long-established tradition is the old bath.
Functions of the water tank
Capacity for formation of a stock of water
Pressure tank for plumbing
The drive for watering the garden and garden
Drain valve for preservation system
There are situations when the water supply system has to be conserved, for example, during a long departure or repair. In such cases, all water should be drained from the system. To do this, immediately after the pump, that is, at the lowest point of the system, install a drain valve.
If you turn off the pump and open the valve, the water will begin to move in the opposite direction through the pipeline due to the slope. Sometimes they act in a different way and install a check valve and a bypass - bypass. This scheme is used when using water from deep wells and boreholes.
How to organize a sewage disposal system?
Since there is almost no central sewage in country houses, you need to take care of an individual solution for draining wastewater and liquid household waste. In the old manner, you can dig a cesspool, but this does not meet sanitary standards. Yes, and clean the pit often.
The design of the septic tank laid the principle of wastewater treatment in several stages. For the septic tank to work properly, all cameras except the last one must be completely sealed.
Modern solution - use of septic tank. The easiest and most common way is a septic tank of 2-3 concrete rings. Although there are more advanced technologies, such as EuroCube, for example.
The task of the septic tank is to separate the solid component of the effluent, and the relatively clean - liquid - to drain back into the ground. Thanks to such a system, it is possible to get by with a single call of a nightman for several years.
Step-by-step installation guide
In order to build a water supply system at the dacha, you need to make preparatory work: make a plan, prepare tools and materials. Only after careful preparation can you begin to lay the pipeline, connect and install the internal wiring.
Step 1. Action plan
You need to start working with a detailed plan. If the scheme is planned to be complicated, one cannot do without the help of a professional, because the water supply is a responsible matter.
If you decide to do it yourself, prepare all the information:
- depth of soil freezing in your area;
- depth of groundwater;
- relief slope;
- plan of existing communications with indication of water intake points;
- plot plan with all buildings;
- the number of consumption points (water supply at home, baths, watering the garden, filling the pool, etc.).
First draw a detailed scale scheme. In addition to the usual terrain plan, draw a profile image of the pipeline and plan in isometric. So you can take into account the slope when laying the water supply in the country.
With such a drawing, count the number of pipes and fittings is not difficult. Never buy a material butt, make a small stock - about 10% of the total.
It is necessary to paint in detail all the connecting elements and fittings that will be used. So you not only will not forget to buy anything, but you will not make mistakes during installation (+)
The depth of freezing is one of the most important characteristics. It depends on how deep the pipes have to be laid. Note that the pipe laying depth must be greater than the depth of soil freezing by at least 20 cm at the lowest point of the site.
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Dacha life can be landscaped by building a water supply system with automatic water pumping
In the construction it is better to use pipes of cross-linked HDPE Ø 25 mm with fittings corresponding to their diameter.
The well can serve as an independent source for the organization of the dacha water supply system, but the well is most often chosen. It does not need to be pumped regularly and the water can be lifted up just with a bucket if the light is turned off.
If you plan to pump out water for use as drinking water, you need to purchase pipes of the appropriate category.
For laying pipeline sections, turning and branching, you need to buy fittings according to a previously made plan for the outer and inner route
There are several options for pumping water from the well: a “Kid” type vibration pump, a drainage unit or a pumping station. If you use the station, it is not necessary to buy an automation unit
No matter how clean the water comes from a natural source, it needs to be cleaned. She will spend coal and membrane filters
To automate the operation of the pump without hydraulic tank with a pressure switch, you can install an automation unit. It at the same time protects against the "dry run" that can not make the relay
Dacha water pipe components
Fragment of a water supply system from PND of pipes
Country water supply source
Drinking water pipes category
Corner Fittings and Connectors
Pumps for water intake from the well
Cartridge filters for water treatment
Automation unit for pumping without owners
Step # 2. Preparation of the necessary tools
When the scheme is ready, the materials are counted, you need to take care of the necessary tools. Suppose that you already have a well or well, so you can skip the step of their device.
Tools for installation of a winter water supply system at the dacha:
- adjustable wrench;
- gas wrench;
- welding machine for pipes - “iron” (using polypropylene);
- pipe cutter;
- gun for silicone and sealant.
This set will be enough for earthworks and plumbing work.
You can buy a ready-made set of plumbing, which includes all the basic tools for laying plumbing. But measuring tools still need to be purchased separately and it’s better not to save on quality.
If you plan to do electrical work yourself, then you need to expand the toolbox with a screwdriver, a tester, nippers and other electrician tools.
Step # 3. Device plumbing
To properly organize the work, you need to know the correct order:
- Perform earthworks. Armed with a shovel, take a device trenches along the entire length of the aqueduct according to the plan.
- Take care of the power supply of the pump. It is necessary to dig a separate trench, lay the electrical cable and mount the outlet for connecting the pump.
- Install the pump. Depending on its type, it can be located outside or immersed in a well;
- Connect equipment to the pump: pressure switch, pressure gauge and hydroaccumulator. Then securely attach the pipe leading to the points of consumption.
- Install drain valve for the possible conservation of the system.
- Mount the piping system along the bottom of the trench. Do not forget about the insulation of pipes at this stage.
- Output the outdoor water points.
- Connect the system and check its performance. Particular attention is paid to the joints of pipes, as well as to the places of equipment connection.
- Cover the trench. Go to this stage, if the system is stable, and there are no leaks.
- Mount the internal plumbing. Plastic pipes do not rust, so that they can be deepened into the walls. Install all mixers, plumbing, filtration systems and water heaters.
Water from the well must be cleaned. It is best to do this with the help of flow filters or reverse osmosis systems. The latter provide a complete cleaning of all impurities at the molecular level, but also the cost of their installation and maintenance is much higher.
Step # 4. Choosing a device for heating water
To heat water in the country, you can use flow type water heaters (gas or electric) and storage type (boiler).
Geysers are very convenient, water heats up in unlimited quantity, quickly and qualitatively. Yes, and you can save on electricity. But, firstly, the gas pipeline at the dacha is a rare phenomenon, and there is no sense in connecting a column to the gas cylinder, and secondly, the installation of the column should be done only by a qualified gasman.
The volume of the boiler depends on the number of people who will use hot water. If you only wash your hands or dishes, 50 liters of the unit will be enough, but in order to take a shower, you need to install at least 80 liters of tank
Electric heaters can be installed and dismantled at any time, this is their advantage. However, in terms of heating rate, they are inferior to gas flow columns.
Electric boiler - the best option for use in the country. Hot water is always available, it is inexpensive and any novice master can install it.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
In order to understand how you need to lay water in the country, watch these visual video tutorials. From them you will learn how to install water from a well, a water well, as well as how to make a summer water supply at the dacha.
Video review of the installation of a water supply system with a surface pump from a well:
Instructions for the device summer cottage summer type:
And this is the instruction for connecting all the equipment - a pressure relay, a dry-running relay, etc .:
If you follow all our recommendations, you will be able to lay a water supply system at your country house without the involvement of professionals.
Are you trying to independently equip the dacha water supply system or have successful experience in the implementation of water supply? Or maybe they do not agree with the stated material? We are waiting for your comments and questions. Contact form is located below.