Rabbits are gentle animals that are susceptible to various diseases. Their breeding is not easy, as beginner rabbit breeders may think, because often these pets are exposed to such a dangerous disease as coccidiosis. In order to protect your offspring from death, it is important to know how the disease manifests itself.
Knowing the symptoms it is already possible to carry out the appropriate treatment at the first stage. So what is coccidiosis in rabbits? How to deal with it? Let's look more closely at the symptoms and principles of treating coccidiosis in rabbits.
Table of contents
- Coccidiosis in rabbits
- Sources and factors of infection
- Types of disease
- Symptoms of coccidosis in rabbit
- Symptomatology of intestinal form
- Symptomatic of the hepatic form (if the liver has white spots)
- What can be treated sick animals?
- How to give medicine (how to plant and in what dosage)?
- Treatment with folk remedies (iodine)
- Prevention of disease
Coccidiosis in rabbits
Coccidiosis is a disease caused by unicellular parasites of coccidia. They have a damaging effect on the liver and intestines of the animal. The young rabbits at the age of 3-4 months are most susceptible to this disease. But all the same, adults are not immune from this dangerous infection.
Experts say thatparasites of this disease are present in the rabbit since the first days of its appearance, just as a person is born with worms and other helminths. The presence of coccidia in the animal does not pose a particular danger, the main thing is not to allow and create conditions for their active reproduction, development and appearance of coccidiosis.
The affected organ of coccidia can no longer function normally. As a result, part of the consumed food can not be digested, all the useful components will not be absorbed in the body. For this reason, the sick rabbit begins to lose weight, the body is exhausted and eventually dies.
Sources and factors of infection
Many coccidia cysts are found in the feces of infected animals. Sometimes, through feces, pathogens pass to surrounding objects, food, which in the end can lead to infections of other healthy individuals.Therefore, the main source of infection of coccidiosis is considered contact and fecal-oral.
The sources of infection of coccidiosis include:
- Through feed mixtures, water, and also through milk, in which there are ripened coccidia;
- Infection through feces of infected individuals;
- From other animals that carry the disease virus;
- Milk feeding rabbit, which is infected with the disease;
- Various rodents, birds, insects;
- Tools, the form of farm workers.
Often, animals become infected with disease on those farms where workers carelessly treat their contents and do not comply with the relevant sanitary standards.Sometimes animals that live in unclean cells eat faeces that contain coccidia and subsequently become infected with infection.
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Factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
- The content of rabbits in one cage in a crowded state;
- Not observance of quarantine norms during the acquisition of new individuals;
- If the cells are located in the wrong position, which allows the penetration of rodents or birds carrying infectious agents into them;
- Not observance of sanitary and veterinary rules on the maintenance of these animals.
The disease does not spread by airborne droplets, it has an epidemic nature.Its spread is explained by the fact that when organisms of pathogens get on inventory, working clothes of farm workers, feeding troughs, feed and other items, they are quickly transferred to animal cells.
As a result, all the offspring that live in these cells are infected. Coccidia are resistant to the effects of aggressive substances, sometimes even disinfection does not help to remove these parasites.The only thing that kills these parasites is the treatment of the room with hot water.
Types of disease
Depending on the area of spread of infectious agents, the disease is of the following types:
- Intestinal coccidiosis;
- Hepatic coccidiosis.
Symptomatic of these types of infection occurs in different ways. For the purpose of proper treatment, it is necessary to know the symptoms of two types of coccidiosis so that it can be determined and immediately started treatment..
Symptoms of coccidosis in rabbit
Coccidiosis occurs in acute and chronic form. Coccidiosis in acute form manifests itself on the third day after the lesion.
But coccidiosis in chronic form occurs when the individual has already recovered and recovered from the disease. Sometimes part of the pathogens of infection remains in the body, but it does not harm the tissues of the liver and intestines.
Symptomatology of intestinal form
Coccidiosis of the intestinal type - is considered a dangerous form, which has a rapid development. It is accompanied by acute symptoms.
During the intestinal type of disease, the following symptoms appear:
- Occurrence of alternation of acute diarrhea with rapid current and constipation;
- In fecal masses of animals there are mucous and bloody discharge;
- A strong increase in body temperature. The animal's body is hot enough to touch;
- Sometimes you can notice bloating;
- Poor appetite or lack of it;
- Slow growth of the animal's body, its complete stop;
- Purulent discharge from the eyes, nose;
- Wool becomes of poor quality, in appearance it is disheveled, without shine;
- The abdomen becomes flabby and saggy.
Before you die, the rabbit has strong cramping of the whole body. The animal can fall to the back, while it tilts the head and makes fast movements with the paws. If, at the time of not taking appropriate measures and not providing appropriate treatment, the individual may die after 2 weeks.
Symptomatic of the hepatic form (if the liver has white spots)
Unlike intestinal coccidiosis, the symptomatology of the liver form is less pronounced and less acute. It lasts much longer, from 30 days to 59 days.
In liver form, the animal has signs both in intestinal coccidiosis, only the yellow color of the mucous membrane of the eye is still added, and white spots appear on the liver.
A favorable outcome in the presence of the liver form is much higher than in the intestinal.But often this disease turns into a chronic type. As a result, the infected individual becomes dangerous to other rabbits, so it should be placed in a separate place. An infected individual may die or vice versa recover within a few months..
What can be treated sick animals?
How and what to treat coccidiosis in rabbits? Coccidiosis is well treated with medicines. Means against this disease are sold in many veterinary drugstores. They are used for treatment and for prophylaxis.
During the use of medicines, the infected individuals are planted in a separate cage. The cage containing the diseased animals is disinfected and steamed with hot air.If treatment begins with the first days of the onset of the disease, the chances of recovery will be much higher. With timely treatment, the survival rate is 75-80%.
How to give medicine (how to plant and in what dosage)?
Coccidiosis in rabbits is treated with the following medicines:
Rules for the use of medicinal products:
- Sulphadimethoxin, Sulfapyridazine.The medicine is given together with water. It is added to the water for drinking. On the first day of 1 kilogram of the individual's weight, a gram of the drug is given, in the next 4 days of treatment, 1 gram of body weight of the animal is given per gram of the medicine. After this, you need to take a break for 5 days and then repeat the treatment;
- Phthalazole.To enhance the effect, this drug is best used in conjunction with the drug Norsulfazole. Affected individuals are given by, a gram of Norsulfazole and, a gram of phthalazole per kilogram of rabbit weight. The course of treatment with these drugs should be about 5 days. After that, you need to take a break for 5 days and the treatment is repeated again;
- Furazolidone. During coccidiosis, 30 mg of the preparation per kilogram of body weight of the individual is given daily to the affected rabbit. The course of treatment is a week;
- Baykox. This remedy is considered the most effective in the treatment of coccidiosis. He always has a positive effect and in most cases helps to cure this terrible infection completely. Many experienced rabbit breeders claim that with the help of this remedy, even the advanced stages of coccidiosis can be cured. In the instructions to this tool several methods of application are indicated. You can inject 2 cubes of the drug of the infected individual and already, then pour the medicine into the drinker at the rate of, ml per kilogram of animal weight. Sometimes the medicine is diluted with water and, according to the instructions, injected to the infected animal in a dosage of 10 ml once a day. The exact application can be clarified in the veterinary pharmacy or in detail to study the application instruction;
- Levomycetin and Sulfadimezine. Sometimes with coccidiosis, the animal can be watered with a solution of levomycetin, this drug is given in a dosage of 40 grams or give a drug Sulfadimezin in a dosage of 150 mg.
The rules for the use of other drugs in coccidiosis in rabbits can be learned from the instructions to them. Typically, the instructions describe in detail the characteristics and rules for taking the drug.
Treatment with folk remedies (iodine)
Many experienced rabbit breeders argue that the treatment of coccidosis in rabbits is possible and folk remedies, for example with the help of iodine. It ensures the stopping of active development of coccidia and causes the oxidation of those substances that remained unprocessed stomach.
Rules for the treatment of coccidiosis with iodine for rabbits:
- On the 25th day of pregnancy, the female is given a 1% solution of iodine in a dosage of 100 ml every day;
- On the 5th day after the appearance of cubs, iodine should be removed from the diet, on day 5 it is returned;
- To water iodine of individuals follows 15 more days. Every day, give 2% iodine solution in a dosage of 200 ml. As a result, not only the rabbit, but also the rabbits themselves are protected from infection, because they receive iodine together with the mother's milk;
- Must immediately after the draft of rabbit from the rabbitneed to drink, 1% solution of iodine.Each day, one specimen should be given 50 ml of iodine solution;
- After 10 days, the iodine solution should be removed from the diet;
- AboutIn 5 days it is necessary to water animals again with a solution of iodine. Drink, 2% iodine solution in a dosage of 100 ml. The course of treatment should be 15 days.
Prevention of disease
Of course, the use of drugs and iodine is a mandatory measure in the treatment of coccidiosis, but do not forget about prevention. Because sometimes compliance with preventive measures can prevent the occurrence of terrible consequences for the whole rabbit's offspring.
Remember the following prevention rules for coccidiosis in rabbits:
- It is necessary to clean rabbits regularly. They should always be clean, they should not contain litter and food debris;
- Without fail, every day you need to thoroughly wash the drinkers and change the water as often as possible;
- Feeders should always be clean, all remnants of food from them must be removed;
- To block the access of penetration into the cells of animals are different rodents;
- It is necessary to keep the adults separate from the young;
- Young animals should be kept in spacious cells in the amount of no more than 25 heads;
- Constantly, it is desirable to do rabbit dwellings every day with boiling water and ultraviolet lamp;
- You can not feed young individuals with bran, beans, alfalfa and other high-protein feed mixes;
- A month in quarantine is kept recently purchased individuals;
- Be sure during feeding, you need to make sure that hay, grass or root crops do not fall on the surface of the feces contaminated with feces.
There is a good remedy that is used during the prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits - Zoalen. This drug is given to animals for 10 days.For 1 kilogram of food add 250 mg of the drug every day.It is recommended to feed the rabbits with special granulated fodder mixtures, which contain substances necessary for the prevention of coccidiosis.
However, many rabbit breeders can not always determine the presence of the disease from the first days, so it goes into a difficult stage.
In most cases, when the stage is started, the animal dies, even if treatment is provided.Many veterinary specialists advise, even if the individuals survived after coccidiosis, they should be sent to slaughter anyway. This is due to the fact that this disease may reappear in a few months. But is it possible to eat meat from a rabbit with coccidia? In this case, veterinarians disagree. In any case, it's better not to take risks.
Dead carcases after infection are recommended to burn, because the infection can spread to healthy individuals.
And finally a short video on the topic: