No one is immune from the appearance of pests or diseases on fruit trees. thereforeit is important to know the prevention measures and how to deal with various ailments. In this article, let's talk about the causes of the appearance of wormy apples and ways to combat this disease..
Table of contents
- Why do wormy apples appear? What should I do?
- How to get rid of worms in apples, ways of treating a tree?
- What is black cancer on the apple tree, how to fight?
- Causes of appearance
- Preventive measures
- Fighting black cancer
Why do wormy apples appear? What should I do?
It often happens that the apple tree yields a good harvest, but among dozens of kilograms a healthy fruit is rarely found. Why? On most of them, wormholes are seen.This sign indicates the appearance of pests, the most dangerous of them is the apple moth,which leaves such unpleasant traces behind itself.
The apple moth is a butterfly, no more than 20 millimeters long,The main danger is represented by the caterpillars of such insects
The worm falls inside the apple through the petiolate fossa or mechanical damage to the skin..
How to get rid of worms in apples, ways of treating a tree?
There are many ways to fight apple worms.Many funds are used as a preventive measure and to fight with already appeared insects.
- Chemicals- the organophosphorus preparations have proved to be the best. An effective time for use is the period of appearance of caterpillars from eggs. It is important to observe proportions, usually all measures are indicated on the labels, otherwise the tree will be damaged. Examples of such tools can serve as Calypso, Tod, Zolon, Atom, Bean, Coragen.The following precautions are available:
- This method of struggle is not suitable for the time of flowering and fruiting trees.
- If several treatments are planned for one season, they are carried out with the help of various preparations.
- We must not forget that work is done with poisonous substances, so gloves, a respirator and other personal protective equipment must be used.
- Biological means- In addition to chemicals, there are often recommendations on the use of organic substances.There are several types of such processing facilities:
- Fitoverm - is the most popular among experienced gardeners, it can be used at any time and it will not harm the person and the crop.
- Lepidocid - effective in periods of massive filling of apple caterpillars.
- Bitoxibacillin - use is allowed only during the growing season.
- Cleaning the trunk from the old bark- very often insects overwinter in the exfoliated bark of a tree, therefore, in order to avoid their reproduction, in the spring they perform these actions.
- Digging the earth around the apple treealso serves as a method of fighting insects.
- Creation of peculiar traps on tree trunks, which will prevent the return of the fruit flies to the crown. To do this, take a bag, about 20-30 centimeters wide and fixed with a twine on the trunk, at a height of 40-50 centimeters from the ground.
- In late November and early Aprilthe tree must necessarily be whitewashed.
- All damaged apples should be removed, the same rule applies to the collection of the carrion.
- Given the peculiarity of butterflies that do not like to wet their paws, during the summer of insects in the eveningfoliage should be sprinkled with water.
What is black cancer on the apple tree, how to fight?
Black Cancer- one of the most dangerous diseases of fungal plants, because if you find it at a late stage, then to save the tree is almost impossible. The most common symptoms are on the tree trunk and its skeletal branches, but there are cases when black cancer appears on leaves, flowers, fruits.There are following signs for the detection of a disease:.
- The last, and the most dangerous stage is the blackening of the wood. First, brownish-purple spots appear on the bark, which in time will begin to crack, and then fall completely. If such symptoms are detected, the apple tree can not be cured.
- Spots on the leaves- initially they appear immediately after the leaves bloom and look like small violet spots on the top of the leaf. Over time, they expand, and the middle turns brown, then in a few weeks the fungal bodies begin to form.
- The tree begins to discard the infected leavesbefore the ripening of the fruit, so the yield is significantly reduced even in the early years of black cancer.
- The fruits of the affected tree are first covered with brown spots, which in the future can completely blacken, as well as on the leaves there are black dots, fungal formations.
- Affected apples remain hanging on branches even after the fall. They are painted black or brown and have a rough surface.
Causes of appearance
- Old garden- the disease rarely infects young trees with good bark. Weakened apple-trees are more likely to develop fungal formations on them.
- Poor care- trees need to be watered abundantly and fed with various fertilizers, otherwise they will not have enough nutrients to protect themselves against the disease.
- Solar burns- arise in the early spring period. If the trunk does not whiten, then before the entire snow cover, on days when the morning is clear and sunny, and the night temperature is rather low. And for a day the difference comes to a difference of 30 degrees, the bark of the trees is burned, which promotes the reproduction of the fungus in the damaged part.
- Wrong oruntimely pruning.
- Pests of apple treesare carriers of various diseases, including black cancer, therefore, it is necessary to prevent them in time.
- Correct trimming- to avoid the development of fungal diseases, it is necessary to ensure good ventilation of the crown, by removing unnecessary branches. Also, this procedure inhibits the aging of the tree and stimulates fruiting. It must be done in a timely manner so that you do not have to remove thick branches. The appearance of large wounds, which for a long time heal, can also trigger the development of black cancer.
- Disinfection of garden tools- To avoid becoming a peddler of a dangerous disease, knives and secateurs are wiped with a special alcohol-containing compound after each use.
- To exclude the possibility of excessive moisturizing or vice versa of sunburn on the tree trunk, itsit is necessary to bleachin the beginning of spring (April) and at the end of autumn (November).
- During the preparation of the garden for the winterRemoved all the remaining leaves and fruits, which can become sources of infection.
- After the falltrees need to be treated with fungicide. They are applied to the trunk and branches of the apple tree, and also to the trunks. The Hom drug, Brod liquid or copper sulfate proved to be the best.
- Regularapplication of complex fertilizersmakes the bark more stable and mature.
Fighting black cancer
Most often it happens that the affected trees are no longer subject to recovery and they have to be deleted, but there is a way that you can try to cure the apple tree.
It is effective to perform this operation when a small spot on the tree bark is detected.The patient site is carefully cleaned with a garden knife, at the same time 1-2 cm of healthy tissue is captured, then this place is treated with 3% copper sulfate or 5% iron vitriol. When the wound that has formed will dry it, it is necessary to cover it with a garden so that new fungi can not appear in it.
Affected branches, fruits and leaves are removed immediately after detection, otherwise the disease will spread to healthy parts.
One of the most significant damages of the garden can serve as apple moth or black cancer. Both these ailments will significantly reduce the amount of harvest or even lead to the death of the tree.The main measure for the treatment and prevention of lesions will be the removal of contaminated sitesand their immediate destruction.