Apples of Aport brand are known for their beautiful appearance and taste. Aport is the oldest variety that has spread all over the world. In every corner of our planet know about these apples. So is it worth talking about their survival?They grow in any climate and are able to withstand even severe frosts. And the harvest of this variety is fascinating! Apples grow large, beautiful and incredibly tasty. If you decide to plant a jablon of this variety on your site, then you must learn about its characteristics..
Table of contents
- Description of the cultivar and clones of apples
- A bit of history
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Characteristics of trees and fruits
- Description of the tree
- Description of apples
- In what regions are grown apples from Almaty?
- Yield and storage
- Rules of landing
- Care instructions
- Additional fertilizing
- Rules for the protection of wood from diseases and pests
Description of the cultivar and clones of apples
A bit of history
Aport - this variety is considered one of the ancient varieties of apple trees, bearing fruits with early winter maturity. It has a long history of development, there is still no precise data on its roots of origin. If you believe the data of the pomors, this variety came from Ukraine. The first information about this apple tree is indicated back in 1175.In the monastic chronicles of this time there were records of descriptions of apples of this variety that this variety was brought from the city of Porta (Ottoman Empire) to the Kingdom of Poland, where it is well established and after that it became widely spread. In addition, there are reliable data that the apple of this variety was cultivated in the lands of Ukraine in the 12th century. There are also unconfirmed references to the fact that the variety comes from Turkey.
Advantages and disadvantages
To the merits include the following characteristics:
- Large size of ripe fruits, one ripe apple can weigh 500 grams. Not one kind of apples can not boast of this quality;
- High yield. Annually, up to 150 kilograms of apples are removed from one tree;
- Excellent taste. Ripe fruit has a sweet taste and high juiciness.
- Due to its taste qualities, this varietyis considered a national treasurein many countries;
- Varietyhas varieties of frost-resistant trees. They perfectly tolerate severe frosts;
- Assembledthe harvest has good storage. Apples are stored in the cellar or cellar for several months, while they preserve the external and taste qualities for a long period;
- Of applesyou can do winter workpieces;
- Long fruiting. The tree is fruit bearing for 40 years.
The following qualities are attributed to shortcomings:
- The original variety tolerates frost in the Southern regions of Russia. However, in the middle belt in the temperate zonevariety does not take root well because of severe winters;
- Irregular fructification. Apple trees of this variety bear fruit after a year;
- Unstable to diseases;
- Fruiting occurs only at the age of 7-8after planting seedlings.
Characteristics of trees and fruits
Description of the tree
Trees of Aport type have a number of external characteristics:
- The apple tree grows into a large tree, itsthe sizes are more than average parameters. The diameter of the pole is from 7 to 10 meters;
- Crown Thinwith a large number of branches;
- Tree shootslong with medium thickness. The color of shoots is brown with a small number of lenticles;
- BranchesThey have a strong structure, they leave the trunk at a large angle;
- Round leaves. The shade of the leaves is dark green.
Description of apples
The pride of this variety is a high yield and ripe fruits.Apples have the following characteristics:
- Fruits have a truncated-conical shapebig size;
- Averageweight of ripe applesis 250-270 grams;
- The peel has an average thicknesswith a pleasant aroma, its surface is shiny;
- Shade of fruitsGreen or yellowish with a large number of strips of red;
- Red patchesand the strips are blurred, due to which they smoothly pass into each other;
- Under the skinset of small points;
- Pulphas a fine-grained structure with a pleasant aroma. In color it is white-green;
- The taste of applessweet with sour shades. After their use, a taste of wine is observed in the mouth;
- Apples can be usedfor winter preparation.
In what regions are grown apples from Almaty?
In Russia apples of Aport cultivar grow in the following regions:
- Central Black Earth;
- The Volga-Vyatsky;
In addition to Russia, this variety is widely distributed in other CIS republics:
- In Kazakhstan - in Almaty, Zhambyl, Kyzylorda, South-Kazakhstan regions;
- In Kyrgyzstan;
- In Tajikistan;
- In Uzbekistan.
Yield and storage
Aport refers to varieties with late-autumn maturation. He does not have high rate of fertility.The first harvest can be obtained only for 7-8 years after planting the seedlings. The duration of fruiting lasts on average about 40 years. Apples begin to mature by the end of September - early October. Crop storage lasts 2-4 months. Ripe apples should be stored in a cool place.. .
Rules of landing
Due to the fact that Aport belongs to winter varieties, itsit is recommended to plant in the autumn period. A suitable basis for planting is the soil, which includes drained loam type.
The pit for planting with a nutrient mixture should be prepared 7 days before planting. During this period, the earth will be well pinched.
Rules for planting:
- The pit should be excavatedaccording to the size of the root system;
- Desirableto fill the bottom of the hole with a fertile mass of peat(22-25 kg), compost and humus (15-18 kg) and fertile soil layer;
- After that, holding the tree by the trunk, the pit should be covered with soil. Whereinthe sapling should be shaken periodicallyso that no voids appear between the root branches;
- After landing around the tree makecushion from the ground, and poured abundantly with liquid until it ceases to be absorbed;
- Must be a whisker circle is necessarymulch with peat and humus.
Watering should be done in hot weather with dry weather. It is carried out once or twice a week. A few buckets are enough for a young tree. Watering should be carried out along the perimeter of the stump circle, and not under the trunk. In this area, parts of rootlets of the suction type are located.
Top dressing is done in spring and autumn. In this period it is necessary to introduce nitrogen-containing and mineral fertilizer mixtures.Fertilizer mixtures with nitrogen content are applied until the beginning of September, but most importantly not later than this period. When using them, the apple begins to accelerate the growth of new shoots, which is not recommended in the autumn period, because the plant will not have time to prepare for the upcoming winter period.
- For fertilization of foliar and radical speciesUrea should be used. In the spring period, 500-600 grams of fertilizer should be spread throughout the area of the trunks, but it is better to do this in wet weather;
- Urea must be used during flowering. At this time, you need to dissolve 250-300 grams of fertilizer in a bucket of water and pour a tree on it;
- In the spring it is useful to use ammonium nitrate(30-40 grams per large bucket) or 5 buckets of humus with 10 liters of water;
- When floweringmake 5 liters of slurry, pour, -2 liters of chicken manure and a composition of 100 grams of phosphate and 60-70 grams of potassium. These components dissolve in 10 liters of water;
- After floweringNitrosfosca 500 grams, 10 grams of gumat sodium with a bucket of water is used. One plant needs 3 buckets;
- In autumn the plant needs a stock of useful components, which will protect the tree in winter. One plant should be dissolved in 10 liters 30 grams of potassium, 60 grams of double superphosphate and 30 grams of calcium.
The initial circumcision is done immediately after the plant is planted.Often, he cuts off all the branches and cuts the trunk, leaves its length to 80 cm. After this, there is an increase in the growth of apple trees, during which new shoots appear from the kidneys.
It is advisable not to allow extra thickening of the crown. It is necessary to cut off branches with intersections and close location.Adult trees are required to make regular trimming of branches. It is necessary to cut all branches in a dry state, as well as old, unfruitful, with lesions, damage.
Rules for the protection of wood from diseases and pests
Often on the surface of tree trunks arises mushroom trutovik. At its first appearance while it is still soft, it can be removed with an ordinary garden knife. If it is large and has a rigid structure, then it should be cut with an ax. Do this carefully so as not to damage the tree. The areas after the logging are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate, 100 grams should be added to a bucket of water. After processing, the place needs to be painted over with oil-based paint.
Protection for other diseases:
- For preventive treatmentsA mixture of 700 grams of urea, 50 grams of copper sulphate and a bucket of water is used. This solution is watered by a tree;
- Against the scaba solution of wood ash is used. 250 grams of ash pours out in a small amount of hot water. The mixture is put into a bucket of water and mixed;
- When a scab occurs, a solution is used which consists of urea7-10%, 8 liters per plant. Helps Hom - 40 grams per 10 liters of water. For one tree, 2-4 liters is enough. Copper vitriol - 100 grams per bucket of liquid. These mixtures need to process the plant before flowering or before beginning the setting of fruits;
- With fruit rotplants are treated with a mixture of 100 grams of colloidal sulfur and 10 liters of water or a suspension of carbophos 50-100 grams per 10 liters of water.
- To get rid of aphidsTreatment is carried out,% entobacterin solution (30 g per 10 l). From the moths help the treatment of carbofos (30 grams per 10 liters of water) and chlorophos (20 g per 10 l). About 5-7 treatments are done starting from the beginning of June every 14 days. Finish processing 20 days before harvest.
The Aport variety is a kind of apple tree that has good characteristics.Mature fruits have not only a large size and a beautiful view, but also excellent taste qualities. Although the cultivation of apple trees takes a lot of work, but it is worth it..