Many varieties of cucumbers were specially bred by breeders as salted. When buying seeds, be sure to pay attention to the notes on the seed bags: for canning and pickling. But even if you use such varieties for winter preparations, no one can guarantee you a great taste a strong, crispy pickled cucumber, if you do not follow certain rules of farming technology and technology salting. So how to grow cucumbers for pickling?
- What sorts of cucumbers to salt?
- Agrotechnics of cultivation of cucumbers for salting
- How to prepare cucumbers for pickling
- Water for pickling cucumbers
What sorts of cucumbers to salt?
Fruits of salted varieties, hybrids differ in morphology and structure of cells. Oviposition is one of the most important varieties of cucumbers for pickling. Spines, spinules (on the ovaries they look like hairs) are white, black or brown, simple or complex. In general, they serve for plants as organs regulating the return of moisture, performing an evaporation function. At the same time, the holes in the epidermis of the fruit promote a faster penetration of the brine during salting or canning.
The quality of cucumbers for pickling is closely related to spines, their size and color. High salty qualities have fruits with large tubercles, black spines. Blackening of spinules (black soil) is due to the fact that moisture evaporates through them, along with which the pigment flavone appears on the surface of the tubercle. Its accumulation occurs gradually. A liquid colored with a pigment dries up, becomes brown at first, then black. As a result of this process, we see black spines on the tops of the tubercles.
In some salty varieties, such as, for example, Vyaznikovsky 37, the pubescence can be from densely located simple (seated directly on the surface) and complex spines, which differ in smaller size, are located more rarely..
The crunch of the flesh of the fruits of salt cucumbers depends on the special structure of the cells and the space between them. The fact is that cells cease to be divided already at the ovary stage. Cucumber grows not by increasing the number of cells, but by stretching them.
So, in gherkins, pickles between cells there is practically no space. Cells fit tightly to each other. That is why gherkins and pickles never have cavities in salting. All their varieties are salted.
I'll introduce you to new varieties with salty qualities that can be grown outdoors or in a greenhouse.
A good variety for pickling Mamenkin F1 pet. Fruits with black thorns. It grows well, plentifully fructifies both in a greenhouse and in open ground.
Separately, I want to say about the new brand Garland F1. It is a unique hybrid, on which 30 to 40 fruits are simultaneously tied and ripened. In the period of greatest strength, he, like a Christmas tree, is hung with toys by cucumbers.
Hybrid Bochkovoy zasolochny - designed for cask sap without preservatives (vinegar).
Hybrid Lilliput F1 has the smallest fruit size 6-8 cm. This hybrid is suitable for summer residents, who rarely come to their sites. Cucumbers grow slowly, even for a week absence in the country, their length will not increase. Well, perhaps, they will become a little thicker, but even, the speed of thickening of the fruits of this hybrid is minimal.
Hybrids Advance F1, Khazbulat F1, Cappuccino F1 specially created for the canning industry. Grown on a dacha or homestead plot, perfect for pickling. Feature - cucumbers do not overgrow, have a slow growth.
Currently, hybrid varieties are created with excellent salty qualities, which, when grown, tolerate shading well. Better than Athlet F1, for these purposes it is difficult to find. This is the most shade-tolerant hybrid. It can also be safely recommended to grow in winter on a window sill or balcony..
Not a bad shade-endurance in hybrids - Berendey F1, Courage F1, Razgulay F1, Valdai F1.
Courage F1 is generally a unique hybrid with high salty qualities, with a classic cucumber strong flavor. It is good for truck farmers in that it requires minimum attention during cultivation. I must say, this is a very "viable" hybrid. I read that in one of the farms mistakenly processed it with a drug for the destruction of weeds - Roundup, and he not only survived, but gave an excellent harvest.↑ back to content ↑
Agrotechnics of cultivation of cucumbers for salting
The quality of cucumbers for pickling depends on the technology of cultivation. With rare watering inside the fruit often appears emptiness, they can be bitter. The quality of the harvest is significantly reduced..
In cucumbers grown with regular, uniform watering, the quality of the fruit is much higher. It is very important to keep air and soil humidity within 80%. In hot weather, refreshing watering is useful. Try not to pour water under the root. Firstly, with such watering the roots are bare, and secondly, plants can get root rot.
Cucumbers do not like cold water. Warm water (at least 20-22 degrees) from the barrel, standing in the sun - is what is needed for this thermophilic vegetable.
Cucumber culture has a special feature: the yield will be the higher, the more often they are torn off. When collecting, try not to turn the cucumber whips - they are very fragile, they can easily break down, besides, the infection gets into the cracks and cracks.
It is better to collect cucumbers in the morning until they warm up. And with frequent watering and feeding more often. The root system of cucumbers is distinguished by a small removal from the soil of nutrients, but by a high intensity of their consumption..
Cucumber plants do not withstand high concentrations of soil solution, and they should be fed in small doses every 10-12 days. Salty varieties, like, however, salads, too, respond well to organic top dressings: Mullein solution (:), chicken manure (: 0). In these solutions, it is not superfluous to add an ash solution - 1 cup of ash (100-150 g) per bucket.↑ back to content ↑
How to prepare cucumbers for pickling
In addition to agricultural technology, the quality of pickled cucumbers depends on the correctness of their preparation for salting.
Firstly, the day before picking fruits for salting it is recommended to water them well. Secondly, collect them better early in the morning, until they have heated up in the sun. In this case, cucumbers can be immediately marinated or salted. If it does not work out right away, then they should be kept for 2-3 hours in cold water. The fruit will refresh, become firm, will not wrinkle at salting. Then sort them by size: large, medium, small. It is better to fill each lot separately.
The skin of the fruits of salting varieties contains more fat-like substances, which when absorbed absorb essential oils of spices. Spices, seasonings give pickled cucumbers taste, aroma, crunch. All seasonings (a sheet of currants, cherries, twigs of parsley or dill) should be freshly cut. Only in this case they will give the brine its strong bactericidal properties. From softening protect cucumbers garlic, horseradish leaves, tarragon.
When you fill cucumbers in jars, barrels or pots with brine, it should be cold. With a warm or hot brine, the fermentation rate increases. This leads to the formation of voids in salted cucumbers, in addition, they can wrinkle. Sometimes there is a mucosal brine due to the development of the mucus-forming bacteria. The optimum concentration of table salt is 5-6%.↑ back to content ↑
Water for pickling cucumbers
Of course, water quality is a very important factor. It is better to use hard water, for example, spring water. It contains calcium salts. If you are using tap water, you need to at least defend it to reduce the chlorine content. Also not suitable for salting is soft water. Do not use iodized or fluorinated salt for pickling..
Improve soft water can be artificially. The experience of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing and Melon Farming proves that the addition of calcium chloride to the water (it is sold in ampoules in pharmacies) improves the quality of salted products. Calcium chloride is added to the brine - 5-7 drops per three-liter jar.
- Addition of cucumbers in a greenhouse or open soil with fertilizers - mineral and organic