How to choose the right pumps for a well

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In private water supply, the pumps for the well for water are a necessary part of the liquid supply circuit to the surface. Operating conditions, lifting height, flow rate and well debit are decisive when choosing equipment. The construction is carried out in the form of an Abyssinian well, a filter or artesian well. The difference in design determines the depth of water extraction. Extraction can be organized in a superficial and deep manner, manually or with the use of power plants.

Read about the submersible pump for the well!

Methods of lifting water to the surface

An Abyssinian well is called a well without the installation of a submersible pump. The level of occurrence of the aquifer is less than 30 m, the casing does not allow the installation of a downhole pump, a small cross-section.

A filter well is if drilled on sand to a depth of 50 meters. And most of the wells perform precisely with this level, classifying them as artesian, which is wrong.

Artesian water is a useful mineral, it lies deep in a bowl of rock and settles down to 400 meters. To extract it, you need permission from a non-owner and preliminary geological exploration. Therefore, artesian wells have a passport and are under the control of hydrologists. However, for the drilling of any well, the sanction of sanitary services is required.

Pumps for extracting water from a well may be submersible or superficial.

Surface Water Lifting Systems

Surface devices include pumps that draw water through a hose. There are special pumps for the Abyssinian well, creating a vacuum in the casing, due to which the level rises, and on the surface the flowing stream is collected into the reservoir.

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Surface pumps for water wells are limited by the possibility of lifting water from a level below 9 meters. Rescues the position of the caisson - the pit in which the pump and the primary tank are installed under the water. Surface centrifugal pumps are inexpensive, easy to operate. Their operation is ensured by the installation of a non-return valve, since the suction pipe must be under the bay.

To superficial carry and manual piston or rod models. With the help of muscular strength, you can pump up to 5 m3 of water per hour from a depth of 7 meters. Surface pumping installations - airlifts are used, they are indispensable if the borehole deviates from the vertical. Discharge is created by the compressor. All surface electrical appliances operate noisily, require shelter from rain or snow.

Submersible Pumps

Submersible pumps are called because the working chamber and the engine are in the same housing and are lowered under the mirror of water in the casing. Pumps for water wells are of different types. They are united by the possibility of year-round operation. The device of the working chamber of submersible devices defines their name:

  • centrifugal;
  • well;
  • deep;
  • vibratory.

The submersible devices are fixed in the pipe by a cable or stationary method. In this case, the equipment is installed in the casing at the required depth, which ensures operation under the gulf.


Centrifugal installations can have a ground engine and a submersible type working unit. Most often used kit, where the working and power unit are in the same sealed housing, outside the pipe cross section. The device is lowered to the required depth. An example of a design is the ESP pump, which has a multistage working unit, an inlet and a closed impeller, capable of delivering water with a head of 300 m and a flow rate of 360 m3 / h. There are designs EPN, APV, APVM.

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Vibration models are used for wells. Which pump is best for a well up to 50 m deep, centrifugal or vibrating? If the pumping goes to an open tank, a simple membrane vortex pump can easily be extracted from a depth of 40 m. However, its long use in the well for sand will lead to clogging the chamber. The use of the models "Baby" and "Brook" in the wells is justified economically.

Screw submersible pumps (GNP) are better than all other models suitable for shallow wells. Take a closer look at the pumps "Aquarius the ruler is extensive, the prices are moderate.

Deep models represent a multistage design of impellers in a cylinder of length, 2.5 m, cross section of 10 cm. The device is lowered into the pipe to a depth of up to 16 m, made of a material resistant to corrosion. Deep pumps operate on clean water, sand quickly disables the impellers. A centrifugal pump for a well of 30 meters is used in a bowl of other models.

Often, the well is equipped with a caisson chamber in which the submersible pump motor is installed and the automation servicing the process.

Criteria for choosing a pump for a well

The choice of the pump starts with measuring the height of the water mirror (static) and the depth of the well. Characteristics of the pump for the well are recorded in the passport. The buyer needs to compare the required parameters with the technical data on the device. The analysis of water for the presence of suspended solids will determine which type of equipment will last longer. The consumption is calculated based on the usual consumption practice. It is necessary to know the debit of the well and the diameter of the pipe. The best pump for a well is one whose flow rates are slightly higher than required and significantly less than a well's debit. If it is vice versa, the pump will take the water dry.

Muddy water speaks of siltation of the receiving chamber, it will be cleaned by 2 vibrating pumps. Lower will create turbidity, top - pump out. It is impossible to constantly use turbid water, you need to call specialists to examine the state of the well.

Submersible or surface pump for the well, which one to choose? Submersible pumps should always be under the bay. If it is switched on in the air, the device will fail. Surface pumps are good for an Abyssinian well installed in a utility room. In other cases a canopy will be required. However, such equipment can be bought cheaper. If water is required a little and it is shallow, you can use a hand pump.

If you are a resident of a rural area, you must connect the equipment through a voltage regulator. The instability of indicators in the network is the main reason for the failure of household appliances in the country and in the village.

If the determining factor is the price, you can buy a device made in China. Reliable and inexpensive Russian models of pumps. Traditionally, this kind of devices in Russia is always of good quality. The best in this category consider the European brands of pumps Perdollo and Calpeda.

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Before choosing a pump for the well, it is necessary to pay attention to customer feedback. Most recommend installing a submersible pump:

  • work less noisy;
  • rarely clogged with sand;
  • constantly cooled by water, work for 3 years longer than surface systems.

The use of protection against dry suction submersible, the presence of a non-return valve, superheating sensors, will ensure trouble-free operation of pumps. Any device requires maintenance. Once every 2 years, it is necessary to inspect the equipment for chips and cracks, clean the pipe, check how the shaft rotates, and whether the gland does not leak.

How to choose a well pump - video

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