This berry is almost every gardener. I want to share my experience. Growing strawberries brings joy, care, grief. But, nevertheless, many questions gardeners usually have on planting, caring for strawberries. After all, these are the main stages of cultivation of this culture. Not so long ago I read that what we grow is a large-berry garden strawberry.
- Strawberry - planting and care
- How to feed strawberries
- Varieties of strawberry garden
- Pests of strawberries, diseases - how and what to treat
- Strawberry mite - pest of strawberry
- Nematode - pest of strawberry
- Fungal Strawberry Diseases
A strawberry is a wild berry plant with small berries on high peduncles. There are hybrids strawberry-strawberry. But varietal large-berry strawberries do not exist. But, what to do, I'm more used to this name. How many did not ask their colleagues in the country, they are also more accustomed to call a strawberry strawberry. I will use both of these names.
Spring in the Kuban is early, and this berry is one of the first to open the season of consumption of fresh fruits. Strawberry has a wonderful taste, aroma, it contains from 4 to 15% of sugars, organic acids, iron, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, cobalt, tannins, pectin substances, vitamins E, B, folic acid, carotene, others.
On the whole territory of our country from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka, probably, there is no yard, where not a few bushes of this beautiful berry have grown. This is a fairly unpretentious plant. Growing strawberries is not a problem. With good care, she will thank you with a high yield of large, tasty, useful fragrant berries.↑ to the contents ↑.
Strawberry - planting and care
Strawberry (garden strawberry) grows on any soil, but high yields, if the plot, beds are well prepared, cleared of weeds, fertile, in time irrigated. The soil is prepared a month before planting. For each 1 m2, 10 kg of organic fertilizer (compost or overgrazed manure), 50 g of azofosca, 1 glass of wood ash, then loosen. The depth of loosening is 20-25 cm..
Plant seedlings in different ways: in one or two rows, less often three (the distance between the rows is 50 cm, between the bushes of the row 25-30 cm), paired ribbons with a distance of 70-80 cm or carpet method. In greenhouses to increase the yield of berries seedlings of strawberries are planted thickened - 60-65 seedlings in chess order per 1 m2. In autumn the bushes are smelt or thin. If your areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, on heavy clay soils, then growing strawberries are possible only on raised beds with the addition of rippers (pomegranate husks or rice husks).
The best time for planting strawberries is August-September, but it can be planted also in early spring. Seedlings or, more correctly, seedlings take from healthy plants, free of diseases or pests. Seedlings should have a well-developed root system. When planting, remove excess leaves, leaving the heart + 1-2 young leaves.
On the prepared bed on the cord, the chopper is filled with holes 12-15 cm deep, each of which is added with 1 teaspoon of azofoski, 1 tablespoon of ash, then the wells are spilled with water. In the resulting slurry planted seedlings, gently sealing the ground around the bush, trying not to fill the heart of the bush.
When properly planted, the heart of the strawberry should be level with the ground level. After planting strawberries are poured over, -1 l of water per bush. Two weeks the soil is kept moist before rooting, pritenyayut if it's hot sunny weather.
The entire season under the strawberries contain pure from weeds, weed, water, loosen the soil. These are the main components of care for strawberries.
Very good results are provided by mulching the soil between plants. Mulch protects the soil from drying out, overheating, restrains the growth of weeds, does not allow the soil to become compacted, the berries remain clean. For mulch use hay, straw, husk of sunflower seeds, rice husks, freshly cut grass without seeds, spilled sawdust, peat.
Planting strawberries during the heat need frequent watering - every 3-4 days.↑ back to content ↑
How to feed strawberries
In early spring, to recover from the winter, for the growth of leaves, peduncles, nitrogen fertilizers are used: organic - infusion of mullein or chicken manure or inorganic - carbamide (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) per liter solution under the bush. Before flowering, as well as between fruiting (for repairing varieties), feed the strawberry of Azot (1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water), the consumption - 1 liter under the bush.
To increase the yield by 30%, spray on the leaves and flowers with a solution of microelements: Sudarushka, Ryazanochka - 1 a teaspoonful for 10 liters of water or Nutrivant plus fruit - 2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water once a month, the entire vegetative period..
Particular attention is paid to care for the strawberry repair, which has no period of rest, fruits from spring to autumn frosts. Some varieties yield 3 crops per season in Kuban, and others (of a neutral day) can enjoy berries all year round (even in winter in greenhouses). Since such varieties carry a lot of food out of the soil, they should be fed and watered more often.
Grow in one place strawberries can be up to 3 years, repair 1-2 years. Next time the beds are prepared in a new place, but the old ones are not returned until after 4 years.↑ back to content ↑
Varieties of strawberry garden
The selection of this plant is rapidly developing. Russian, foreign breeders derive new interesting varieties of large-fruited strawberries, differing in size, shape of berries, taste, high yield, resistance to diseases, pests.
Strawberry early ripening varieties are interesting - Rachelle, Mytland, Kokinskaya Zarya, Clery, Alpha, Kimberly, Honey, medium grade maturing period - Hungarian large-fruited, Elite 975-12-72, Star of the East, Marmolada, Tenira, Cambridge Favorit, Pegasus, Aster, Queen. Varieties of late maturation - Florentz, Pandora, Mine Schindler, Pharaoh, Voronezh. Each of these varieties of strawberries is interesting, has its own distinctive features in shape, color, taste of berries, combines their high yields.
Very productive varieties of strawberry remontant - Queen Elizabeth, Elizabeth II, Princess, Red Star, Moscow delicacy, Diana, Aromas, Albion, Hecker, Feggy, Nesich, Kvenaun, Garland, Repaired Gulenin-1, 2, 3. Repair varieties require a little more attention, but with a responsible attitude to the cultivation process, with good care are able in the conditions of the southern climate to bear fruit from May to the first frosts, almost continuously pamper gardeners with fresh berries.↑ back to content ↑
Pests of strawberries, diseases - how and what to treat
Unfortunately, there are no strawberry varieties that are not afraid of pests, diseases..
Strawberry mite - pest of strawberry
This is the most harmful, the most common pest of strawberry. Mite strawberry for one season can give 10-15 generations - it is so prolific. For two years, if you do not fight with him, he can destroy completely your strawberry field. What does strawberry look like? She has weak gnarled leaves, berries are usually small, shrunken, deformed..
Of course, preventive measures are very important to protect strawberry plants from strawberry mites. In the spring, as soon as you noticed that young leaves appeared from the middle of the bush (this is the heart of the bush), do preventive spraying. For this purpose, suitable tools such as Nero, BI-58, Aktelik, Karate, Sherpa, Confidor, Fufanon. For spraying, prepare solutions, adhering to the proportions indicated by the instruction.
If you have already noticed signs of infection of plants, then perform three treatments every 5-7 days. Spend one three-time cycle of treatments in the spring, and the second in the fall. Try to get a solution of drugs got inside the heart of a strawberry bush - there usually winter strawberry mites. That is, by these treatments, in the spring you will destroy the overwintered ticks, and in the autumn - those pests that have already settled in for the winter. Pay attention to the fact that the last spring treatment was at least 20 days before harvesting strawberries.
Very often gardeners, truck farmers, notice too late that their strawberries are struck by strawberry mites. Well, it happens... Do not despair, wait, collect the whole harvest, after harvesting berries you can perform one preventative treatment, and the second - before the onset of cold weather (October, November). Try to sprinkle the heart of the strawberry bush, do not let the pest chance to overwinter.
It may happen that you did not do anything with your strawberry plantations (there was no time) - the tick damaged the bushes very badly - it's okay - it's still possible to fix it. But you have to spend a little more effort. Completely cut off all the leaves, leaving only the hearts, but also without leaves. Burn broken leaves somewhere outside your site. Thus, you will destroy the vast majority of pests. And the remaining naked bushes copiously sprinkle with one of the above mentioned preparations. Spray 3 times in 3 days.
Cropped naked strawberry plants, of course, for a while, until new leaves grow, are in a state of stress. Feed them with nitrogen fertilizers. And in order to quickly grow new leaves to form fruit buds, sprinkle them with biostimulants, for example, Epin, Zircon, Immunocytophyte, Aminocate.
You can use the biological method of protecting strawberries from a pest - strawberry mite. The essence of this method of protection is the use of the phytopharmaceutical. They also need to process plants several times per season. If the tick has strongly struck your strawberry, 3-4 treatments are necessary with an interval of three days. As in the case of chemical treatments, the affected leaves must also be cut off, burned. Biopreparation Phytoferm is harmless. Processing them, you can even bush with berries. A day after the treatment, strawberries can be eaten.↑ back to content ↑
Nematode - pest of strawberry
But the strawberry garden has another dangerous enemy-pest - the nematode. If the strawberry mite can be destroyed by chemical or biological preparations, the bushes affected by the nematode must be ripped from the root, burned, no matter how sorry you do it.
The nematode is a practically transparent very small worm, -1 mm. He lives inside the strawberry plant, sucks the juice from the leaves, stems. Because of this, the leaves of strawberries are wrinkled, curled, the stems become shortened, thick, and the berries become hard (useful substances are very limited to them). They get an ugly look - they dry up before they blush.
Nematoda, hitting the soil, moves to a number of growing strawberry bushes, can affect other plants. It can be in the soil up to 4 years. Unfortunately, there are no really effective ways to combat the nematode yet. The emphasis should be on prevention.
If you on your site have discovered signs of strawberry damage to the nematode, then you need to snatch all suspicious bushes, then their burn or bury outside the territory of your site, pre-pour them with a solution of bleach or 4% solution formalin.
Many gardeners advise the fovea, or rather, the place where the strawberry, infected by the nematode, was sprinkled with bleach (bleach).The bushes themselves must be sprayed with a solution of mercapto-phos, lindane (Ruskamine) or phosphamide. This treatment should be repeated 2-4 times with a break of 3-5 days.
Unfortunately, the eggs of the nematode can withstand chemical processing, do not perish. It is in order to destroy the newly emerged generation of pests, not one, but several treatments.
Doubt-looking bushes of garden strawberries are dug, washed from the ground, completely immersed in hot water, heated to 45-50 ° C. The nematode dies at a temperature above 42 ° C. Plants should be kept in hot water for 12-15 minutes, and then immediately put in cold water for 4-5 minutes and put in a new place. So do with the seedlings of strawberries, bought in the market. But be prepared, that after such processing not all plants will get accustomed. The percentage of survival rate is usually not more than 70%.↑ back to content ↑
Fungal Strawberry Diseases
For the prevention of fungal diseases early in the spring it should be sprayed strawberries with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or treated with any other copper-containing drug. In autumn, this treatment is repeated.
In spring, on the eve of flowering, as well as as necessary against mildew, gray rot, brown spot, Topaz (10 ml per 10 l of water) is used..
When growing strawberries it is important to understand what it needs, how to treat diseases, how to protect from pests.