Electrical safety rules are usually studied for a specific purpose. Suppose you need a wiring in the bathroom or the correct outlet. It is recommended to go consistently: from general standards to private ones. Consider the concept of electrical safety tolerance group and the purpose of Rostechnadzor. Let's start with the general definitions.
How to start studying the rules of electrical safety
Most are faced with the need to learn the rules of electrical safety, settling on the company. Admission is required, preparation begins. The employer is ready to provide regulatory documentation on electrical safety rules. This is a solid computer folder with the following data:
- Basics of security at the facility. For example, not everyone understands the justification of wearing a helmet. It seems that it will not save from a brick. In fact, according to the rules, the purpose of the accessory is to protect the head from cutting. Even the slightest bubble of air trapped in a vein from a wound on the skull is fatal.
- Rules of Conduct in high-risk areas. Any object has specific places, for example, a boiler or a reactor. It is clear that the rules of conduct in each case are different, and the employer meticulously writes out the required from the laws.
- Finally, the section is devoted to the proper electrical safety rules. Work with stress is carried out by two, no less. The second is, according to the rules of electrical safety, insure. He will knock over the ladder, cut the current-carrying cable with an ax with an insulating handle, open the switch. The tasks of the assistant in the rules of electrical safety include the break electrical contact. And time goes on for seconds.
- If electrical safety rules are not safe from an accident, it is important to be able to provide first aid. These are methods of artificial respiration through the nose and mouth, the use of special devices similar to a catheter, heart massage. All this needs to be described in terms of age and sequence of actions: where to put your arms and legs, how to put the victim. Finally, the frequency of artificial respiration and heart massage is important.
To pass on admission for electrical safety need to know this. Specific information from the first two parts is important for the employer, and he pays for conducting the credits or creates a commission. It is not included in the range of employee concerns. We recommend to study GGOST 12.1.009.This is a glossary of terms for electrical safety rules.
In the first place is the concept of electrical safety. According to GOST, electrical safety is understood as a system of technical and organizational measures aimed at preserving the life and health of people from stress damage.
In practice, technical measures include grounding, zeroing, organization of fences, etc. Organizational measures include the study of electrical safety rules by employees. Knowing technical measures is also necessary for proper behavior.
The term electrical injury determines what a violation of electrical safety rules leads to. A voltage below 50 V is considered harmless. It just bites. It hurts, but does not lead to death in violation of electrical safety rules. Network voltage in developed countries has an excess amplitude.
One may ask why not to power home appliances with safe current. The power released on the wires will increase greatly. It depends proportionally on the square of the current, so the welding wires are thick, although the voltage there is 25-30 V on the arc. Safe blocks are considered conditional. In case of violation of electrical safety rules, it kills current, not voltage.
The theme of electrical injuries continues the concept of single-phase touch. It is enough to touch the current-carrying part of the equipment with your hand. The current charge is distributed over the surface of the human body, due to violation of electrical safety rules, it can shake( with a small voltage up to 220 V).If we are talking about kilovolts, the phase breaks the insulation in the form of shoes. Formed arc current through the fabric. The rules of electrical safety values are given when ligaments and muscles begin to tear. Better not to allow it.
This is much more dangerous. Electricians, discarding the rules of electrical safety, look contemptuously at 220 V, allegedly it rarely kills if it's dry around. Just shake. Of course, the phase must be quickly removed. The reaction of people to the action of tension is different. Some wonderworkers, contrary to the rules of electrical safety, insert a light bulb into their mouths and show it to be burning when they take the bare wires with two hands, while others even try to do something like that crippling. Between the two phases, the voltage is higher. Due to the shift, an amplitude of 380 V is formed( at each - 220 V relative to the ground), which is much more dangerous.
A more subtle concept is inherent in this term. Imagine that there is an ungrounded common circuit in electrical equipment. This is not a phase, but the point potential may differ from the earth. As for the bipolar touch, you get an analog two-phase. It is better not to touch ungrounded objects with your hands.
This is the value that everyone feels. The threshold is different, the exact value is difficult to determine.
It is much more dangerous. This is the value at which a person cannot independently get out of the hazard. Often seen on TV: the body is shaking, nothing can be done. A person often loses consciousness, then death occurs. The threshold current corresponds to the minimum causing such effects.
Such a terrible term is called rapid indiscriminate contraction of the heart that prevents blood from being pumped. For resuscitation, electric discharges are often used, but this acts destructively on a living person. The nervous system has an electrical nature, a strong current will disrupt the action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system( two nerves that regulate the operation of the pump).As a result, the ventricles get up it is not clear that, after three minutes, irreversible changes in the brain begin. Some current value causes the indicated effects without intermediate steps. The effect is deadly.
. Contact voltage.
An important factor. Suppose a touch to the phase does not cause an immediate death. Changing the light bulb on the cartridge, incorrectly connected to the circuit, with this sign: hangs 220 V, but will not hit it until you take hold of the grounded circuit with your second hand.
It seems safe to touch your hands and at two points of the current-carrying core, but no. At low resistance of the wire under the current, the potential drops. At high voltages, even the difference in the meter is significant. Birds doing such tricks does not kill solely because the distance between the legs is not significant. Conclusion: the electrical safety rules prohibit to take with two hands even for one current-carrying core.
Step Voltage( Step Voltage)
Closely related to the previous concept. It is often called step-by-step voltage, which manifests itself when the current flows directly through the soil. Let's say the cable fell to the ground and it works. The resistance of the earth is much higher than copper. Therefore, the voltage drop even at a distance of tens of centimeters is significant. From here follows a rule known to electricians: one must move away from the accident site in a so-called goose( small) step. In this case, the tension between the feet decreases in proportion to the decrease in the distance between the soles of the feet.
It is an important safety measure. It is carried out on a mandatory basis in the territory of bathrooms and kitchens, although it is not forbidden to organize such measures for an apartment. The meaning of the event: the body of the device is often different in potential from the earth. Equalizing points eliminates the possibility of electric shock.
Not believing in such events, it is useful to measure the voltage relative to the earth on the body of a conventional washing machine with no ground connected. It is clear that when installing outlets according to European standards, such measures are provided automatically. If done correctly, plug in the power plug and ring out any two enclosures. Zanuleniya often organized in the case of an unconnected device, when the ground is not working, and the potential may be present, for example, from a public antenna.
Grounding and Grounding
As is clear from the above, grounding and grounding are different concepts. The first is organized nominally through the outlet. Although it is permissible to lay this line separately, which is often done in enterprises. But in the apartment for the purposes of grounding one of the wires of the cables with yellow-green insulation is used.
Electrical separation network
Is a way to connect electrical equipment on the territory of the bathroom. With the help of an individual transformer, galvanic isolation of the load from the source is carried out, which dramatically reduces the risk of electric shock.
In each workshop, safety posters in electrical installations help to meet the requirements. Usually they are written in red. The language of the text of such banners is understandable to the common man in the street. Safety signs in electrical installations often contain a lightning symbol with an explanatory inscription. With regard to measures to prevent the supply of energy during the execution of work at the facility, for example, to observe the electrical safety rules, use the eloquent inscription "Do not fit - kill!".
Electrical Safety Groups
The electrical safety approval document is signed by the Rostechnadzor inspector. The structure is engaged in certification. It is strongly recommended to practice the tests before passing the electrical safety rules. Fortunately, there are plenty of resources in the network. Today, in the territory of the Russian Federation, 5 electrical safety groups are considered generally accepted. And the first is given literally to everyone, but the rights to work with electronic installations are not assigned. Anyone who has overdue a rerun is at risk here, regardless of the electrical safety group already assigned.
The state does not seek to become a monopolist in this area. In some cases, electrical safety checks are carried out certified by the commission by the enterprise.