Accustomed to urban comfort, we also try to make our country life comfortable. Agree, what kind of convenience can we talk about if there is no lavatory in the territory? The organization of the latrine must be taken care of at the initial stage of arrangement of its land plot.
Having a step-by-step instruction on construction, it is not too difficult to build a toilet in the country with your own hands, it is more difficult to choose a place for it and the model that suits you best. But we will help you to do this.
We will acquaint with the rules of arrangement and with typical types of country toilets. In the article you will find step by step instructions with drawings that will help build a full bathroom on the site. And to help the novice master a video is attached to the article, clearly demonstrating the process of building a closet on the site.
The content of the article:
- Rules you should not forget
- Types of country toilets
Lavatories with a cesspool
- Option 1. Low cost wood construction
- Option # 2. The design of the metal profile
- Option # 3.Capital bathroom of brick
Toilets without cesspool
- № 1. Hygienic backlash closet
- № 2. Wasteless powder-closet (peat toilet)
- № 3. Bio or chemical toilet
- Criteria for selecting a suitable design
Instructions for the construction of "birdhouse"
- Step 1. We select the necessary materials
- Step # 2. Construction work
- Step # 3. Getting to the finish
- Step # 4. Organization of room ventilation
- Photo-guide to the construction of “Teremka”
How to make peat powder closet on your own?
- Stage # 1. Get ready for work
- Stage # 2. Basic rules for the construction of powder-closet
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Rules you should not forget
The toilet is not a simple household building. When building it, you need to remember some rules, compliance with which will help you not to spoil relations with neighbors in the cottage and will eliminate possible problems during the subsequent operation of the outflow places.
Guided by the rules listed below, we will choose the right place for the future structure.
It is important that the country toilet is located as far as possible from the point of intake, and if groundwater come closer to the ground than 2.5 meters, the toilet with a cesspool should be installed can't
The list of requirements for the distance of the toilet from other objects located on the site:
- 12 meters - to the house, as well as a shed or garage, in which there are underground structures such as a basement or cellar;
- 25-30 meters - to the source of the water intake for drinking;
- 8 meters - to the bath and the shed or garage without basement structures;
- 1 meter - to the fence.
Of course, all sites have individual features that also need to be considered. If the territory has a difficult terrain, then for the restroom you need to choose a flat platform, located below the source of drinking water. It is important that no feces come into contact with groundwater.
If sewage needs to be periodically pumped out, it should be possible to take the assenisation machine to the work site. Of course, you should take into account the wind rose in your area, so that savory smells do not annoy you or anyone around you.
All these rules are easy to remember, because they are dictated by common sense. This approach must be respected when choosing a structure that you will build on your own site.
Types of country toilets
The main feature used to classify outdoor toilets is a way to dispose of accumulated waste. All the others, including the construction material, are secondary.
Self-made country toilets are divided into two large categories: having cesspool in its design and those in which it is not provided.
Of course, the types of booths mentioned below are far from a complete list, because there is also a fantasy, the flight of which cannot be limited. For example, here is a cabin-carriage, in which a dry closet and a washbasin are installed.
Cabins for latrines can be purchased off-the-shelf or made independently.
They are divided into several types:
- a house;
- nesting box.
From each other, they differ in appearance, size, etc. Typically, gardeners choose a booth that best meets their aesthetic perception.
A photo of
According to the method of installation and the volume of accumulative capacity, all country toilets can be divided into stationary ones, built over stored in the ground, and portable, having in the design of a small storage capacity that requires periodic emptying
Over the cesspool, which is constructed of concrete, brick, plastic barrels and similar containers, install a house with a wooden toilet seat and a hole
If the site has an autonomous sewage and water supply system, there is no need to build a separate toilet. The bathroom can be arranged in a house with a drain outlet to the drive located on the street.
In a separate house it is not necessary to construct a traditional pedestal with a hole. The solution may be quite original.
If the cesspool device is not the responsibility of the owners or there is no free space on the site for its organization, portable toilets will help to solve the problem.
Portable dry closets are equipped with a small storage volume. Fell in his waste products sprinkled with peat or granular chemical composition
A toilet with a small drive that requires periodic unloading can be arranged with your own hands. A plastic tank or a large bucket will work as a storage device.
In specialized stores for summer residents you can now find a toilet-bucket. Not the most convenient, but acceptable option for temporary residence
Stationary toilet at the dacha
Homemade toilet seat over the cistern
Installation of a conventional toilet in a country house
Homemade toilet with seat
Mobile options for country toilets
Dry closets with environmentally friendly filler
Homemade toilet with a small drive
Toilet bucket for country life
Lavatories with a cesspool
The basis of the construction of conventional village bathrooms, which we see live, as well as in popular films and cartoons, is a cesspool. Often just such a structure and choose to build toilets in the country.
Construction of such a toilet, as a rule, does not cause any difficulties. In fact, the sewer complex in this case is represented by a cabin and a deep pit. It is into it that the waste of the inhabitants of the dacha comes to life. There they accumulate, evaporating or partially absorbed into the ground.
If it comes to a toilet with a cesspool, the imagination immediately draws a building with a hole into which you have to aim, but everything can be conceived and made much more modern and neater
Of course, for maintenance of the cesspool, it is better to attract a cesspool machine, which is used to remove waste and recycle it. The dimensions of the pit, the number of users and the intensity of operation of the toilet - these are the factors that affect the frequency of call of the vacuum trucks.
Sometimes the problem is not solved the best way: just fall asleep vygrey, digging nearby a new one. This can be done only if the pit was shallow and the groundwater is located no closer than 2.5 meters from the surface. As a rule, a fast-growing tree is planted above the covered capacity.
As for the part of the toilet, which is located above the ground, a variety of materials can be used for its construction:
- traditional wood;
- metallic profile;
- bricks, etc.
The durability of any of these structures depends on the strength of the frame, and ease of use depends on the thermal insulation and the quality of ventilation.
Option 1. Low cost wood construction
The obvious advantages of using wood for the construction of a latrine are the relative cheapness of this material and the simplicity of the work performed. The board frame is pretty easy to build. No special skills are required for this job.
A new wooden toilet looks very elegant, especially if it is soaked with a special protective compound for wood and varnished
In addition, the construction of wood is characterized by low weight, and hence mobility. If there is a need for a new cesspool, the above-ground structure does not have to be disassembled and assembled in a new place. You can just transfer it carefully.
There is one more obvious advantage of a wooden toilet. If you use the imagination, then this structure can be a real decoration of the suburban area. It can be styled as a fabulous house or a teremok.
However, along with the advantages, wood has a whole list of disadvantages:
- cracking, cracking and deformation under the influence of direct sunlight;
- UV burnout;
- frame deformation, mold and fungi - the result of the influence of high humidity.
We should not forget about wear - the influence of time.
If you don’t take care of this building, then literally in a few years it can turn into a wretched wreck from horror films.
Yes, an outdoor facility needs protection. To this end, the boards are treated with a primer, after which a special paint for exterior work or varnish, beautifully revealing the specificity of wood, is applied on their surface.
Option # 2. The design of the metal profile
There are several options for creating a simple and functional design of the metal profile, which differ in the material of the construction frame. In the first case, the frame will be wooden, and in the second - metal.
Metal frame can be welded, for example, from the corner. But, of course, to solve this problem, you will need a welding machine and skills to operate it.
This nice bathroom of metal profile is all good, except for one: it will be unbearably hot in the summer and cold in the winter, so it must be sheathed inside with foam
In the next stage of work, the base is trimmed with metal profiles using self-tapping screws or rivets. When using self-tapping screws, use protective washers to prevent moisture from getting into place.
Washers protect structures from corrosion, and it will last longer. Protective properties and has a special deposition deposited on the sheets of metal still in the process of its production.
It is better to place the metal profile construction in a shaded place, because in the heat the metal is very hot. To reduce the negative effects of overheating of the internal space will help foam sheets that are used for the inner lining of the restroom.
Option # 3.Capital bathroom of brick
Brick construction is indeed a capital structure. On the one hand, this is good: it is less exposed to negative external factors and will last a long time. But the capital structure, especially if it is toilet and shower unit, can not be moved from place to place.
Therefore, it should be well thought out in advance and not only the location of the toilet itself, but also the method of cleaning the pit under it.
Brick toilet looks monumental: pay attention to its concrete base. It can not be transferred, but it does not matter, because for the choice of a place for him they probably thought well
It is advantageous to build such a structure in the case when the brick remains after the construction of the main cottage or garage. This, by the way, will give unity to the whole complex of buildings.
Note that between the aboveground structure with cottage toilet and the underground parts of the structure should be placed concrete overlap. The total cost of such a toilet would be decent.
Toilets without cesspool
If on your site close to the surface there are rocky soils or there is a high level of groundwater, then you cannot dig a hole. How to make a toilet at the cottage? The way out of this situation is the erection of a structure that functions in accordance with other principles.
These restrooms include:
- bio or chemical toilet;
- backlash closet.
Each of these latrines has its own design features, which are worth talking about.
№ 1. Hygienic backlash closet
The German word "luft" means air. The name backlash got its name for the fact that they have a separate ventilation of the bathroom and the sump. In this construction, the excavation excavated in the ground is replaced by an airtight container.
Moreover, this storage for waste products can be located outside the bathroom itself. As a rule, it is placed at the rear wall of the main heated building with a toilet.
In this particular case, the connecting pipe between the stool and the reservoir is installed vertically, so that the waste products could enter the sealed accumulator by gravity
The drive and the toilet are connected by a pipe. If the toilet is located above the room with a reservoir, the pipe is installed vertically.
For a tank located behind the wall, an inclined pipe is intended. Impurities must flow to the drive under the influence of gravity - by gravity.
Having such a backlash-closet drawing with a hermetic sewage tank, you can independently build this building on your site
To maintain the backlash closet, you need to contact the vacuum trucks, which will periodically empty the drive. To facilitate their work, the sewage tank is given an elongated shape. Of course, this toilet option is more hygienic than previously discussed.
Difficulties in operating the backlash occur during the cold season, when the drive has to be heated to clean it.
№ 2. Wasteless powder-closet (peat toilet)
A distinctive feature of the powder-closet is a small capacity, only about 20 liters, which is placed directly under the toilet seat.
This type of latrine is considered the most effective in cases where the groundwater level at the dacha's location is close to the surface and because of this the earthworks are limited.
The scheme of powder-closet: 1 - vent window; 2 - toilet seat cover; 3 - toilet seat; 4 - drive; 5 - the door; 6 - supports; 7 - clay pillow; 8 - glazed transom
It is very simple to equip such a latrine, and it will cost a powder-closet quite inexpensively. In addition, waste that is otherwise disposed of can be converted into fertilizer. Moreover, this process also does not require significant costs.
The feces coming into the tank are sprinkled with dry peat or a mixture of peat and sawdust. Such “powder” counteracts the development of the processes of decay, therefore, the bathroom will not have an unpleasant smell.
So, the tank is gradually filled with peppered waste, after which its contents enter the compost pit, where the final treatment of sewage into a full-fledged fertilizer takes place.
Buckets can be used as a storage device or here is a device that starts up from the back of the toilet and looks like a wheelbarrow.
If the powder-closet is installed as a stationary object, then in order to more conveniently send waste to the compost pit, you can attach wheels and handles to the drive. It turns out a kind of car. Portable powder closet can be taken into the house during bad weather or at night.
At the disposal of fans of country life is now a wide range of mobile peat toilets Factory production:
A photo of
Convenient portable toilets for country life do not need to be connected to communications, they do not need a cesspool
Mobile peat toilet can be fully assembled and prepared for use in a couple of minutes.
Externally, the peat toilet for giving resembles the usual compact model. The tank also has a handle or a button for flushing, but instead of water, a peat mixture is fed into the storage tank.
The use of peat provides an opportunity to receive compost from waste products, which is an effective fertilizer.
In a tank of a peat toilet the rotating disk - a spreader is located. It promotes uniform distribution of peat in a small storage tank.
For removal of gases generated in the storage tank during processing of the contents, a ventilation pipe is installed. The gas leaving it is free from unpleasant odors.
The constructive components of the peat toilet bowl are hermetically interconnected, however, they are easily disassembled if necessary.
For discharge of condensate that falls on the walls between the storage tank and the body during the processing period, a hose is connected to the drain fitting at the bottom.
Comfortable plumbing for country life
Peat toilet in the assembled state
Peat Toilet Tank
Peat mixture for country toilets
Peat spreader in toilet bowl
Peat Toilet Ventilation Pipe
Tightness of element joints
Connecting the condensate drain hose
№ 3. Bio or chemical toilet
The principle of operation of the dry closet, which is becoming more and more popular among summer residents, is similar to the one laid in powder-closet. Peat mixture is also involved in waste processing.
Substances that are involved in the processing process can be both dry and liquid. AT country dry closets Special bacteria are used as active elements.
When operating on the summer cottage of such a dry closet, only those active substances recommended by the producer should be used.
There are also chemical latrines in which chemicals play the role of active substances. It must be said that they are not cheap, that is why “advanced” gardeners, in order to save, try to replace them with bleach or formaldehyde.
This can not be done, because these substances are toxic, and use them in such compact devices is dangerous.
It is permissible to use such liquid preparations as Bio Favorite, Septosa Trit Mikrozim and Tamir. Well-proven and powder formulations: Saneks and Atmosbio.
Criteria for selecting a suitable design
Obviously, there are plenty to choose from.
To make the right choice and later not regret it, you should pay attention to such factors:
- the size of the budget allocated for construction;
- estimated intensity of operation;
- the height of the water horizon in the installation area of the toilet;
- the amount that will be allocated in the future for servicing the restroom.
It is also necessary to properly assess their physical abilities and level of skill.
Even in the complete absence of finance, you can come up with just such a structure, which also has the right to be called a country toilet.
The choice of the type of structure and the material from which it will be built depends on the objective factors associated with the location of your land and on the subjective (your financial capabilities).
Instructions for the construction of "birdhouse"
The frame of the classic “Birdhouse” is made of wood. Different materials can be used as skin. The roof of the booth can be with one or two ramps. A stall will be constructed above the waste pit.
Birdhouse scheme: 1-binding; 2-rack; 3-door toilet; 4-door handle; 5-door cross member; 6-wall; 7 rafters; 8-roof; 9-pipe ventilation; 10-deflector; 11-wall, 12-lid cesspool; 13-support; 14-wall
Before you build a wooden toilet in the country, it is recommended to carry out a drawing of a future construction or use a ready-made drawing and calculation. So it will be easier to determine the need for materials, not to buy too much and, in the end, save.
Step 1. We select the necessary materials
All materials and tools that are needed in the course of the work must be at hand.
Prepare in advance:
- 2 square meters ruberoid meter;
- 2 concrete curbs with a length of 2 meters or 4 cement-sand blocks;
- one door unit (900 x 2000mm);
- 40 pcs. lining boards (87 x 3000mm);
- two types of edged boards (3 pcs. 32 x 90 x 6000 mm in size and 4 pieces. size 50 x 100 x 6000 mm);
- galvanized steel profile sheet (2000 x 1520 x 0.4 mm);
- one wooden bar (50 x 50 x 600 mm);
- bolts, hinges and handles for the door;
- fasteners (nails, screws);
- plastic pipe with a diameter of 10 cm and a length of 2.5 meters;
- pipe deflector;
- paint or varnish;
- sand, crushed stone or broken brick.
If your building is insulated from the inside, you need to buy foam plastic for this purpose. In addition, provide exterior decoration to your liking.
To do the work you will need an ordinary carpentry tool. Do not forget about the construction plummet and level so that you can control the horizontal and vertical position of the structure.
Step # 2. Construction work
The preparatory stage is completed, you can proceed directly to the construction of a comfortable toilet in the country.
First stage - organization of the underground part of the structure.
To start should dig a cesspool. Its minimum size is 1x1x2 meters. The actual size should correspond to the dimensions of the above-ground part of the building. As the work performed is described, it will become clear how to determine this size.
At the bottom of the pit, a “cushion” is organized from a mixture of sand with broken brick or rubble. If desired, concrete rings can be installed in the pit.
When creating the foundation as a supporting element, we can use concrete curbs. Curbs need to be dug at a distance of no further than 20 cm from the edge, so that they are no more than 10-15 cm above the ground surface.
If cement-sand blocks are used, they need to be dug in at all four corners. They will be used as supports for the building framework.
It is necessary to make a waterproofing. For this we need ruberoid. It can be replaced with any other roll material that provides reliable protection from moisture. The material is laid on curbstones or blocks of 3-4 layers.
When cutting a technical hole in the flooring, you can use a stencil or apply the markup of the future cut straight on the floor surface
Second phase - construction of the aerial part of the building.
Now you need to mount a wooden frame in full accordance with the drawing, and then execute its trim. Wooden "birdhouse" can be sheathed with clapboard or boards. For the construction of the flooring need thick (from 4 cm thickness) and durable boards.
Lining is a material that is ideal for covering the toilet. It looks good, especially under the varnish for outdoor work.
When choosing wood for outdoor toilet, pay attention to the following characteristics:
- resistance to decay;
Especially carefully you need to choose boards for flooring, because they are most susceptible to moisture from the earth and evaporation from the pit. The following species have the necessary characteristics: oak, beech, larch.
Step # 3. Getting to the finish
In the floor of the booth you need to cut a hole. It is better to make it round with a diameter of not less than 30 cm. Then proceed to the installation of the door. Usually a small hole is also cut in it. The classic form of this slot is the "heart". Sunlight penetrates through the cabin.
If the "heart" is not glazed, it also helps in organizing the ventilation of the room. But it is better to provide a transparent plastic flap for the slot in case of bad weather.
As a material for the roof, you can use a professional flooring, roofing material, and slate, and more modern and popular roofers for summer residents
For the roof of the "Birdhouse" you can use a variety of materials. For example, all the same roofing material, slate or galvanized steel profile sheet. So, the building is almost ready, it remains only to paint or varnish. Do not forget that you need coatings designed for outdoor use.
Step # 4. Organization of room ventilation
The organization of ventilation is an important part of the restroom arrangement. It is necessary for the withdrawal of air from the sump. To this end, in the roof and in the floor of the booth make slots for pipes with a diameter of 10 cm
The pipe can be made of plastic or have a corrosion-resistant coating. It is inserted into the hole in the floor and out through the hole in the ceiling to the outside. Both holes are carefully sealed.
Ready toilet really looks like a birdhouse. It is compact, convenient and fits well with any terrain.
Above the surface of the roof the pipe should rise about 20 cm.
The deflector, which should be installed on the upper end of the pipe, should perform two tasks at once:
- protection of the duct from falling into it of precipitation;
- organization of thrust that provides air from the bottom up.
So, the construction of the Birdhouse is complete. The cabin of our building is slightly elevated above the ground. To make it easier to use the "Birdhouse", you can attach to the booth steps. Be sure to make a track, because you have to use this building not only on sunny days.
Photo-guide to the construction of “Teremka”
For the construction of an interesting form of construction, you will need a bar, a tongue-and-groove board for covering the toilet seat and floor, sheet material such as OSB, plywood, chipboard or GFL for covering the framework. Of course, you will need fasteners for wood and corners for fixing parts of the frame. Naturally, be patient, carpentry tools and skills.
Construction is carried out in several stages, which will acquaint a selection of photos:
A photo of
In front of the device of the house-teremka frame we dig a cesspool of a suitable size. Around the pit around the perimeter of the future building we set bricks as supports for the bottom trim
We assemble a 50 × 100 mm bottom trim from a bar according to the level of bricks
Having washed down one of the sides of three pieces of a bar 50 × 50 mm at an angle of 5º, we put them on the harness. If necessary, fasten the temporary lance
In the same order, we install the oblique supports of the second wall. We tie them in a bar on top.
Stepping back from the back wall of the toilet slightly more than half the distance we place a bar that will serve as the bottom support for the toilet seat. We assemble the framework of the toilet seat and sheathe it along with the floor board
From the bar we collect the frame for the front wall of the toilet-teremka. Vertical racks set so that they served as a support for the door frame. Then we assemble the back wall frame
We lay sheets of plywood on the rafters fixed by the frame. At the top between them there should be a gap of about 3 cm. Frame sheathed sheet material
We make finishing finishing of a toilet. The roof is covered with a waterproofing polymer membrane and laid covering
Stage 1: Supporting device for lower strapping
Stage 2: Assembling the frame bottom trim
Step 3: Installing Inclined Wall Supports
Stage 4: Construction of the frame of both walls
Stage 5: Floor paneling and padded toilet seat
Stage 6: Assembling the front wall frame
Stage 7: Roof structure and frame cladding
Stage 8: Finishing the toilet-teremka
How to make cesspool of old tires, you can find out by reading the article recommended by us.
How to make peat powder closet on your own?
Since we already know that high-quality fertilizers are obtained from feces treated with peat, before building a powder-closet think about where the compost site will be.
Stage # 1. Get ready for work
For the construction of powder-toilet we need:
- fasteners (screws and nails);
- toilet seat.
Ready seat can be bought in the store.
Stage # 2. Basic rules for the construction of powder-closet
Before you make a peat toilet in the country, you need to collect the box. For this we need four boards, which should be fastened to each other with screws. To be able to install the storage of feces inside the box, in its front part make a cutout.
Next, take a sheet of plywood and cut a hole in it. This sheet is used for covering the upper part of the box. Install the plywood so that the technical hole is located directly above the cumulative tank.
For the convenience of placing the drive under the technical hole, it is not at all necessary to make a cutout in the front of the box: you can simply make the element out of plywood
It is necessary to attach legs to the box, calculating their height so that you can easily install and remove the drive. It remains to fasten around the technical hole comfortable seat. As already mentioned, the seat for powder-closet can be bought in the store. Depending on the material of manufacture, it will cost you in the amount of from 250 to 5000 rubles.
Under the hole is placed the container for faeces. In her immediately need to pour about five centimeters of peat. It is better to have several storage tanks so that they can be changed as they are filled.
Like any other, a peat toilet needs ventilation. For this purpose, you can use a pipe already known to us with a deflector attached to it. It is not necessary to lower it into the tank itself. The hole in the door of the booth will also not be superfluous. It will increase the level of ventilation and allow the use of daylight to illuminate the booth.
With drawings of country wooden toilets, made in the form of a hut, will introduce next article, the content of which we advise you to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Now, at least theoretically, you know how to build your own toilet in the country. But seeing the process with your own eyes is always helpful. Imagine it clearly you can, watching the video you proposed.
It remains only to apply the knowledge gained by you in practice. Cottage toilet is different from all other outbuildings. It has restrictions on location and distance from other objects.
In addition, there are different models of latrines, differing both in their underground and above-ground parts. It is very important to properly equip the latrine place. We hope that we have helped you in solving this problem.
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