Despite its simple, uncomplicated design, single-deck roofs are in demand, they are rational, especially for suburban housing construction. Roofs with a single ramp are also used in large quantities to equip garages, house buildings, farm buildings. On how to build a single-pitched roof with your own hands step by step, you'll find out below..
Multi-slope versions of roofs are complex in design, and one-run is quite accessible to erection by one's own hands, since it represents, in fact, a rectangle that is located in the same plane, does not have bends. On one-sided, by the way, you will have much less building materials than any other, it will be more resistant to seasonal manifestations (snow, wind, rain).
- House with a saddle roof - the choice of roofing material
- How to make a saddle roof?
- Single-pitched roof with own hands
- One-pitched roof - extension to the house
Advantages of a saddle roof:
- light weight;
- comparatively acceptable final cost;
- affordable, simple installation process;
- the possibility of using various building materials (roofing, rafters);
- accessible arrangement of drainage system, chimneys.
Despite its simplicity, a single-pitched roof can be very creatively beaten in design decisions. The angle of its bias directly depends on the climatic characteristics of the region where you live. If you are accustomed to snowy winters, then the degree of inclination should be greater (to make the snow slip better), if your house is located in a windy place, then the slope should be made smaller. For the same reasons, the slope of the gable roof should be directed to the opposite side from the facade, so that the precipitation "leave" behind the house..
The roof is one-run, built by oneself, step by step, it is ventilated and unventilated type. The first option is applied to residential buildings, the gradient varies from 8 to 25 degrees. In such cases, air exchange is ensured by an insulating layer and special holes located on the sides of the roof.
Non-vented option is often installed in garages, sheds, extensions to the house, the angle of inclination is mostly small - 3-6 degrees.↑ back to content ↑
House with a saddle roof - the choice of roofing material
Calculation of the schematic drawing of the future home begins with the determination of the required angle of inclination and suitable roof covering material. Most often for such single-sided structures used corrugated board, metal profile, ruberoid, tile, slate, metal or ondulin. Soft tile or roofing coating is optimal for very small slopes - from 5 to 10 degrees. Slate with profiled sheeting are more suitable for "medium" slope - from 20 to 30 degrees. For metal tiles, a slope of at least 35 degrees is required.
The choice of roofing material is determined by its ability to interact with atmospheric precipitation and to remove them from the surface in a timely manner. For example, with slate, corrugated board, shingles, snow comes off much easier.↑ back to content ↑
How to make a saddle roof?
To build your own hands step-by-step roofs of the same type, you will need a standard set of construction tools, the necessary building materials. Materials made of wood (lumber) must be of proper quality with a maximum humidity of 22%. All wooden materials are recommended to be pretreated with antiseptic agents (for example, with means from the DrevoTex series).
In addition to all you must have in stock fasteners: bolts, struts, struts.
Rigel is a horizontal piece that acts as a support for other supporting structures, it distributes the load of the rafters to other beams.
Spacers - a variety of supports, which are located in the spans, provide greater stability of the entire structure.
The struts are the beams acting in the role of the supports of the rafter system..
One-pitched roof, photo:
You should have:
- The wooden beam is 100-150 cm in diameter;
- laying boards (thickness at least 5 cm);
- rafters nails;
- heat-insulating materials;
- waterproofing materials;
- building scotch;
- tools (ax, saw, hammer, construction knife, plumb, screwdriver, tape measure, construction stapler, level).
The roofing system of a saddle roof will depend entirely on the size of the future house and the building material from which the walls were erected. The rafters are always installed on the Mauerlat, if the construction is small and the length of the span does not exceed a meter, then the scheme of the rafter system of a saddle roof will be extremely simple. It will consist of a basic mauerlat bar and a rafter. If larger sizes of the structure are assumed, and the length of the span is more than 6 meters, then installation of reinforcing leg under the feet is simply necessary.
The rafters must be installed in accordance with the building rules, so that after a few years of operation the consequences do not appear. Do not forget about the safety rules - install on the rafters reliable, strong temporary boards, by which you will move during the construction process.
The workflow with its own hands provides for the following stages:
- Stacking of cross rafters - they are fastened to the Mauerlat (this is the basis for what the entire rafter rest is on), the distance between the rafters is about 60-80 cm. Here you will need large nails (or anchors).
- The rafters are fastened with a sheath (it is made of wooden slats 50 to 50 cm), it provides rigidity, the roofing material is laid directly on it. The clipping is placed at right angles.
- With the help of a construction stapler, a waterproofing material is attached to the lath (a conventional polyethylene film is suitable for these purposes). Fastening is made without stretching, but with an overlap from the bottom up.
- There should be a turn of thermal insulation (for example: mineral wool, fiberglass, balsamic mats).
- Laying roofing material according to its individual characteristics.
Single-pitched roof with own hands
Let's consider step by step the whole construction process:.
- Since the Mauerlatt is a support for the entire system, its main function is that, so that the total weight of the roof equally equally distributed on the main supporting parts structure. For these purposes, you need to choose a beam of at least 10 × 10 cm, which is installed directly on the bearing walls. Between the laying of the wall and the beam there must be a layer of roofing material. The greater the angle of incline, the thicker the Mauerlat bar should be.To install the Mauerlat with their own hands it is necessary to take responsibility, it is obligatory to use the building level (the requirements for horizontality must be observed). The construction of a single-pit roof implies the fastening of the timber to the walls with the help of anchor bolts, the distance between them should be about a meter and a half.
- Now it's time to stack the rafters, make sure that the length of the board is more than a span of about half a meter.The distance between these boards depends on the severity of the covering material, if sheet variants are provided, then 150 cm will be enough. If you are going to lay slate or tile with your own hands, then it is better to choose a step - 100-120 cm. It is best to stack the board face-up - this will add extra strength to the entire structure. Rafters for a single-pitched roof must be embedded in the Mauerlatel bar along the entire length. When you mark pencil places for the tie-in (recommended for novice builders), make sure that the future groove is slightly wider than the thickness of the board. The slope of the notch groove is responsible for the degree of inclination.
- One of the most important stages is the installation of rafters in the grooves.All boards should be installed identically, under the same slope. For your convenience, it is better to initially put the two rafters at the beginning and at the end of the wall, and then stretch between them a string. Thus, you get an accurate reference point, and the process itself will go much easier. For fastening the beam and rafters, use large nails (from 12 cm or more). The end of the rafters (legs - the construction term) by one side is attached to the edge of the wall, and the other is fixed with a vertical beam. All rafter legs should be the same in degree of slope, height, direction.
- If you have a large house and the spacing between the spans exceeds 4- meter, then you need to install additional beams (struts) under each rafter. With the application of this construction method, the entire roof, the roofing system of the gable roof as a whole, will be strengthened.
- The rafters are step-by-step laid on boards, and on them a vapor barrier material (laid across the rafters).It is not necessary to stretch the film, but the strips should be overlapped (10-15 cm). Where the fragments will dock, for reliability, it is better to use building scotch (glue strips).
- We lay the heater on the waterproofing film with our own hands. When laying, there should be no gaps, gaps, the thickness of the insulation must be at least 20 cm. After the turn of the waterproofing layer follows, but there must be some space between it and the heater. To provide a clearance, usually lay small wooden bars between them. Waterproofing layer is attached with a construction stapler.
- On the resulting "pie" stack bridles. As mentioned above, for its production use rails or bars 50 to 50, they are mounted across the rafters. They can be placed in any way - with a continuous cloth or with gaps.
After the lath, the final roof covering is laid, its installation is made according to individual building characteristics.
Qualitatively laid, secured with their own hands rafters do not bend under the weight of 70-100 kg, if this fact was found during the inspection, then it is necessary to strengthen the frame.
The technology of laying the layers of "pie" can vary due to certain circumstances, to have some additions. Sometimes, for greater reliability, the waterproofing layer is re-laid over the insulation. It will not be worse from this, but in all cases, special attention should be given to fastening.
To nail the film to the wooden elements of the construction is best with the help of nails with a flat hat or a construction stapler, the step frequency should be 15-20 cm.
One of the most important moments is the fixing of the edges of the waterproofing material. It is planted under the overhang of the roof, the rest of the segment should be at least 20 cm, then pummel from below with nails or, again, pass a stapler.
It is best to take a wooden rod and punch it with the appropriate nails (with a pitch of 10-15 cm) - this is the so-called "folk" method for building a saddle roof. Thus, you will be sure that air flows will not penetrate under the waterproofing film, will not cause large-scale damage in the presence of strong winds.
In the photo above, the edges (overhang) of the roof were unreliable. In strong wind, the metal profile sheet together with the waterproofing film, like a light rag, was easily thrown aside.↑ back to content ↑
One-pitched roof - extension to the house
For garages, sheds, baths, arbors the most convenient is this type of roof. The construction of a single-pitched roof provides a number of advantages for the so-called auxiliary structures.
If you look at the annex step by step, it becomes clear that its roof is adjacent to the wall of the residential building. Thus, its truss system is equipped separately from the house, the lower ends of the rafters are located on the facade wall of the extension, but the upper ones are attached to the wall of the building. It is very important to ensure a competent connection of the rafter frame of the extension and the main wall of the house. Too rigid fastenings too to use it is undesirable, therefore as the speed of shrinkage of the house and an attached building can be different. Because of this difference, then, cracks of the walls may form.
In this case it will be most convenient to lay the beams on a timber frame that adjoins the wall at home (attached to the wall), and the place (seam) between the timber and the wall is filled with polyurethane sealant. To lay the roofing material with your own hands on the roof of the extension it is necessary with overlapping, and also to get in the place of the joint under the cover of the house. This is necessary in order that later atmospheric precipitation does not leak through the junction. Usually a similar roofing material is used on the roof of the house and the extension - for aesthetic reasons.
If you decide to build a shed with a gable roof, the construction of the roofing system with your own hands will not significantly differ from the above-described step-by-step method of erection.
It happens that sheds are erected from a bar, in such cases the top of the log cabin acts as a Mauerlata. Otherwise, there are no significant differences in the rafter system of single-pitched roofs of different structures.
The roof for a one-run garage is made using a similar method.If the walls of the garage are built of bricks, then the edges of the beams, the rafters are embedded in niches equipped for this. They are pre-made in the walls and discussed in the design stages of the building. It is recommended to wrap wooden fragments with a waterproofing coating before entering into these niches. In this case, the interval of the rafters is 60-70 cm. The facade wall of the garage is a high wall, from which there is a ramp down to the rear of the building, the entrance gates are located in it. The roof should protrude 30-40 cm from the wall, form a small overhang..
Taking into account the above information, it becomes clear that such a roofing variant is practical, functional, structurally simple. One-pitched roof, with its own hands step-by-step arranged, can withstand powerful wind, snow loads. Such a roof will be warm, thanks to a small area to penetrate the air. If you have done everything right, it will surely serve you for more than a decade.