The maximum return from the heating system can be achieved when operating a complex of various heating devices. For example, if, in addition to traditional radiators, the use of the FST (floor heating system) is an effective heating option, which many install on their own.
The article proposed by us details how to lay a warm floor under the laminate on a concrete floor. We led common and simple solutions that are popular among practical owners. Independent home craftsmen we will find guidance on the assembly and connection.
The content of the article:
- Advantages of the “warm floor + laminate” scheme
What is the basis of the choice of floor heating system
- Instructions for the arrangement of water STF
- How to make an electric floor heating?
- Installation procedure of the film system
- Laminate laying rules
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Advantages of the “warm floor + laminate” scheme
Underfloor heating is becoming more and more popular, as it became possible to perform all the steps - from the rough tie (concrete foundation) to the finishing decorative coating - with your own hands. If the base of the floor in the apartment is a flat concrete floor, it is not difficult to install the FTS.
Laminate has some advantages over other types of finishes. It is suitable for all varieties of electric and water floor, provided that the laying of elements will be provided with a smooth, without drops and protrusions surface.
The concrete base provides the smooth surface required for laying the heating elements, and the laminate effectively and evenly absorbs and transfers heat
If you stop on the combination of STP + laminate, then you need to analyze the installation conditions, make preliminary calculations, and then choose materials:
- high-quality laminate, which over time is not deformed by heat;
- elements of the warm floor, the most suitable for specific conditions.
For example, if you live in a city standard apartment, you should immediately refuse water floors. Installation of systems connected to central communications is prohibited. However, for a private house, which is heated by a gas boiler, this will be one of the most successful solutions.
When choosing a laminate as a finishing coating, it is possible to change the interior easily and quickly in the future.
Bored or worn laminate can be replaced with a softer carpet, easy-care linoleum or another type floor covering, while not fundamentally changing anything in the floor heating system, with the exception of the installation of another layer - plywood.
What is the basis of the choice of floor heating system
Since the concrete base and laminate provide maximum freedom in the choice of STF, consider all sorts of options. Depending on the choice of energy source for powering the heating elements of the system, there are two large categories of transformer substations: water and electric.
Water and mounted on the concrete floor and on the floor. The flooring can be wooden and polystyrene, but we will consider only the system with a cement screed. Electrical often divided into three types, but there are other classifications, more detailed.
The main types of FTS with electric power supply include rod, cable and film types. They are perfectly combined with laminate, but in some cases it requires the installation of an additional leveling layer (for example, plywood).
When choosing one or the other, they rely on system characteristics and personal preferences. Cost also plays an important role, so preliminary calculations should be made. Suppose film STFs are expensive, but they are often placed directly under the topcoat, which reduces the total cost of materials to create a multi-layered “cake”.
Consider the different types of systems to understand the fundamental difference between them.
A photo of
The most popular type of water system is when pipes with heat transfer fluid are literally sewn on both sides with a hermetic cement mortar coating. It is important to test the system and make sure that it works perfectly before pouring the finishing strap.
The elements for the device of the flooring are extruded polystyrene plates with tongue and groove locks, allowing you to create a stable and reliable coating. Their advantage is that they create additional thermal insulation.
There are two options for the device of the flooring of wood: modular and rack. In the first case, cable grooves are cut out in thick boards or shields, in the second case, lines with coolant are placed between the slats. Top cover with thin metal plates
The electric cable is laid according to various schemes, among which the “snake” and “spiral” are most in demand. The advantage of cable systems is that they are also mounted on an uneven surface, and an ideal base for the laminate is created with a finishing tie.
Laying thermomats is easier, since the electrical cable is already attached to a thin substrate. In the process you should just gently roll the rolls. But unlike a system of ordinary cable, thermomats have the same pitch, so the power at different sites does not adjust
A special feature of the self-regulating cable is its ability to react sensitively to changes in the temperature in the room and create comfortable conditions over the entire area or individual sections. Disadvantages - high cost and short life
This is the thinnest type of STP - only 0.4 mm in thickness. Most often it is mounted between the layers of the alignment substrate and the heat-reflecting film. Due to the stability and rigidity of the laminate intermediate plywood layer is not required
Thin rods with a thickness of half a centimeter have a high efficiency, but require a perfectly flat base. Before laying the laminate they are poured with a traditional screed or self-leveling mortar floor solution.
Water floor with concrete screed
Water floor with polystyrene flooring
Water floor with wooden flooring
Electrical cable floor screed
Thin cable thermomats
Self-regulating cable tie
Film and / to a floor under a decorative covering
Modules of carbon rods
Taking into account the cost of material, installation conditions and system performance, the best for installation under the laminate is recognized three options: water floor in the screed, film under the finish coat and heating electrical cable, also immured in screed.
Instructions for the arrangement of water STF
For individual housing is preferred water system. It allows you to save electricity and use for heating the floor the same coolant that enters the radiators. Of course, they are constructed according to the collector scheme, in which the floor in each room receives a coolant of almost equal temperature.
Wiring diagram stpp. In addition to the heating circuit, for the device which is usually used pipe material of cross-linked polyethylene PE-X, you will need a set of equipment to adjust
Assume that the rough concrete floor is already ready, and it is necessary to install the FTS in a separate room. At the same time it needs to be embedded in the finished feed system. heat carrier, provide the ability to quickly turn off.
A photo of
If there is no finished tape, you can cut the foil isofol into pieces 15 cm wide. Thickness - not less than 5 mm. The tape is glued to the bottom of the wall, leaving no gaps between the individual pieces.
Insulation prevents the flow of heat down. The advantage of roll insulation is a marking grid, which allows laying the cable at intervals of the required width. The joints of the foiled coating are closed and fixed with adhesive tape.
To fix the water pipes and align them over the entire area, a thin wire reinforcement mesh is laid. Separate fragments fasten together the pieces of wire. Standard size of a single cell - 10 cm
Polyethylene pipe using an adapter connected to the outlet in the heating radiator. At the end of the pipe wear a plastic flexible corrugation. Tight connection provide sealing rings and cap nut
To lay the pipe according to a given pattern and ensure stability, it is fixed on the grid with plastic clamps. For the formation of smooth bends "snake" polyethylene is heated with a building or household hair dryer.
It is necessary to install a circulation pump for quick heating of the system and a shut-off valve so that it can be turned off if necessary.
Lighthouses are necessary to ensure a uniform distribution of the mortar and, as a result, uniform floor heating. The height of the screed above the pipes should not be less than 30 mm. To ensure the desired height, it is enough to put pieces of paving slabs under the beacons.
A thick layer of thick cement mortar is applied over the entire area to completely close the pipes. It is necessary to fill all voids, and then level the surface with a rule, removing excess mortar. Drying time - 28 days
Step 1 - Mounting the Damper Tape
Step 2 - Laying Foamed Insulation
Step 3 - installation of reinforcing metal mesh
Step 4 - connecting the PE pipe to the heating system
Step 5 - Attaching the Pipe to the Grid
Step 6 - Installing Equipment to Adjust the Coolant Flow
Step 7 - Installation of Metal Beacons
Step 8 - Laying the Pipe Ties
For the preparation of cement mortar, which will be poured water floor screed, use or ready, or homemade mixture. The ideal option is concrete brand M300.
Proper preparation of the solution, according to the instructions, eliminates desiccation and the possible occurrence of cracks and voids. If the surface of the screed is not perfectly smooth, after drying you can pour a layer of self-leveling mixture with a thickness of 3-5 mm.
How to make an electric floor heating?
It is recommended to equip the electric breakers to citizens who prefer to use a combined heating system. A centralized network does not always meet the expectations of tenants of apartments in high-rise buildings.
But additional efficient heating helps to survive the cold or create a comfortable atmosphere in children's rooms or in other rooms in which the laminate is laid.
The option of connecting the cable system to the thermostat and the circuit breaker. To create a circuit, you can use one or more cables by wiring the junction box
We recommend using proven off-the-shelf systems. Their characteristics have been tested by the manufacturer, so there is no need to do complex calculations, it is enough to choose a model according to specific requirements of power or heating area. As an example of installation, we offer a photoinstructions for installing the STP with a two-wire cable of the brand Electrolux.
A photo of
You will need tools for priming the floor, shaving the wall, preparing the wires for the connection. Roulette and marker are also necessary for marking the installation of the thermostat and calculating the length of the contours.
In the wall it is necessary to cut a hole for mounting the thermostat and cable groove - power line and temperature sensor wires. The dimensions of the grooves - 20 * 20 mm. To cut recesses using a drill with a nozzle, the groove is made circularly
Debris that appears due to the wall chipping is necessary to remove. Then you need to sweep and wash the concrete base to cover it with a primer. The primer will adhere the concrete surface to the cement screed.
Insulation is needed if there is an unheated room on the floor below, for example, a basement. Sheets of insulating material are connected with aluminum tape. To make the cable easier to lay, mount the mounting tape with notches
When laying the “snake”, consider the installation requirements: the distance to the walls is 50 mm, to other heating appliances is 100 mm, the spacing between the lines is at least 80 mm. The cable is forbidden to be twisted on bends, and also to pull with effort
The sensor is gently inserted into a plastic flexible tube. One end of the tube tightly closed with a plug, the other through a groove on the wall down to the place of installation of the thermostat. The length from the wall to the place of installation of the sensor - no more than 60 cm
Testing the system for performance can be done before or after installing the thermostat. The device is fixed according to the instructions, connecting the wires to the designated terminals. Temperature controllers of different models differ in the nuances of installation
To the surface was smooth, put up beacons. Screed thickness - 4-5 cm. The topcoat can be installed after 7 days, and the warm floor can be operated only after 4 weeks, when the screed finally dries.
Step 1 - tool for installation of the FTS
Step 2 - preparation of the site for fixing the thermostat
Step 3 - cleaning and priming the concrete base
Step 4 - Laying the insulation layer and mounting tape
Step 5 - Installation of the heating circuits
Step 6 - Install Temperature Sensor
Step 7 - mounting the thermostat on the wall
Step 8 - Cable Tie Filling
In addition to the simplest thermostats with mechanical control, there are programmable models that are most convenient for use in everyday life. By pressing a pair of buttons, you can adjust the heating of the room by the time of day or even by certain hours. Thus, significant energy savings occur.
Installation procedure of the film system
If we talk about self-installation, the film floor has two significant advantages: it takes very little time to lay (experienced builders do it in 1 hour), laying the laminate is made directly to the heating elements, bypassing the leveling layer.
If a carpet or linoleum, soft in structure, is used as a decorative topcoat, an additional layer of plywood is required.
The SPTP connection scheme is quite simple: each module is connected with a pair of wires to a thermostat, which, in turn, is connected to the power line
Typically, the installation of reflective material, which serves as a substrate, is made directly on a concrete base. In the photo guide provided, the concrete is covered with plywood, as the floor is not too even. Instead of plywood, you can use a self-leveling screed - the installation technology does not change.
A photo of
Film floor is chosen in terms of power and size of the working area. Usually, they do not take into account the zones where the heavy furniture is located. However, there are also such systems that allow furniture to be placed at a height of 30 cm without loss of functionality.
Izolon plays the role of a barrier to heat, protects its loss, directing upwards. The rolls are rolled out so that the strips lie strictly butt, without overlap. The material is fixed on the floor or double-sided tape or construction stapler.
It is important not to leave the slightest gap between the fragments of the reflective material, so the strips are glued together with a special tape. It rolls along the joints along the entire length. Recommend to use material from the same manufacturer
Rolls of thermofilm roll on the floor. If it is necessary to cut a separate piece, make a cut with scissors in the middle between two silver lines. Cut edges isolate PVC material from the STP kit
Metal clips are needed to connect wires. They are installed according to the scheme: one side is inside, the other outside, on top of the current-carrying strip. All contacts are directed to the wall with a thermostat. So that the contact clips do not slip, they are squeezed with pliers
After connecting the strips of film with scotch tape, you must attach the supply wires to the terminals. They differ in color, so you need to strictly follow the instructions, which shows the connection diagram. Connection points protect with bitumen tape
The sensor is installed near the regulating device, securing it with adhesive tape on a thermal film. To the place of installation of the thermostat tighten the power wires, and then mount the device itself. The wiring diagram is in the instructions.
The top layer before laying laminate - film. It performs several functions, but the main one is protective. The polyethylene layer protects the laminate from minor irregularities, and film heaters from possible mechanical damage
Step 1 - Testing and preparing the TST kit
Step 2 - Isolon-type thermal reflective flooring
Step 3 - Bonding the Strips with Tape
Step 4 - installation of film heating elements
Step 5 - Install the mounting clips
Step 6 - Connect Electrical Wires
Step 7 - Connecting the Thermostat and the Thermal Sensor
Step 8 - Installation of the protective film
The jutting points of the joints, which may complicate the laying of the laminate, are buried by cutting small holes in the substrate.
Unlike water and even cable analog film floor device made quickly and easily. Using the instructions and diagrams, even a novice will cope with the connection of wires - for this reason, apartment owners who are far from the construction sector like to acquire film systems.
Laminate laying rules
Whatever STF you prefer, the laying of the finishing layer of laminate produced by the same technology. There are several ways of laying, which depend on the chosen type of laminate.
For self-assembly is best suited locking system "CLICK", which is based on a simple snap.
Connection scheme of two parts. Calculate the amount of material and determine the layout of the elements should be before the start of work. You also need to prepare a circular for fitting parts.
The film flooring option is considered to be the easiest to install and popular among city dwellers; therefore, we present it as a model for laying laminate. In order to acclimatize, before laying it is necessary to sustain the material in the room where the installation will be performed.
A photo of
Before laying the laminate should make sure that the elements of the system are working properly, and the thermostat is connected correctly
If a laminate is chosen as a decorative finishing material, it is enough to cover the heating film elements with plastic wrap.
The first element is placed in a corner, but departing from the wall. As a result, the first row should lie along one wall, a crest to it
To connect the elements in the end part, the crest of one element is inserted into the groove of the second and snap into place
Gaps around walls, pipes, and columns are necessary so that the laminate does not swell when swelling. To secure the gaps, use wedges.
To make a solid connection, the part is put with a comb into the groove of the already lying panel at an angle of 20º, then simply lower it to the floor
When all the panels are laid on the floor, with the help of a drill, metal fasteners are installed in the lower part of the walls for the baseboard
The last stage - the installation of plinth around the perimeter of the room. You can use the models proposed by the manufacturer of the laminate collection, or plastic products
Step 1 - control testing of the floor heating system
Step 2 - Installation of the protective coating
Step 3 - Start Laying the Laminate
Step 4 - Connecting the individual parts along the butt
Step 5 - Arrangement of expansion joints
Step 6 - Connect the details on the long side
Step 7 - Mounting the Fixture for the Baseboard
Step 8 - Mounting the Skirting Board
If there are pipes in the room, then the deformation gaps around them must be masked with decorative elements. Usually for this use plastic fittings that match the color.
The most flagrant violation of the technology of laying panels is their rigid fixation. In the process of the slightest swelling or desiccation, firmly fixed elements are deformed, and the locks fail.
With the device of heat-insulated floors on the wooden basis will acquaint next article, comprehensively considering the issues of system selection, design and implementation of the project.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
To take a closer look at the process of installing a heated floor and learn how to avoid gross errors, we suggest watching a useful video.
Practical recommendations for the device TP under the laminate:
Tips for installing a film floor in a wooden house:
How to make a concrete base - "roughing screed":
Instructions for the installation of STP, installation of thermostat and laying laminate:
And installation of STP, and laying of a laminate can be executed independently. You do not need to buy expensive tools for this, knowledge of special technologies will not be useful either.
Beginners are recommended to start with a film floor, and more experienced home masters will cope with the water system. But do not forget that regardless of the selected type of STP, it is necessary to make preliminary calculations.
Want to talk about how to build a floor heating system on a concrete base with your own hands? Have useful information to share with site visitors? Please write comments in the block below, ask questions on the topic of the article, post a photo.