This sort of pear was created in the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy by scientists Potapov and Chizhov.When crossing, varieties Lesnaya Krasava and Olga, which gave a great taste and resistance to many diseases.
Pear Chizhovskaya underwent variety testing and in 1933 was zoned (proposed for cultivation) in three regions: Middle Volga, Central and North-Western. But most often this variety is cultivated in the gardens of the Samara, Moscow and Vladimir regions. In this article you can get acquainted with the characteristics and description of Pizza Chizhovskaya cultivar - terms of maturation, features of nursing, diseases of trees and methods of combating them..
Table of contents
- Variety description
- Characteristics of the fetus, the maturation period
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Selecting a seat and landing
- Care for the pear Chizhovskaya
- Pests and their control
Crown tree, in shape resembling a pyramid or cone, is formed by slightly curved branches. The length and thickness of shoots, covered with a reddish-brown or brownish bark, medium.
The height of the tree (of the stamp type) can vary from, to, meters. A small number of lentils (formations with small holes, covered with a loose cloth) are located on the trunk almost at ground level. Dark brown, slightly deviated kidneys have the shape of a cone.
Medium-sized leaves are painted in a beautiful green color. They have the shape of an elongated oval, and along the edge there are small serrate denticles.Leaves with a smooth upper and lower surface, attached to the branches with the help of cuttings of medium length.
The whitish flowers of medium diameter have the shape of a bowl. Corolla is formed by petals with a solid edge. Buds as well as flowers are painted in a pure white color. They are collected in inflorescences of type of a scutum on 5-7 pieces.
Characteristics of the fetus, the maturation period
Chizhevsky variety gives medium-sized fruits of obovate or classical pear-shaped,weight of which can vary from 110 to 140 grams. Smooth surface of pears with small dots covered with a thin matte skin, dry to the touch.
Fruits are colored evenly (the color can vary from green to yellowish) without bright pink spots. They are attached to the branches by short stems.The number of brown seeds with pointed tips in one pear varies from 5 to 10 pieces.
The fruits of this variety attract attention to themselves with a gentle slightly oily pulp that produces a subtle subtle aroma. The flesh can be painted in a whitish-yellow or light-yellowish tinge. An acid-sweet taste of pear in this variety was given to the tasters by the score from, up, to the point.Fruits can be used fresh, as well as when preparing marinades, compotes and juices. In the composition of pears, a large number of sugars, soluble and dry substances and vitamin R were found.
Variety Chizhovskaya refers to mid-term hybrids that mature late in summer or early autumn(Aug. Sept). Fruits can hold on to the branches for a long time, but what is especially interesting is that when they are fully ripe, they do not deteriorate when they fall on soft ground or grass and are stored for about a week.At a temperature of 0 degrees, fruit lasts from 2 to 4 months. Fruits perfectly withstand transportation for long distances.
Since the pear Chizhovskaya ties fruit only when cross-pollination (almost self-fertilized), then to obtain regular and large yields, certain varieties are planted next to it - pollinators (Rogneda, Severyanka, Lada). Usually they are located at a distance of 4 to 5 meters from the main grade.
This sort is especially liked by gardeners for the fact thattrees begin to bring crops for 3-4 years of cultivationand it happens regularly. Adult specimens can give up to 50 kilograms from one tree.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among other varieties, Pear Chizhovskaya stands out:
- excellentresistant to scaband to other diseases;
- highwinter hardiness;
- enduranceto poor climatic conditions.
The disadvantages include a noticeable decrease in the weight of the fruit as the age of the tree increases. If young pears have fruits weighing 110-140 grams, then at 10 years of age they weigh about 80-90 grams..
Selecting a seat and landing
To plant the pear Chizhovskaya choose lighted places with a water-permeable, loose soil and a sufficient number of nutrients. It is necessary to make sure that the groundwater is located at great depth.
Optimal time of planting is autumn, when the vegetation is completely finished (the leaves completely covered the seedlings). But you can do this in the spring, until the moment of awakening of the kidneys (the beginning of vegetation).
The pit is planted for digging 60 by 60 by 80 cm. If the soil on the garden or the garden is poor, then the pit size is increased by 20-30 cm. If the earth is clay, then the bottom of the pit must be filled with drainage, which should consist of sand and gravel or small gravel. The height of the layer can vary from 10 to 15 cm.
Where there is a lot of sand in the ground, a clay soil is poured onto the bottom of the pit with a layer of 5 to 10 cm. This is done so that water and nutrients do not quickly escape into the lower layers of the earth.
It is best for planting to buy seedlings at the age from 1 to 3 years. But the fastest grow and grow 1-2-year-old trees. The height of such seedlings of the Chizhovskaya variety usually ranges from, up to, meter. The length of the roots should be at least 20 cm, and the thickness of the trunk is greater than 1
Before planting, the root system is preferably treated in a solution of heteroauxin or any other stimulant for root growth. The roots are soaked for 3 to 12 hours. Before planting, they are examined, shortened, broken, dried and very long.
Roots in the landing pit should be placed freely and evenly. For them to fall asleepearth mixture is preparedfrom the garden fertile land, completely reparted manure (humus), as well as potassium sulfate (350 grams) and superphosphate (350 grams). First, the roots are filled with a good garden soil (a layer of 10 to 15 cm), and then - a mixture with mineral fertilizers.
After planting, pour the landing site with plenty of water and fill the sifted soil.Surface of the earth around the trunk is desirable to be covered(cover) with peat, husks, wood chips or sawdust. This technique helps to keep moisture in the ground, protects against compaction and does not allow the emergence of a large number of weeds.
Do not forget to plant a peg between the roots, which will hold the seedling during a bad weather..
Care for the pear Chizhovskaya
Care for the Pear variety Chizhovskaya consists of fertilizing, watering, pruning and combating diseases and pests..
Constant irrigation during the entire season only for young pears in the first 3-4 years after planting. WhereinIt should be ensured that the soil is soaked in the entire depth of the roots. Such watering helps to quick survival and good growth of plants.
Adult trees are watered only a few times a season (from 3 to 7), but you can not spare the water.It is necessary to water the pears before flowering and immediately after it, and also in the autumn period (at the end of the season).
That this variety of pears grows well, develops and yields, we need fertilizing.Saplings feed once a year in the very beginning of spring. To do this, the stock circle is mulched with the dregs of manure (the height of the layer is from 4 to 6 cm), and mineral fertilizers (azofoska or Kemira) are added. One tree is enough from 100 to 150 grams.
Adult pear trees are fed in autumn during digging. For this, half-used cow dung or other organic fertilizers are used. Still necessary to add potassium sulfate and superphosphate (250-350 grams each). For fertilizers to reach the roots in sufficient quantity, they are spread along the diameter of the crown and closed during digging to a depth of at least 35 cm.
Also conducted andadditional fertilizing, which can partially regulate the yield. If the number of fruits on the tree is tied up a little, then the dressing is carried out before the ovary falls. And if the fruit has turned out a lot, then the fertilizer is carried out after the ovaries fall.
Just planted trees are cut only in early spring, even if the planting was carried out in the fall.When pruning seedlings, it is worth remembering that lateral branches should be located on the trunk not below 50-70 cm from the ground. Their length should not exceed 30-40 cm. The central shoot is shortened so that it rises above the highest lateral branch by 15-30 cm.
Adult pears are pruned twice a year. During the sanitary pruning, remove all broken, shrunken and sick shoots, as well as old twigs. Another time, a rejuvenating pruning is performed, with the help of which the intensive growth of the plant is restored and maintained at a good level, and the number of flower points is regulated.
When rejuvenating trimmingnecessarily carve perennial branches to 3-5-year-olds and older shoots. It is necessary to monitor the annual growth. If it is less than 15-20 cm, then the pruning is weak (2-3 years old branches). If the growth rate is less than 15 cm, shoots are cut into older branches. To the crown does not become thickened, remove some of the fruiting branches inside it..
Pests and their control
Pear Chizhovskaya can be attacked by the following pests:aphid green apple, pear leaf block (medina), calfskin plate, pear bug, pear gall mite, apple blossom and bouquet.
Baccarin larvaefeed on leaf tissues and ovaries of fruits, leaving the leaves and ovaries crumbling. For the destruction of this pest use insecticides with a wide range of action, for example, Engio.
Beetles of apple blossomearly in the spring they nibble on swollen buds and eat up their inner part. Because of this attack, the kidneys lose juice. The larvae of the flower-bud, deposited in the buds, feed on the pestle and stamens. The flowers first turn brown, and then wither.To combat it, the following drugs are suitable:Iskra, Fufanol, Karate, Fastak and Sherpa. Usually only one treatment is carried out..
Among the most dangerous diseases for this variety of pears are cytospores, root cancer and frost.
Cytosporosismost often appears on the bark of the trunk and perennial branches that create the framework of the tree. It appears as a reddish-brown stain, slightly pressed inwards. Soon, along the edges of the spot and on healthy wood, there are quite large cracks, and the bark on the spot softens. If the disease appeared more recently, then the stain is carefully cleaned, processed with copper sulfate and a special garden wax.
Frostsappear when the temperature decreases drastically, when the outer layers of the tree are cooled more than the inner layers. Gaps resulting from frost, cleaned to healthy wood, then treated with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate and cover with var.
Root Cancerappears in the pear in the form of growths in the areas of inoculation, near the root neck and on the roots. First soft growths from time to time increase in size and harden. The appearance of the root cancers leads to a halt in the growth and development of young trees. On adult pears, he almost does not have a negative effect.
That this disease does not appear in your garden,You need to buy healthy seedlings in industrial nurseries. And do not land them on the site where the infected fruit trees grew..
Borovchanka:We put the "Chizhovskaya" pear on the dacha near Borovskoye in 1998. one-year-old seedlings. The tree grew without problems. Although the plot is elevated and heavily blown by the winds, it never froze. Every year, we eagerly awaited at least one fruit to know the taste. A couple of times there were several fruits, but they did not get to us. While we came again, they were already able to peck birds, and they fell. But our patience was rewarded! Last year we got a wonderful harvest! Our beautiful woman looked so luxurious with fruits, that we were sorry to deprive her of such a dress! The husband rejoiced as a child, and carefully pressed the pears to himself. The taste of this brand is amazing. The pulp is juicy, sweet. And what flavor! You can safely grow this variety in our conditions. Summer forum
Syoma:Pear Chizhovskaya began to bear fruit for 2 years after planting the seedling, fructifies every year. Frosts in winter and drought suffer without any visible consequences. Garden Star