The cesspools are not satisfied with anyone. The need for frequent professional cleaning is not their only drawback. The outdated technologies were replaced by universal modular constructions that allow organizing an autonomous sewage system on the site.
The most economical solution to the issue of recycling household waste - Septic Sunrise. The assets of the model: simple installation, unpretentious care and long service life.
In this material we will tell everything about the device and the principle of operation of the septic tank, we will designate its advantages and disadvantages, as well as reveal the secrets of installing a septic tank on the site.
The content of the article:
- Device and principle of operation
- Advantages and disadvantages of the model "Sunrise"
- Characteristics of various modifications
Technology of installation of a septic tank on a site
- Site selection: requirements according to SNiP
- Installation of sewage treatment plant
- Organization of tertiary treatment of wastewater
- The need for insulation of the septic tank and the pipeline
- Rules for the operation and maintenance of septic tank
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Device and principle of operation
The septic tank is a key element of the local treatment complex. The main function of the unit - the accumulation and treatment of wastewater coming through the sewer network at home. The level of contamination removal and fluid filtration depends on the type of structure.
Septic Sunrise is a cumulative hermetic tank with strong thick walls that are reinforced with stiffeners. The cylindrical shape of the tank provides good resistance to ground pressure and reliable fixation.
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Septic tanks with the Voskhod logo are used in the organization of the autonomous sewage system of cottages located along the highways of restaurants, hotels and tire workshops
Voskhod sewer installation represents the capacity made of the reinforced plastic capable to resist to pressure of soil and to influence of ground water
Plastic containers are made by injection molding. During production, ribs are formed to improve the adhesion of septic tanks to the ground.
A series of septic tanks Sunrise includes designs with one and two cameras. Capacity of containers from 1.4 thousand. liters up to 3.0 thousand liters
Despite the ability to resist impressive mechanical loads, the weight of the septic tank is quite small. To dive into the pit, it is not necessary to hire lifting equipment.
Sunrise does not require an electrical connection. The drains by gravity move through sewer pipes and inside the installation chambers.
Waste water recycled in the septic tank Sunrise cannot be directly dumped into the ground. For disposal, a ground treatment system is required.
On the site after the construction of an independent sewer system with a septic tank Voskhod, only hatches will be visible on the chambers of the treatment plant and the ventilation pipes of the filtration field
Sale of septic tanks of brand Voskhod
Polymer capacity installed in the pit
Plastic tank fins
Single chamber septic tank of large volume
Immersion of capacity in the prepared ditch
Laying of the sewer route to the septic tank
Filtration field for soil purification
Septic system and treatment system on the site
In addition to the bulk tank, the purifier kit includes:
- neck - the element is designed for pumping sediment;
- cap - closes the neck, protects the septic tank from the ingestion of foreign objects, leaves, rain and snow;
- filter - located inside the drive, performs biological and mechanical cleaning.
The filter consists of a variety of polymer fibers, woven together. The cleaner is not subject to corrosion, oxidation and deformation. The filtering components keep the waste substances of different fractions. Over time, organic matter undergoes the process of decay and breaks down into small particles.
The filter is completed with large-volume models intended for the treatment of effluents at 4 cubic meters / day or more. Cleaning the filter cylinder is elementary - just take it out of the working chamber and rinse under running water.
Sunrise cleaning system is a classic sump. The device uses the principle of sewage waste separation under the influence of gravity and the subsequent decomposition of organic substances by anaerobic bacteria - without the participation of oxygen.
The septic tank of the Voskhod brand is intended for processing the gray sewage flow, which is produced by separating the heavy fraction from the light fraction during settling. At the exit of the sewage treatment plant, the effluent is cleaned by 60 - 70%
Conventionally, the entire cleaning process can be divided into the following steps:
- Sewage from the house goes to the sump sewer pipe.
- Under the action of gravity, the primary decomposition of waste into heavy and light particles. The sludge in the form of sediment sinks to the bottom of the storage tank, and the slurry and fatty components float to the surface.
- Liquid with fine fractional waste seeps through the biofilter and is discharged to an additional ground treatment (drainage well, filtration field or infiltrator).
If the complex has two tanks, then semi-purified water is piped into the next tank. Next, the cleaning process is repeated.
The result of a septic tank is the purification of the liquid by 65-70%. For a safe discharge into the ground, river or other body of water is not enough. Therefore, it is necessary to organize the ground treatment of wastewater.
Advantages and disadvantages of the model "Sunrise"
The owners of dacha plots, houses and cottages using the Voskhod system note an impressive number of positive aspects and several negative points.
The advantages of the water treatment system include:
- work autonomy - the septic tank is independent of energy supply;
- high reliability and durability - the tank is designed very simply, there is practically nothing to break in the device;
- ease of installation - installation will turn out to be done personally;
- affordable pricing on the model "Sunrise".
Negative user reviews are usually associated with the wrong choice of volume of the cleaner or violation of operating rules.
A significant disadvantage is the need to arrange a separate site for natural purification. A drainage well is being prepared, it is also an absorption well, shown in the diagram. Work is performed once - simultaneously with the installation of a septic tank
Instead of an absorption well for natural drainage of treated wastewater into the ground, an infiltrator is used or a filtration field is constructed from the trenches. drainage pipes. They perform functions similar to the responsibilities of the absorption well, but the depth of their conditional bottom is significantly higher.
The choice of the type of structure for ground treatment is associated with the level of groundwater in the area. It should be borne in mind that between the groundwater table (groundwater level) and the conditional bottom of the well, infiltrator or filtration field should be a thickness of soil with a capacity of at least 1 m.
Additional disadvantages of using a septic tank:
- during operation, some users noted the appearance of an unpleasant smell;
- cleaning complex for the winter period is desirable to warm.
Like most autonomous sewer systems, Sunrise needs timely cleaning - removal of solid sediment. An aspener machine is called every two to three years - the dates are individual and depend on the operating conditions.
Characteristics of various modifications
Depending on the number of residents, the availability of sanitary equipment and appliances, and hence on the volume of wastewater, a septic tank model is selected. There are two versions on the market: Voskhod-1, Voskhod-2.
"Voskhod-1" - single-chamber installation designed for servicing a compact house, where no more than four people live. The volume of the tank is 1400 liters, the maximum allowable discharge of wastewater should not exceed 700 liters per day.
"Voskhod-2" - two-chamber model for 2000 liters. The volume of the reservoir is enough for a family of four to five people. The mass of the accumulator is 80 kg, the tank is designed for fluid flow in the range of 800 l per day. The model provides overflow pipes connecting both tanks. The movement of runoff waters occurs by gravity - the outlet is located below the inlet.
The principle of operation of septic tanks "Sunrise" of different modifications is the same, both types are completed with a porous biofilter. The main differences: dimensions and performance
The three-chamber model “Voskhod-3” with a capacity of 3000 liters is in lower demand. Installation of a septic tank is complicated due to large dimensions and weight. Volumetric tank should be used for maintenance of the house, where more than six people live.
Technology of installation of a septic tank on a site
Septic tanks Voskhod are established by the same principle, as well as similar models with soil tertiary treatment. Conventionally, the whole technological process consists of the following stages: site selection, preparation of the excavation, installation of a reservoir, organization of soil purification and supply of pipes.
Site selection: requirements according to SNiP
In determining the location of the settling tank "Sunrise" should be guided by the standards indicated in SNiP: 2.04. 03-85, 2.04.01-85 and 2.04.04-84.
Particular attention should be paid to the presence of water bodies, trees, roads, gas pipelines and residential houses. It is important to assess the location of groundwater and the level of their rise during the flood period in spring or autumn
- The minimum allowable distance to a nearby flowing reservoir is 10 m, to a standing one - 30 m. The distance to a reservoir with drinking water is from 50 m.
- The distance from the drive with sewage to trees, the gas pipeline or the road is not less than 5 m, and 4 m to the infield boundary. Shrubs can be planted no closer than 1 m from the tank.
- The distance between the cleaner and the foundation of the outbuilding should be from 1 m. This eliminates the risk of undermining the structure during depressurization of the sump.
- From the dwelling to the septic tank, it is necessary to retreat 5 m. This gap is due to sanitary safety, as well as the possible appearance of an unpleasant odor from the sewage treatment plant.
At the same time, it is not worth removing a septic tank at a great distance from the house. If the pipeline exceeds 15 m, you will have to install additional inspection wells.
When disposing the cleaning plant, it is necessary to take into account the volume of the storage tank. A septic tank with a volume of more than 1 cubic meter should preferably be at least 8 meters away from the house.
When placing a septic tank should take into account features of the terrain:
- Disposal system must be equipped on a hill - this will reduce the risk of flooding the septic tank with melt or rainwater. The level of the tank should be lower than the bathroom on the first floor of the house.
- If a well or drinking water well is located on a slope in a section, then a septic tank is installed lower along the direction of the slope.
In advance, it is necessary to provide for free access of the aspenisation machine to the septic tank.
The standard length of the hose for pumping is 15 m. If the septic tank is located in the depth of the plot, you can use the services of an sludge pumping machine equipped with a 40 m hose.
Installation of sewage treatment plant
The list of necessary tools and materials:
- spade - preparation of a ditch and trenches;
- sand and rubble - formation of a sand pillow;
- concrete slab - if the septic tank is installed in loam or clay;
- polyethylene - arrangement of a moisture protective layer.
The whole technological process is divided into several stages.
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The pit for the installation of a septic tank can be developed manually with a shovel, but it will significantly accelerate and will facilitate the process of the excavator, which can also be used to immerse the installation in the prepared foundation pit
The bottom of the pit must be prepared for immersion of the septic tank and for its anchoring - fixing against floating. If the concrete slab is not poured at the bottom, it should be poured with sand and compacted.
If a concrete slab was not installed or not poured on the bottom, then heavy concrete blocks are used instead
Concrete blocks tied with polymer cables or metal cable that will hold the septic tank
After the septic tank is immersed in the foundation pit, it is securely fixed with a cable or rope to the concrete blocks, prevents floating of the tank in case of a high approach to the surface of groundwater in flood period
The sewer pipeline is being assembled, laid in pre-designed trenches and connecting pipes to a septic tank.
In case of the location of the septic tank Rising above the level of seasonal soil freezing, it and the sections passing at this depth must be insulated
After the construction and connection of the system, the septic tank is filled with water, the pit is filled with sand in layers of 30 cm
Stage 1: Excavating excavation
Stage 2: Preparation of the pit for the installation of a septic tank
Stage 3: Arrangement of devices for anchoring a septic tank
Stage 4: Fastening polymeric ropes to blocks
Stage 5: Fixing the plastic container to the concrete blocks
Stage 6: Assembling and connecting the sewer pipe
Stage 7: Insulation of the pipeline and construction
Stage 8: Filling the pit with sand
Step 1. Determine the optimal place for the installation of the sump and allocate a plot for the organization of ground after-treatment. Mark up the plot.
Step 2. Dig a pit for a tank and trenches for laying sewer pipes.
The pit for the septic tank housing should be slightly larger than the dimensions of the device itself. These clearances are necessary for the convenience of work - lowering the tank and supply pipes
Step 3. At this stage, it is necessary to prepare a site for arranging the removal of semi-purified liquid from the septic tank. Pit dimensions depend on the type of after-treatment system (drain well, filtration field).
Step 4. Fill the pit for the storage tank with sand - the layer thickness is about 20-30 cm. Tamp the sand pillow.
Lay the bottom of the pit waterproofing material, and pour on top of crushed stone of middle fraction. If the groundwater lies very close, then it is necessary to fill the foundation or lay a concrete slab
Step 5. Pipeline trench with a sand bed and install sewer pipes. Important to withstand small biasso that the pipes do not clog as far as they are used.
Step 6. To prevent the pipes from deforming, it is desirable to fill them with gravel. This measure is relevant if the load above the PVC pipeline is assumed. For example, arrangement of parking, playground or patio.
Step 7. Inspect the septic tank, lower it into the pit and check the evenness of the location - any distortions should be excluded.
In case of “high” groundwater, a plastic tank is attached to the concrete slab by means of nylon belts that hold the tank during spring floods.
Step 8. Connect the inlet and outlet connections, fill the tank with water by half and proceed to backfill. The work is performed in stages, each layer is carefully tamped. For backfilling, you can use the ground or a dry mixture of soil, river or quarry sand and cement extracted from the foundation pit.
Organization of tertiary treatment of wastewater
A feature of the septic tank of the brand Voskhod is the necessity of arranging additional filtration of waste liquid.
Methods for the implementation of soil tertiary treatment:
- drainage well;
- filter ditches;
- filter field.
Drainage well. The option is suitable for home gardens with well-drained soil (sand, gravel, rubble). A discharge pipe is laid from the main cleaner, through which the liquid enters the well with filtering components.
The filtering well is a vertically oriented structure consisting of a bottom filter, a ventilated hatch and walls. No sealed bottom
The construction is erected from reinforced concrete, brick or stone. If necessary, additional lateral drainage at the bottom of the well (about 1 m) is distributed in the device, the total area of which is 10-12% of the total area of the walls. The outlet pipe from the septic tank is fed to the installation at a distance of half a meter from the bottom filter. The depth of the well depends on the amount of waste entering it for processing.
Features of the drainage well:
- the conditional bottom of the structure should rise above the highest level of groundwater by at least 1 m;
- if while digging a trench at a depth of 2.5 m, sand, gravel deposits or similar soil with high filtration properties is not found, another method of soil purification should be preferred;
- The effectiveness of complex cleaning coupled with ground processing - 98-100%.
An expensive, but quick and convenient way to set up an after-treatment system installation of infiltrators:
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For the withdrawal and disposal of treated and clarified wastewater from the septic tank to the after-treatment system is laid another sewer line
The number of infiltrators for maintenance of a septic tank is calculated based on the daily need for wastewater treatment
To ensure that the system does not have stagnant air and regularly receives the oxygen required by aerobic bacteria, one or more ventilation risers are installed.
Before filling the pit with an infilter or a group of infiltrators, you need to check the tightness of their connection to the pipe and duplicate problem areas with a sealant
Step 1: Discharge of treated wastewater into the infiltrator
Step 2: Install the group of infiltrators on the ground
Step 3: Install the ventilation risers
Step 4: Sealing Infiltration Cassette Inserts
If there is a reservoir or a ravine near the suburban area, into which it is possible to organize the discharge of the purified liquid, arrange filter ditches.
Their depth depends on the level of installation of the pipe exiting the septic tank. At the surface of the earth, the width of the ditch is 80-100 cm, and 50 cm below. The length of the ditch is chosen at the rate of: 1 m trench 60 liters of wastewater per day. The trench is filled with filtering material: sand, gravel, gravel.
Inside the ditch there are two perforated pipes: irrigation and catchment. The drains from the first when passing through it flow into the ground and are collected by the one below. Each pipeline is equipped with a ventilation riser.
Features of the design and operation of the system of soil tertiary treatment:
- "Perfootrubs" are placed with a slope in the direction of flow of 2 - 3 mm per meter linear;
- through the drain pipe purified water flows into the nearest ravine or reservoir;
- the size of the holes in the pipeline - 4-7 mm, perforation step - 10-20 cm;
- cleaning efficiency - up to 98%.
Underground filtration field. A network of drainage trenches equipped on a sand-gravel bed. In contrast to the filtering ditches, the perforated pipes of the fields - the drains are stacked in one layer. When it seeps through the holes, the water from the septic tank undergoes after-treatment, and then the purified liquid enters the environment.
The filtration field is arranged if it is not possible to dump the “point” drains through the absorption well. Those. if relatively close to the surface lie clay soils with low filtration properties. Such a system takes up a lot of space and its use is impractical on compact summer cottages.
The need for insulation of the septic tank and the pipeline
The standards and requirements for the installation of a plastic septic tank "Sunrise" imply year-round operation of the installation without the use of additional means of insulation.
The tank is immersed deep enough, which excludes icing of water. The network of sewer pipes is located on a slope - this prevents the stagnation of water and the appearance of ice jams. In addition, the flow of wastewater and the fermentation process in the sump contributes to heat.
However, even with the installation technology, there is a risk of emergency situations.
- Seasonal use of sewage with periods of "stagnation" can cause freezing of the liquid in the reservoir. The problem is especially true for "country" septic tanks.
- The depth of soil freezing is averaged. There is no guarantee that the coming winter will not be very harsh.
- Local deformation of the soil due to frost heaving may affect the pipeline slope in a separate section. This is fraught with water stagnation and ice formation.
It is better to be safe and insulate the septic tank even at the stage of its installation. As a heat insulator suitable: mineral wool, expanded clay, foam and extruded polystyrene foam.
Mineral wool - the most affordable insulation. The thermal insulation layer is fixed on the septic tank with wire or twine. On top of the material must fit waterproofing. The disadvantage of mineral wool - loss of insulating qualities when wet
More qualitative material - expanded polystyrene. The minimum absorption of moisture and high strength made it popular for warming septic tanks.
Thermal insulation of the supply pipes is made of mineral wool or any pipe insulation. An alternative method is heating cables.
Rules for the operation and maintenance of septic tank
To ensure efficient operation, prolong service and reduce the cost of cleaning a septic tank, it is important to follow the rules for its operation:
- The sewers transporting sewage should not be discharged: cement residues, construction waste, plastic bags, medicines (especially antibiotics), engine oil.
- For washing and washing dishes it is desirable to use biodegradable household cleaners. This product is marked "BR".
- To avoid pipe clogging and sludge pumping problems, water-soluble toilet paper must be used.
To improve the degree of purification in the septic tank "Sunrise" you can add biological products. Concentrated products contain colonies of bacteria, accelerating the decomposition of organic matter.
Important advantages of using additives: eliminating unpleasant odors and reducing solid waste. Popular drugs: "Vodograi", "Microzim", "Biosept", "Dr. Robik" and "Sanex".
Caring for a septic tank is to clean the biofilter, which is easy to detach from the body and rinse. The waste accumulated in the sump is pumped out by a sewage truck.
Timely cleaning of the septic tank extends the service life of the ground cleaning systems. With stable use of the cleaning complex, the complete replacement of filtering components (gravel and crushed stone) is performed once every 10 years.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Step-by-step installation of a septic tank in high groundwater conditions:
Septic Voskhod is an affordable and practical solution for organizing an autonomous sewer system. The device is distinguished by its simplicity and unpretentious service. Having studied the rules on the placement of the sump and understand the technological requirements for its installation, you can install the septic tank yourself, without the involvement of specialists.
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