Many of us have repeatedly encountered the problem of emergency shutdown of hot water. Agree, it is quite inconvenient to heat the water in a saucepan in order to wash the dishes or bathe. And if the family is big, then this can be a real problem.
But there is a solution - it is instantaneous water heaters. They help to increase the level of comfort in urban apartments and provide country houses with hot water all year round. Let's figure out how to install the instantaneous water heater with your own hands, which any home craftsman can handle.
We will talk about the principles of operation of the heater and what factors should be considered when choosing it. Consider the features of the connection of electrical and gas equipment. Here you will find installation video tutorials that will help you better understand installation.
The content of the article:
- Principle of flowing water heating
- Water heater selection factors
- Reasons for self-installation of the device
Electrical Model Installation Instructions
- Step 1. Preparatory work - power network check
- Step # 2. Choosing a place to install
- Step # 3. Wall mounting
- Step # 4. Electrical connection
- Step # 5. Water connection options
How to install a gas water heater?
- Step 1. Harmonization and compliance
- Step # 2. Rules for dismantling the old gas column
- Step # 3. Instructions for installing a new gas model
- Rules of operation and maintenance
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Principle of flowing water heating
If you are going to install water-heating equipment yourself, you need to get acquainted with its design and principle of operation.
Water heating in a flow-type device is quite simple: cold water from the water supply system passes through the heating elements and at the outlet has a temperature several times higher than the initial indicator.
For example, water with a temperature of + 10º C heats up to a temperature comfortable for a shower - + 36-40º C. Parameters are adjusted using the control buttons located on the front of the case.
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The main advantage of flow-type water heaters is their compact size, based on the fact that the device is not designed for hot water storage.
Flow heaters are produced in a wide range, allowing to equip both several points of water pumping and one separate tap
According to the type of power flow-type water heaters are divided into gas and electric. Gas more economical, but more dangerous in operation with illiterate treatment
Electric varieties are easier to install, safer to operate, but the cost of electrical power is significantly higher than paying for gas supplies
Electric type is connected only to the water supply system and to the mains. To connect the gas equipment you need a water supply system, a gas main, a flue gas system and an electrical network, if its design contains volatile ignition devices and automation
Both types of water heaters can serve as both the main and additional type of equipment that provides the object with hot water.
The scope of application of electric water heaters is not limited at all. Gas allowed to be installed in homes up to 5 floors, not connected to a centralized DHW
To power the electrical equipment you need to connect to the central network. An alternative could be an electric generator. The gas device can be powered by main gas, connected to a cylinder or gas tank
Flow-through device for kitchen sink
Operation gas column
Electric water heater
Paired with cumulative type
Scope of use of water heaters
Water heater power supplies
Heating of water begins automatically, from the moment of opening of the crane. Despite the miniature dimensions of the device, it is able to provide heating to a temperature of + 50-65º C, sufficient to wash the dishes or take a hot shower.
In order for the equipment to work properly, the installation should take into account the following nuances:
- strength of the wall on which the device is mounted;
- required pressure in the water supply;
- suitability of the electrical network.
If all conditions are met, the quality of the functioning of the heater will depend only on your skills.
The standard scheme of the device flow type heater. As heating elements in dimensional models use heating elements, in compact - copper spirals. Detailed scheme is presented in the product specification.
Water heater selection factors
If you have already decided that the flow-through water heater suits you completely, you need to decide on the desired model.
To do this, try to clarify the desired characteristics of the device, that is, analyze the following information:
- the number of permanent residents;
- the maximum volume of water consumption with simultaneous inclusion of all points of water intake;
- the total number of all points of water pumping;
- desired maximum heating temperature;
Data collection will help calculate the power of the equipment. It is better to rely on the information provided by the manufacturer. If gas is supplied to the dacha, then it is worth thinking about connecting gas columnand if you reside in the house, then the gas boiler.
Graph of calculation of the temperature increase data for the flow-pressure water heater AEG RMC at a temperature of tap water + 10 ºС and a voltage of 220 V
In residential buildings with a height of more than five, the installation of gas equipment is strictly prohibited. In this case, the choice is predetermined - you need to buy electric water heater. It will “save” during the seasonal outages of hot water.
Give preference to electrical options for sanitary water treatment equipment, owners of private houses who are unable to connect to systems with trunk gas. This is the case if you do not plan to use bottled gas or install a gas tank.
For self-installation is also important the degree of complexity of the installation, the cost of the device, the initial equipment, the ability to quickly repair and availability of spare parts, warranty service conditions and warranty period.
If the seller offers installation services, consider this option, especially when purchasing an electric pressure model or a gas column.
Additionally with arguments selection of instantaneous water heater read another article that we recommend to read.
Reasons for self-installation of the device
A do-it-yourself installation of a device directly connected to the water supply system and the electrical network is a responsible and serious matter, so for inexperienced users it’s better to trust professionals.
However, there are several reasons that allow self-installation:
- lack of funds for payment of services;
- the need for urgent installation of the device;
- the desire to learn and acquire new skills (better under the supervision of a specialist);
- the prospect of repair or replacement.
Of course, if you figure it out yourself in the water heater device, study the instructions and install it, later repairs or replacement of worn parts will become commonplace.
In addition, there are special life circumstances, forcing learn to do everything with their own hands. For example, living on a remote farm, from which to the nearest service center more than 300 km.
Electrical Model Installation Instructions
So, we will try to figure out how to properly install a running water heater with your own hands so that it works much longer than the period specified in the warranty card. But remember that general recommendations should be supplemented with the guidance provided in the technical documentation.
Step 1. Preparatory work - power network check
Not every electrical network can withstand the power of your chosen model. On the market are water heaters with an average power of 3 kW to 27 kW. For the operation of weak devices, the old wiring is sufficient, but the operation of a powerful pressure heater can only be provided by a new network and connection via the RCD.
The table of technical data that facilitates the diagnosis of the electrical network and the choice of wire section. When laying new wiring, the manufacturer recommends taking into account local norms and standards.
Thus, to connect most of the flow type water heaters, a fixed installation method will be required, AC mains with a voltage of 220 V, three-core copper cable with a minimum section of 3 mm X 2.5 mm, automatic protection 30 A.
Do not forget about the mandatory grounding. If the device is fixed on a heating wall, the cable section should be increased.
Step # 2. Choosing a place to install
The installation location depends on the type of equipment. Non-pressure type water heater they are usually mounted near the water consumption point, that is, above the sink, under the sink, or on the side of the faucet. If the free-flow model, in addition to the tap-gander, is equipped with a hose with a shower head, you should consider the place of attachment for it.
Installation diagram of the instantaneous water heater near the sink / bath or shower. The main condition of installation is the availability of the control unit.
Models with marking IP 24 and IP 25 initially protected from direct ingress of water, however, it is better to place them where there is no threat of pouring water from the shower - under the sink.
At the same time, they must be available for switching on (mechanical), adjusting the pressure and temperature - which means to be located near the shower or sink. Therefore, installing a instantaneous water heater in the toilet is a bad idea, in a bathroom it is a good one.
The choice of pressure device dictates other conditions. It is usually installed near the point of water pumping, which has a maximum load, or near the riser. A powerful water heater is able to provide hot water to the kitchen, bathroom, shower, so choose a place based on the appropriateness and ease of maintenance.
Installation scheme flow-flow water heater: while the water in the pipeline eats hot water, taps 3 and 4 are in the closed position when the hot water is turned off, taps 3 and 4 need to be opened, and faucet 1 shut down
Such devices do not need constant adjustment - they are programmed.
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Electric flow heaters are manufactured taking into account the scope of use - their electrical part is reliably protected from moisture penetration and the formation of condensate
The devices are located in the bathrooms and independently organized showers. It is recommended to take the socket out of the room or install a waterproof model
A small water heater is not necessary to connect to the mixer, especially if it is to work only during the seasonal water shutdown
A flow-through electrical device to provide one water point for installation is installed instead of a faucet above the sink in the bathroom or in the kitchen
Heater in a homemade shower
Mounting separately from main mixer
Water heater complete with gander
Step # 3. Wall mounting
Fastening on the wall consists in drilling holes and hanging the device with the help of special hinges or brackets included in the kit.
Two main conditions for proper installation:
- strength of the wall (brick, concrete, wood, conditionally - drywall are ideal);
- perfect horizontal position relative to the planes.
If the equipment is placed with a slope, there will be a risk of air traffic jams, and later - breakage. The fact is that the heating elements in the process of work must be completely covered with water. Due to the device skewing, a part of the helix or heating element can dry out, and the mechanism will fail due to overheating.
Schemes to help properly fix the water heater on the wall. Pay attention to the size of fasteners (dowels, screws or screws) and the features of the wiring diagram
As you already understood, for installation you will need a drill and certain drills for concrete or wood.
The procedure is as follows:
- Set the water heater switch to the “off” position.
- Take the mounting plate (must be included), attach it to the wall and mark the places of the holes.
- Drill holes.
- Insert the dowel and screw in the screws.
- Open the housing cover, make holes for water supply.
The next step should be performed by taking security measures, as you have to work with electricity.
Step # 4. Electrical connection
Make sure that there is no voltage in the network, and insert the electrical cable through a special hole in the back wall, covered with a rubber plug. Hang the device on the already prepared screws, check for horizontal deviations.
Strip the ends of the wires in the standard way and insert the three wires into the terminal box. Tighten the mounting screws so that each wire is firmly fixed. Make no mistake in the color marking of the wires.
Do not forget that the neighborhood of electricity and water is one of the most dangerous for human life, therefore, clearly follow the installation diagram from the manufacturer's instructions
Do not install if there is no grounding and automatic protective disconnect devices (RCD). If a leak occurs or the system fails, the machine will instantly react and break the electrical circuit.
The installation location of the RCD is a distribution panel, which is located on the floor or in the back room, if we are talking about a private house.
Step # 5. Water connection options
Usually there are several connection options. For example, the same model can be installed above a water supply point (upper connection) and below, under the sink (bottom connection), connect the device to a closed or open pipes. To connect the pipes in the device case there are two openings - hot and cold water hoses are inserted into them.
Connection diagrams: 1 - to hidden pipes; 2 - to open pipes. In the first diagram, you must first install the corners (B), then attach the hoses with gaskets (A). In the second scheme, install holders on the pipes (A), connect them with hoses and gaskets (B)
Low power electric water heaters, focused on one point of water consumption, usually instead of hot water coming to the common line, they have a hose with a shower head.
For single-point models there are special installation instructions: the first figure shows the correct installation, the second shows the wrong one. It is strictly forbidden to install a valve at the water outlet!
The water heater can be connected both to the pipes of the central line and to the storage tank, which is 4 m (at least) above the installation site of the device. When supplying water from the tank, constant monitoring of the water level will be required.
Direct connection to a well or a well (in country houses) is also practiced, but only through a coarse filter, otherwise the manufacturer disclaims warranty.
How to install a gas water heater?
Installation of a gas column differs from the installation of electrical equipment by a large number of requirements and a more complicated connection process. However, time and effort are offset by savings in fuel costs — cheaper than electricity, natural gas.
Step 1. Harmonization and compliance
To install a gas column, it will be necessary to bring gas to the house (in some regions it is the most expensive item of expenditure), then to draw up a competent engineering project and coordinate it in certain instances. The project should be prepared by a licensed organization.
On the procedure for connecting a private house to the main gas supply system in detail written here. We recommend to get acquainted with the proposed information.
To present, what requirements are imposed to installation, you can glance in documents of title:
- General provisions for the design and construction of gas distribution systems of metal and polyethylene pipes (SP 42-101-2003).
- Gas distribution systems (SNiP 42-01-2002).
The basic rules for the installation of gas equipment include the volume of the room - not less than 7.5 m³ and the height of the ceilings - not less than 2 m. A prerequisite is well-adjusted ventilation. The minimum diameter of the chimney - 110 - 130 mm (depending on the requirements of the manufacturer).
The scheme of minimum distances for installation in the kitchen. The sample is a gas instantaneous water heater Therm 6000 O by the famous German manufacturer Bosch.
Anyone wishing to install a gas water heater with their own hands must understand that the device without installation by representatives licensed organization (authorized service center) is completely removed from the warranty and free service.
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Gas flow heaters are allowed to be installed in homes up to 5 floors, not supplied with hot water supply under a centralized scheme
Only non-residential premises with well-functioning ventilation and the possibility of airing are suitable for installation and operation of gas equipment.
Gas heaters are allowed to be installed on walls made of non-combustible materials. In the case of masking under the kitchen furniture between the walls of the unit and the elements of the box must be at least 2 cm
Between the kitchen sink and the gas column should be at least 30 cm. It is undesirable that water gets on the equipment during operation.
There must be a distance between the gas stove and the instantaneous water heater, not less than 10 cm
A gas tap must be installed in front of the gas column on the fuel supply pipe.
In order for the automatic operation of the gas water heater to work normally, there must be about 1 m between it and the mixer.
The choice of location for the installation of a gas heating device must take into account the possibility of an unhindered approach to repair and maintenance.
Place to install the gas unit
Suitable room for installation
Rules of placement on the walls
Distance from the kitchen sink
The distance from the gas stove to the equipment
Crane on the gas pipe in front of the column
The distance between the column and mixer
Gas equipment service
Step # 2. Rules for dismantling the old gas column
The process of replacing the gas column is faster than installing a new water heater, since no chimney equipment or connection to the gas mains is required.
The course of work is as follows:
- Close the valve on the gas inlet pipe to shut off the gas flow.
- Unscrew the nut that secures the flexible hose and carefully remove it. If the column is attached in the old way of connecting through a metal pipe, you will have to cut it with a hacksaw.
- It is better to discard the old connecting fittings by purchasing a modern, durable hose.
- Turn off the water system - for reliability it is better to turn off the taps at the riser.
- Remove the air exhaust pipe, carefully remove it from the chimney.
- Carefully remove the device from the wall bracket.
In the process of dismantling, try not to damage the supply pipes, otherwise the replacement of the water heating device will result in the replacement of all adjacent equipment.
Modern gas water heaters (instantaneous water heaters) have a mandatory triple connection: to the gas pipe, to two water pipes (cold - inlet, hot - outlet), to the chimney
If you notice pipe wear, it is better to replace them with new ones - most likely, during the operation of the old device, more reliable models appeared in stores.
Step # 3. Instructions for installing a new gas model
To begin to check the health of the chimney. Check the tightness of the connections, the vertical location of the pipe for the removal of gases, the quality of thermal insulation. Do not forget that the outlet should be located above the highest point of the roof and be protected from precipitation with a visor.
Whether you use a pipe — flexible or rigid — does not matter; rather, its characteristics depend on the installation conditions. Then check if the ventilation is working properly.
One of the standard options for connecting a gas water heater, designed for providing hot water with two water points - in the kitchen and in the bathroom (+)
Adjust the attachment points for the new model. Remove the switch knob (power control), unscrew the fasteners holding the casing, and remove the front of the case. Using the mounting hinges, screws and dowels, hang the column on the wall. Remember: the body should hang freely on the wall, and not stand on the water or gas inlets.
Using flexible hoses, connect the appliance to the cold water pipe, then connect the outlet to the hot water tap.
Water connection diagram. To mark the hot and cold water connections (A and B), they are marked in blue and red. To control the pressure drops at the inlet, the manufacturer recommends installing a check valve.
The next stage is gas connection. Use a flexible hose to connect the gas valve to the water heater. Verification can be done in the traditional way by soaping the junction and opening the gas supply. No bubbles indicate proper connection.
The last install pipe chimney. Most often it is a flexible corrugation, matched to the diameter of the outlet. Fix one end of the corrugations at the column outlet, insert the other into the chimney. Replace the front panel with switches, tighten the fasteners and test the device.
Rules of operation and maintenance
Malfunctions can appear both in several years, and in a month. Particularly high risk of breakage in case of violations of the device.
For electrical equipment to work properly, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the filter and clean the aerator from time to time. Approximately once a year carry out maintenance work: turn off the water heater, remove the accumulated dirt, blow through the pipes. If necessary, tighten the fasteners.
With gas columns, make sure that the heat exchanger is clean, change the seals, clean the burner and the ignition nozzle, change the water filters.
If maintenance and the simplest repair of low-power appliance can be done on its own, then control over the operation of the gas water heater is better to entrust the employees of the gas service, with whom the contract is concluded.
Especially not worth the risk if there is a problem of insufficient water pressure, clogged plumbing fittings or heat exchanger covered with limescale.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Three informative videos will introduce you to the secrets of the installation of instantaneous water heaters and warn questions that frequently arise during installation.
Video # 1. Installation instructions for electric water heater Stiebel Eltron DHC:
Video # 2. How to install instantaneous water heater CLAGE DSX with remote control:
Video # 3. Professional installation of a gas column:
As you can see, you can install a flowing electric or gas water heater yourself, using the manufacturer's instructions or useful videos. However, you can save the warranty and increase the service life of the device only through professional service.
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