The lack of a centralized sewage system causes installation of various types of local treatment facilities in suburban areas. But sometimes instead of an expensive autonomous structure, installing a simple rake is sufficient. Moreover, it is quite possible to cope with its construction independently.
In the article we have displayed detailed information on how to build up the sump on the site, what rules and regulations should be followed when organizing the drainage structure. We described the most popular and practical solutions, and also provided step-by-step instructions for their implementation.
The content of the article:
- Types of modern cesspools
- Sanitary selection
Concrete rings - the current type of material
- Concrete sink
- Storage tank of rings
- Budget version of rubber tires
- Installation of plastic containers
Concrete pit construction
- How to dig a pit
- Construction of wooden formwork
- Concrete pouring and waterproofing
- Backfilling and exterior design
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Types of modern cesspools
Today, the functional load of the drain hole has increased significantly, since the presence of domestic sewage and elementary cold water supply system increases the volume of wastewater several times.
In this regard, new modifications of sewage facilities appeared, more voluminous and improved in terms of waste processing.
Scheme of a country toilet from the last century. The role of waterproofing protection plays a simple clay lock, therefore, there is a risk of sewage penetration into the soil (+)
Remember how the drain hole used to look like - a small well, into which all the waste was methodically dumped until it was completely filled. The walls of the well were lined with boards, laid out with stones or reinforced with other material at hand. When the level of the effluent became maximum, they called an aspension machine for pumping.
If a cumulative septic tank is installed, it is an airtight container that is periodically emptied with the help of vacuum trucks. To the place of its installation it is necessary to carry out an access road (+)
Of course, there was no talk of any ecology or protection of the environment from pollution at that time. But today everyone wants to preserve the purity of the soil on the site, so they strictly monitor the sealing of sewage treatment plants.
Manufacturers choose materials that do not require long-term installation or special waterproofing. An example of modern models are bulk polymer tanks.
A large plastic container is a kind of settler with one, two or more chambers for sewage drains. Recycling of wastewater is carried out with the help of anaerobic microorganisms.
Monolithic one- and two-section structures made of concrete, as well as installations of one, two or even three concrete wells, have not lost their popularity. The choice is explained by the relative ease of installation (pouring) and decent (up to 30 years) service life.
The scheme of the simplest septic tank for a dacha - filtering well of concrete rings with a gravel-sandy bottom that permits and cleans drains, a ventilation pipe and a hatch for direct access (+)
The idea of laying out a brick with a brick has disappeared, because installing several rings is much easier than creating solid brickwork. The main quality of new devices is tightness, which protects the soil from pollution by drains.
At the device of a new cesspool it is necessary to be guided by the requirements stated in Construction Norms and Regulations. Of course, for ease of use I would like to place it closer to home.
However, the distance from the foundation to the tank should be at least 10 m. Consider force majeure circumstances related to the violation of tightness and foundation, and cumulative capacity.
The scheme, which indicates the minimum allowable distance from the sump to important objects. When drafting a project, one should not forget about similar objects in neighboring areas (+)
When planning, also note that the fence, outlining the boundaries of the site, should be at a distance of no closer than 4 m, and the roadway - no closer than 5 m.
The largest interval - to the source of water (well or well) - at least 25 m, with loose sandy soil - to 50 m. If there is a reservoir with stagnant water nearby (a pond or lake), then it must be taken into account - 30 m
Concrete rings - the current type of material
Reinforced concrete rings for septic tanks and the construction of drinking wells are so in demand that many factories began to specialize in their production.
Moreover, in addition to the main parts, they make rings equipped with a bottom, separate necks, ceilings and upper segments with a hatch. Consider two options for the construction of cesspools, with and without bottom.
An open tank without a bottom, in other words, an absorbing well is a combined variant, resembling a usual accumulating tank, but acting on the principle of a septic tank filtering element.
The absence of the bottom plane and the sand-gravel drainage layer are a condition for partial filtration of wastewater: some of the liquid goes into the ground, therefore, the services of vacuum trucks are required much less frequently.
There are conditions under which the construction of a structure with an “open” bottom should be avoided:
- the groundwater level must be at least 100 cm below the base of the sewer well, otherwise sewage will mix with underground water horizons, causing soil pollution to be harmful substances;
- soil type must meet the requirements of filtration, that is, be permeable: sandy, gravel or pebble with a high content of sand. The rocks, loams and clays do not possess similar properties and with time can become an insurmountable barrier to runoff.
Subject to the conditions you can build a well yourself.
Due to the heavy weight of concrete billets, it will be necessary to rent a truck crane or other manipulator for mounting the rings, as well as a team of workers to reduce the time of the construction process.
- Digging pit to a depth equal to the total height of the rings (2 or 3) plus half a meter on the drainage layer and 20-30 cm on the arrangement of the neck.
- Laying the filter base from loose materials - sand, pebble, crushed stone, gravel. For example, the bottom layer is sand, the top one is large crushed stone. For cleaning efficiency, you can use a perforated concrete base or geotextiles.
- Mounting rings using a crane.
- Sewer connection into the hole made by the perforator;
- Well Waterproofing - seal of seams, joints, connections;
- backfilling and tamping soil around the perimeter of the pit.
Special attention should be paid cesspool waterproofing. Fixing the pipe is best done using a tee, followed by sealing all connections with a sealant.
Variants of using waterproofing material Penetron, which is used for waterproofing monolithic and prefabricated structures of concrete, and related tools - Penekrita, Penelaga, Waterplag
Even when using concrete rings with a lock joint, they must be sealed from the inside and outside. On the outside, you can use the pasting bitumen roll material, which fits into several layers, on the inside - a combination Penetron and Penekrita or cement mortar Aqua barrier.
To ensure the pumping process, in the upper part it is necessary to equip the hatch with a tight-fitting, insulated cover.
Storage tank of rings
The high level of groundwater (a fairly frequent phenomenon) does not allow the installation of sewage wells without a bottom, so the most successful option would be a simple storage tank. You can use a plastic tank or a large polymer barrel, but we consider a project of concrete rings.
The design of the drive resembles the device of the previous model, but unlike the filtering well, this tank has a deaf, waterproof bottom. This means that the only way to clean it is to pump wastewater to cesspool collectors (+)
Conveniently, almost all parts can be purchased in finished form. The cost of one well ring with a diameter of 110 cm (wall thickness - 16 cm, height - 89 cm) - from 1,500 to 2,000 rubles., 6-centimeter dobor - 250-300 rubles. etc., therefore, the whole structure in an amount not exceeding 10,000 rubles.
If you want to save the budget, you can make reinforced concrete rings by yourself.
- Trench device (50-80 cm wider than the well) with simultaneous laying of trenches for sewer pipes.
- Installation and insulation pipeline
- Backfilling and tamping sand and crushed cushion (30-40 cm thick).
- Installation of the concrete bottom (strictly horizontal, with check on level); instead of the finished element, you can build a reinforced screed.
- Installation of concrete rings using a crane.
- Waterproofing joints rubber tape, concrete solution with the addition of liquid glass.
- Coating of seams bitumen mastic, external - oklechechnoy bitumen waterproofing. Backfilling.
- Mounting the top plate with a hole for the hatch, fixing the cover.
One of the products of bacterial waste processing is hazardous methane gas. To prevent its concentration, and at the same time to provide air access to the drains, the well is equipped with a ventilation pipe.
A photo of
Step 1: Before immersing the concrete rings in the pit, their outer side is treated with bitumen mastic in two layers. Mastic should form a continuous waterproofing shell without gaps and weak points.
Step 2: The waterproofed rings are installed in the foundation pit on the starting concrete ring, hermetically closing the bottom of the structure. This part should also be coated with mastic before installation.
Step 3: Before installing each subsequent ring, the end edge of the previous, already installed element process with sealant or bitumen mastic and put oiled cord on the perimeter as compactor
Step 4: Against the rupture of the trunk and the separation of the rings in the pit, they are connected with metal clips and plates. Cross brackets are mounted for serviceability and repair
Step 5: A manhole is placed between the cesspool of concrete rings and the object being serviced. With a length of more than 30 m and the presence of turns the number of manholes increases
Step 6: After installing the sump from concrete rings, the pipeline is laid at the planned level at a planned level, laid with a slope in the direction of the pit
Step 7: After sealing the point or points of entry of sewer pipes into the concrete structure, the pit is filled in layers with soil, preferably with sand without clay inclusions.
Step 8: Upon completion of the work, the location of the cesspool will be equipped with any kind of fencing, precluding the occurrence of risky situations for children and pets
Processing with bitumen mastic
Construction of the cesspool
The rules for assembling the mine for concrete rake
Concrete Ring Coupling
Inspection wells on the track
Putting the sewer pipe into the cesspool
The device hatch sewer
Arrangement of a site around a cesspool
Using concrete rings, you can build a two-chamber septic tank, more - in this article.
Budget version of rubber tires
The advantages of this project are the availability, cost-effectiveness, ease of installation, the downsides are fragility, lack of good sealing, “disposability” of the structure. Repair or modify the installed structure is impossible.
The main building material - used car or tractor tires - can be assembled over several years or purchased at a service station. For the pit, designed for a family of 3 people, you will need 9-10 pieces (+)
The first stage is excavation and pit construction. The depth can be calculated by knowing the number of tires, width - putting one product on the ground and delineating a circle around it, adding 30-40 cm. When the pit is ready, it is necessary to make a drain hole. It is drilled in the center of the pit with a drill.
A pipe is inserted into the hole so that it rises about 100-120 cm above the base. The meter stock protects the drainage drain from clogging with large solid particles that accumulate at the bottom.
In order for the liquid to flow freely into the outlet, its sides are additionally perforated, and the upper end is covered with a protective grid. The bottom around the pipe is covered with gravel or rubble.
To sewage waste freely flowed down, not lingering in the rubber folds, the inner rims of tires are recommended to be cut using a knife or jigsaw
Tires stack one on another, promazyvaya junction sealant. In about 2 or 3 tires, a hole is cut out from above and the end of the sewer pipe leading from the house is inserted; the junction is also carefully sealed.
From above, the construction is closed with a self-made plastic or wood lid with a small notch (diameter = 10 cm) for the ventilation pipe.
A photo of
The use of old tires in the construction of a sump is a great way to minimize the construction budget and recycle rubber.
A weighty minus of sewage wells made of tires is the inability to provide a complete tightness, so they are used in the device drain holes and filter wells for receiving, bleaching and discharge into gray wastewater
But with the installation in the pit, leveling, construction of the trunk of the tires, "stitching" elements one performer can easily cope
It will not be difficult to cut the technological holes in the tires at the required height, it will not cause complications to enter the pipe and seal its passage through the tire
Economically and environmentally friendly material
Disadvantages of sewage facilities from tires
Technological advantages of tires
Enter the sewer pipe into the rubber shaft
Additional information on the feasibility of such a decision, the selection and preparation of tires, as well as the construction of a sump, is presented in the article - Drain pit of the tires with their own hands: a step-by-step instruction on the arrangement
Installation of plastic containers
Main plus polymer tank installation - lack of additional construction activities. It is enough to dig a ditch, connect sewer communications, bury - and the cesspool is ready. Transporting plastic containers is also easy, since, unlike concrete structures, it has a low weight.
Polymer tanks differ in shape and size. For a family of 2 people, occasionally visiting the cottage, you need a barrel of a relatively small volume - 100-150 l
A metal barrel will do as well, but it is inferior to plastic containers in its characteristics, as it is subject to corrosion, therefore, it will quickly rust and fail.
Before installing the container in the pit, you need to prepare - to make a perforation over the entire surface. For this electric drill drill holes in a checkerboard pattern, the interval between the holes - 15-20 cm. Perforation is necessary for the device of natural discharge of liquid, it is a kind of filter.
The dimensions of the pit are calculated before the installation of the barrel: it must be completely in the ground, except for the upper part with reinforcement - for control and pumping
In the upper part or on the side (depending on the sum of the sewer pipe) we cut a hole and install a flange. Special polymer sealants thoroughly coat all joints and joints.
You can use bitumen mastic, which plays the role of additional waterproofing. It is desirable that the pipes and fittings were also made of plastic.
To protect the container from the ingress of soil particles, we use geotextiles. It perfectly copes with the function of filtering, does not give in to rotting and fast wear. We wrap the tank on all sides with rolled geotextile, fasten it to the neck with a synthetic cord.
We install the barrel in the prepared pit, attach it to the communications. The slope of the pipes allows the drains to flow naturally into the reservoir. Free space on the sides we fall asleep sand and gravel mixture, sprinkle the top with soil. Cleaning the mini-septic tank should be done, focusing on the degree of filling.
The installation process of the storage tank for full pumping out of waste looks a bit different. It involves immersion in the ground absolutely sealed containers, which are used for the accumulation of brown and mixed masses.
With the accumulation equal to about a third of the volume, they cause a vacuum truck to empty the drive.
A photo of
Stage 1: Before the development of the excavation, the marking of the work area is carried out according to the sewerage plan with the storage device
Stage 2: The pit is being developed to a depth sufficient to immerse the plastic storage tank. The width and length of production takes into account the distance from the tank 50 cm along its perimeter
Stage 3: A trench is fed to the excavation pit for laying and connecting to the sewer pipe. The bottom of the pit is rammed, pre-moistened to increase the density of the rammer.
Stage 4: The sewage pipe removed from the house is laid with a bias towards the drive in order to comply with the construction of the sewage system is better to start with it
Step 5: A manhole, necessary for the maintenance and monitoring of the system, is included in the sewer line. Put it so that it was convenient to perform cleaning in both directions from the well
Step 6: A cumulative capacity is installed on the packed flattened bottom of the excavation. If anchoring was not carried out, the pit is covered with sand-concrete mixture.
Stage 7: Before filling the pit, the tank is filled with water for a third, the mixture is poured in layers of 30 cm and rammed. Upon reaching the filling level of the tank, water is poured another third, then the pit is filled to this level and so on.
Step 8: It is desirable to equip the surface around the storage tank with a concrete slab, having built a formwork before pouring it
Marking the pit for installation capacity
Development of a pit for storage
Trenching pipe for sewer pipe
Laying of the outer branch sewer
Inspection well autonomous sewer network
Immersion of plastic storage in the pit
Filling of a ditch with accumulative capacity
Concrete Slab Around Plastic Sinkhole
Concrete pit construction
Not always ready containers fit in shape or size, besides the cost of high-quality volumetric septic tanks does not suit everyone, therefore, such a way to construct a cesspool, such as the construction of a monolithic single or two-chamber concrete, is still practiced. reservoir. Let's get acquainted with the instructions for its manufacture.
How to dig a pit
During construction, one may not be limited to a single-chamber construction, since there will be no fundamental difference or additional complexity during the construction of the second compartment. We'll have to dig a pit twice as large and prepare more building material for formwork and pouring.
The first section of the septic tank is designed to lighten the drains, the second - to filter.
Diagram of a monolithic concrete two-chamber septic tank with a volume of 5000 l, reinforced with reinforcement and equipped with waterproofing, designed for a large number of users (up to 8 people) (+)
The first stage is the digging of a pit of required size. There are two options for excavation - manually or with the help of construction equipment. The first method is long, but more accurate, the second is fast, but expensive and not quite suitable for subsequent formwork.
The fact is that in order to support wooden shields, the smooth edges of the pit are needed. If the soil is solid enough, stable, then the formwork can be made one-sided.
The second chamber of the septic tank is filtering, therefore, part of the pit must be deepened and equipped with a sand-gravel pad with a thickness of about 30 cm. The walls should be leveled, but if the ground is loose, you will have to build a two-sided structure, as if it were a foundation.
A photo of
Step 1: For the construction of a monolithic cesspool of concrete, by analogy with all methods, a pit is being developed, in which we introduce a sewage pipeline
Step 2: The walls and bottom of the excavation are lined with reinforced polyethylene, we arrange the grid of reinforcement 8-10 mm, we twist the rods into the grid with wire
Step 3: We construct formwork into the cut-in board into which we will pour the solution to form the walls.
Step 4: After keeping at least 14 days (preferably 28), remove the formwork and tamp the bottom inside the structure before pouring
Step 5: Fill the concrete at the bottom of the structure, laying a pre-reinforcing mesh. At the top of the corner collect the basis for the device overlap
Step 6: On the assembled from the corner of the structure we place the panels cut out of plywood, in one of which we make a hole for the ventilation pipe
Step 7: Laying crumpled clay on the surface of the floor as a hydro- and vapor-insulating protection of structural elements
Step 8: We construct brick walls around the hatches intended for pumping drains from the pit. Fill the top of the pit with concrete solution, after solidification of which we fill the building with sand, not reaching 10 cm before the upper edge of the hatches
Development of a pit for monolithic construction
Waterproofing and reinforcement of sewage facilities
Construction formwork for pouring wall structures
Tamping the bottom within the hardened walls
Installation of the upper part bearing parts
Laying plywood on the construction of a metal corner
Formation of the upper ceiling concrete solution
Arrangement of a mouth of a cesspool
Construction of wooden formwork
In order for the underground wet environment to have minimal impact on the concrete structure, before installing the formwork, we lay the foundation pit with rolled geotextile. The canvas is positioned so that the movement of fluid was directed toward the soil. Separate the pieces must be fastened, and the edges should protrude outward about 40 cm.
From the outside, we install a metal frame: steel rods, thick wire, mesh from old beds are suitable for reinforcement. Metal parts can be replaced with fiberglass. When filling, it is necessary to ensure that the solution completely covers the iron elements, otherwise corrosion will cause the formation of cracks.
Panels and planks will not hold themselves, therefore, to fix them, you should build struts from bars or metal pieces. At the junction of pipes, you must pre-make mortgages.
The distance from the formwork to the wall of the pit is about 20-25 cm (future wall thickness of the septic tank) If the design is two-sided, then this distance is maintained between the two walls along the entire perimeter.
In the process of concrete pouring do not forget about the overflow and the inlet: the first should be below the second about half a meter
Concrete pouring and waterproofing
We prepare the solution according to the following scheme: for every 200 kg of cement - 300 kg of sand, 100 liters of water, 2.5 liters of superplasticizer (in liquid form). If you need a filler - add a small amount of crushed stone fines.
Concrete is never poured over the entire volume. If you want the construction to be solid and serve for years, fill it with layers, each of which is no thicker than 40-50 cm. Otherwise, voids are formed in the material, which will cause the structure to collapse soon. To make the mass more dense, use a vibrator.
Experts recommend equipping overflow tee, which will reduce the risk of blockage and prevent the ingress of large particles in the second filtration compartment.
In the course of solidification of the concrete mass, small cracks will appear, which must be covered with the same solution. After complete drying, you can increase the tightness of the chambers and make additional internal waterproofing.
The last stage of concreting - the device of the upper floor. It is set after complete drying of the walls (a period from 10 days to 2 weeks is required).
- installation of a metal profile - corners;
- laying of the basis - flat slate or wooden boards;
- roofing felt with subsequent reinforcement;
- concrete pouring.
Do not forget that you need 2 holes for hatches (by the number of cameras).
Backfilling and exterior design
Before backfilling we produce waterproofing - we apply on all concrete surfaces, internal and external, a layer of bitumen mastic. It will protect the concrete from moisture penetration and rapid destruction.
Additional thermal insulation is required in the northern regions. To insulate the chambers from the outer sides along the walls we place foam pieces or extruded polystyrene foam, then the remaining space is filled with soil.
One of the design options for hatches is the installation of factory-made polymer products. Advantages of the finished hatches: optimal size, tight junction of the cover, neat appearance
Do not forget about the ventilation pipe. For its output we arrange a separate hole or we equip the hatch. A more efficient operation of the septic tank is ensured by a set of two pipes, one of which injects fresh air, and the second serves to remove accumulated gases. Pipes should rise 40-60 cm above the ground.
Step-by-step instructing the construction of a monolithic concrete septic tank described here.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Educational videos are a great opportunity to supplement your knowledge with interesting and useful information.
Practical advice - stages of the device of a cesspool:
Compact do-it-yourself tire septic tank:
Monolithic concrete pit - video tutorial and overview:
As you can see, it is quite easy to make a cumulative tank or a simple sewage treatment plant on your own, even some people can equip some types of cesspools.
However, do not forget that consultation with an expert in the field of sewage systems will increase the chances of creating the most functional and efficient construction.
Share with your readers your experience in building and arranging the sump. Please leave comments on the article and ask your questions. Feedback form is located below.