The variety of apples for a long time remains one of the most common in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine. ANDby its appearance it is due, for the most part, not to breeders, but to amateur gardeners. It is classified as a national selection. With descriptions and reviews of gardeners about this variety, you can read below..
Table of contents
- The history of appearance of the variety
- Varieties of Antonovka: gold, imrus, hero and others
- Apple Tree Growth Regions
- Description of trees
- Yield and timing of fruit harvesting
- Storing apples
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Application of fertilizers
- Pruning and shaping the crown
- Protection against diseases and pests
The history of appearance of the variety
Despite its popularity, Antonovka refers to those varieties, the occurrence of which is not known exactly. There is an opinion that it is randomhybrid of a cultivar with a wild apple tree.
It is generally accepted thatshe came from the Kursk or Tula regions. For the first time this variety was described in 1848 by N.I. Krasnoglazov in his work "Rules of fruit growing in the open ground, greenhouses, greenhouses."
In 1896, S.V. Batov (who was living in Tula at that time) presented the Tula anthology (in another way, "Spirit") at the Nizhny Novgorod exhibition. According to him, the apple tree got its name Antonovka on behalf of the gardener Anton, who for the first time brought it out for the first time. And the name "wind" has appeared because of strong aroma ("spirit") of fruits.
But at the same time the Antonovka brand was not described in any of the registers of A.T. Bolotov (and there are only four), which contained more than 660 names of varieties of apple and pear. And in 1906 in his book "Atlas of Fruits" by A.S. Grebnitsky wrote that the Antonovka was bred for a long time, but its place of origin is unknown.
To explain these two incongruous facts, there is a theory thatAntonovka in the registry Bolotova still was, but under a different name. In those days it was difficult to understand the varieties, there was confusion in their names. The same plant in different regions could be called differently. And Bolotov himself did not rule out such a possibility.
As an individual grade antonovka was singled out in the 19th century. In the book "Russian apples" the pomologist M.V. Rytov singled out and described 17 varieties. And already in 1929 I.V. Michurin mentioned 26 "varieties" of Antonovka. In 1981 in the edition of E.N. Sedov's "Catalog of apple varieties" emphasized that so many varieties appeared in connection with the popularity of antonovka among gardeners..
Varieties of Antonovka: gold, imrus, hero and others
Currentlyon the basis of antonovki ordinary created 25 varieties. Among them we can distinguish:
- Memory of the Soldier
- friendship of Peoples
Apple Tree Growth Regions
To date, an Antonovka can be found in Moscow, Bryansk, Ryazan, Orel, Kursk, Varonezh, Penza, Kaluga, Tula regions of Russia, as well as in Ukraine and Belarus.
Cultivated varieties, even in the Altai, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East..
Description of trees
The Antonovka tree is a very tall tree with an oval crown. Over time, it becomes spherical and sprawling.The main branches rise and over the years grow in the sides. This process begins simultaneously with fruiting. Branches and young shoots are covered with brown bark.
The leaves are bright green, oblong, jagged at the edges. During flowering inflorescences large, white or with a pink tinge.
Antonovka refers to the early winter or late autumn varieties.Usually the fruits begin to be collected already in the second half of September. Antonovka Ordinary refers to the most productive trees. Fruit-bearing tree begins in 7-8 years (after oculization). On dwarf stocks, the first crop can be harvested as early as 2 years after planting.
Fruits of Antonovka ordinarylarge with a rounded shape. In the lower part of the ribs are strongly pronounced. During the maturation period they are green with a yellow tinge. During storage completely turn yellow. The pulp itself is light, sweet, with a pronounced sour taste.
Antonovka is golden in maturitycan be attributed even to summer varieties. Her fruit is sweet and softer. Separate apples can reach a weight of 160 grams. And they begin to collect them already in the end of August.
Yield and timing of fruit harvesting
The number of apples increases as the tree grows.With a twenty-year-old tree a year, you can harvest up to 200 kilograms of fruit(200 q / ha). There were cases when from one tree antonovs collected up to 500-1000 kilograms of apples. At first, fruiting is regular. But over time it becomes periodic (every two years).
Fruits Antonovka mature by the end of September - October. The main trick is to collect apples before the first frost, and they will mature in a cool place. Apples are ready for collection, when a yellowish tint appears on their color, but the texture is still dense.
To keep the fruit longer, they must be torn by hand. If you shake a tree, apples will fall and will break against the ground. And in these places in the future they will start to deteriorate. Collect fruits in wooden boxes or baskets, plastic pails will also suit..
Triple the dignity of the variety - the duration of storage, the term of which reaches 3 months. With proper care and treatment, this period can increase to 4 months.
The peculiarity is that the storage time depends on the region of growth. Thus, apples collected in the northern regions are easily stored for four months. And over time, their taste only improves. But the fruits from the southern regions deteriorate faster...
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Among the main advantages of Antonovka are the following:
- Goodadaptability to different regions
- Resistance to diseasesand frosts
- Highmarketability of fruit
- Unrepeatabletaste and aroma
- Apples can be consumedfresh, wet and after processing
- Fruits have a number of useful properties,are good antioxidants.
Like all plants,the Antonovka has its drawbacks:
- Fruitingis periodic
- The fruits of not all varieties are stored for a long time.
Antonovka is a self-fertilizing tree, that is, it needs pollinators.Best for these purposes are:
- Pepin saffron
- Autumn striped
On the larger territory of Russia the Antonovka is planted before the end of October. Planted later plants may not have time to settle down. If a spring landing is planned, then the best time for it is the end of April. In this case, it is better to prepare the seedlings from the autumn.
A pit is prepared with a size of approximately 1 meter in diameter and up to 80 cm in depth. This is done a few weeks before planting. This will help the seedlings to take root, which will make the tree bear fruit.
During the landing, the sod is laid on the bottom of the pit and well watered. A peg is inserted, the length of which is higher than the soil level. A fertile layer of soil with fertilizers (mineral and organic) up to 20 cm high is filled up from above. Further, the seedling is lowered and covered with earth. In doing so, you need to be careful with the roots, so as not to damage them.To ensure that all nutrients arrive at the roots, all leaves are removed from the seedling.
In no case can not penetrate the root neck. When the seedling is almost completely covered, it needs to be pulled up a little. Due to this, the root neck slightly rises above the ground level, and there will be no air between the roots. Seedling is tied to a peg. Further, the soil is watered abundantly, mulched.In the first month or two weekly watered.
Planted seedlings Antonovka at a distance of more than 1 meter from each other.
Antonovka grows well even on scanty lands, where there are usually problems with gardening. But of course, they need proper care.
After heavy rainfall, the soil near the tree needs aeration. You can do this with a normal fork or a metal rod, just piercing the ground to a depth of 30 cm. During the drought and high temperatures once a week, the antonovka should be watered abundantly.
In the first year of life, seedlings are especially important for proper care. It includes a few simple steps:
- Additional fertilizingfertilizers
- Protectionfrom diseases and pests
- Soil looseningtrimming circle and weed removal
Another important process is mulching. For more mature plants, you can sow the rootstock with siderates.
Application of fertilizers
For better fruiting, the apple tree should be fed 4 times a year:
- 1 additional fertilizing. In the spring, until the moment of flowering, Antonovka is fed urea in the amount of 50-500 g, depending on the size and age of the tree. Fertilizers are spread on the soil under the tree's edge.
- 2 additional fertilizing. With the advent of flowers, potash and phosphorus fertilizers, slurry and urea are introduced.
- 3 additional fertilizingis carried out with nitrogen fertilizers during fruit ripening.
- 4 additional fertilizingafter harvest. Make potassium and phosphorus.
Pruning and shaping the crown
Simultaneously with top dressingin the spring it is necessary to prune the crown. Do this for a couple of weeks before the beginning of the growing season. This removes dry and damaged branches, wild shoots, thin out the crown.
Protection against diseases and pests
Antonovka, like all plants, requires protection from pests and diseases.
For this, use carbofos,% or rovikurt,%. A little later, when buds appear, 3% Bordeaux fluid is used. Her, only at a concentration of 1% used to combat disease during the shedding of petals. For the same purpose, copper oxychloride,%, is also used.All pesticide treatment is best done in the evening, before sunset. Night processing is allowed if there is no dew. Fallen leaves are collected and burned.
Caterpillars and weevils appeared on the trees and collected manually and exterminated. Insect pests will be helped by insect pests. Attract them to the tree will help umbellate plants (for example, dill), planted next to the apple tree.
Unique taste and aroma, resistance to frost, long shelf life - these are the main characteristics that attract gardeners. Despite the appearance of new selection varieties of apple trees, Antonovka still remains one of the most popular and favorite varieties..