Technological innovation is really surprising, especially when it comes to the practical side of life. More recently, people have been known to produce low-power circuits, making it possible to give up the expensive electricity. Agree now alternative sources are available to everyone and it would be great to take advantage of them.
Innovative solar panels gradually, but firmly embedded in our everyday realities for home heating. But before you go behind them in the store, it is necessary to weigh all the pros and cons, or you can purchase exactly the wrong model. To this did not happen, we will reveal the secrets of selecting these devices.
In addition, our material you will learn the design features of the solar collectors, and also find step by step instructions for installing geliobaratey. For simplicity, perceptual material is accompanied by theme pictures and videos.
The content of the article:
- The principle of using solar energy
- Balanced approach to installation
Types of solar systems
- Photovoltaic device
- The design features of solar collectors
Installation instructions geliobatarey
- Step 1. The choice of the angle of inclination
- Step # 2. Construction of the primary circuit
- Step # 3. To understand the peculiarities of operation
- Step # 4. Selection method for joining elements
- Step # 5. Installation of solar panels
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of using solar energy
Often, when faced with the need for installation of solar panels, one wonders about the advisability of the enterprise. Because in most cases, the percentage of sunny days greatly loses a similar value overcast.
Such a ratio is typical for the regions of the middle band, and the climate of the northern regions tend to an even greater number of cloudy days.
Insufficient number of sunny days is directly related to the efficiency of the devices, the processing power of earthly lights. Due to reduced sunlight on the surface of the battery. This process is called insolation.
Solar panels can be used in heating systems as coolant supplier or energy to power devices
Its essence lies in the fact that any plane, regardless of its purpose, assumes a certain amount of solar energy. In the southern regions the number is naturally higher, which makes the installation of solar panels and more important.
However, as practice shows, the technological equipment market in the field of solar energy synthesis, constantly improve their products, so in the modern solar cells geliopanelyah perfectly functioning even in areas with low levels of insolation.
The distribution of solar activity on the example of Russian card. A higher coefficient characteristic of southern regions (+)
Balanced approach to installation
Before you arrange the heating system with solar batteries, you should find out drawbacks and strengths of design, feeding energy of the sun.
Knowledge of the need for a better perception of differences from similar equipment and estimator to assess the feasibility and rationality of construction.
The most important factors are:
- Efficiency. The actual efficiency when converting solar energy into electricity. While energy geliobatarey almost five times more expensive than the usual electricity.
- Seasonality application. Solar panels will be able to work productively only when there are no obstacles in the way of sunlight, including high clouds.
- Weak diagram accumulation. The resulting energy in most cases need to spend immediately. For storage of its needs are vast enough storage to accommodate that need an impressive area.
- The need for auxiliary power. In winter geliopaneli will not be able to supply a sufficient amount of heat to heat the home. But there may be a useful complement to the boiler in the case of sunny weather.
- The expediency of the construction. To date, the return on solar forcing poor. Installing them is justified only in areas that are not connected to centralized networks. Where solar devices is not at all the alternatives.
There is hope for the development and production of solar energy more accessible to private owners of devices. We are sure that once the construction of the systems processing solar energy will be cost-effective.
However, when you consider that energoressursy planet gradually melt, it is possible to fully consider solar technology as a profitable, promising investment.
Sunny complex is completely safe for the environment, it does not emit toxic combustion products, does not violate the natural balance, it does not require the burning of fossil and wood
However, now it is only a supplement to the main source of heat, but it has its own set of advantages.
Significant advantages of the solar complex:
A long period of operation. Constructive simplicity ensures minimum damage. The panels can damage at the time of clearing snow, but the glass replacement is readily available for the production of their own hands.
- Wide variability models. Instruments produces a solid number of foreign companies and individual members of the domestic producers. range of prices makes it possible to choose the option "afford".
- Individual settings. The equipment can be set up with all the vagaries of nature in a particular locality.
- energy cheapness. More precisely, its complete free - a quality that should not be taken literally because of solid materials-constructions geliopaneley.
- Visual appeal. Planar heating systems do not violate the architecture of houses can be seen as elements of creative design.
We found that solar complex can be a help in the home, complementing the traditional sources of heating. Moreover, given the current price of fuel, alternative energy saves, especially in the private sector.
Leading equipment manufacturers, in the description of the goods, strongly emphasize the absolute environmental friendliness system. Naturally, the photon energy conversion process takes place without the participation of any kind were flammable, toxic or chemical explosives.
Located on the roof solar panels do not spoil the exterior of the house does not take up much space
When thinking more globally, the widespread use of solar panels is definitely reduce the consumption of other energy sources such as coal or natural gas. Of course, the situation with the environment in this case, to improve the quality and irrepressible heating bills and combustible materials remain in the past.
The efficiency of the panels directly proportional to the amount of absorbed solar energy. But the technological aspect of the equipment of different types can increase or decrease performance.
To improve system performance, it is recommended to carry out the installation of solar heating in symbiosis with other, more traditional heating methods.
Do not worry about the fact that solar panels will soon fail. The average useful life of the equipment is about 15 years. Proper functioning of the photocells in the first place depends on the region where the unit is used.
As a rule, the most intense level of insolation puts more stress system. Therefore, if the equipment is used in a temperate climate, it is fully capable to serve more than 15 years.
The service life of the solar panels from 12 to 15 years. With proper care, they will last longer
Types of solar systems
Empirically it is proven that some substances are able to more actively respond to the impact of photons. Therefore, the solar panels manufacturing technology is different.
Gelioustroystva for domestic use are divided into two dominant species:
- photoelectric converters (Film and silicon). They represent groups connected in series or parallel with each druzhkoj photocells that convert sunlight into electricity. Collected into a single system of semiconductor elements are called solar panelWhich supplies energy elektrozavisimym heating devices.
- solar collectors (Flat, Vacuum or tubular, Collectors-hubs or mirrored). This is the most common type of household in receiving solar energy and transfers it to the heating system if the warmed coolant in the form of electricity.
Besides the above types have geliostantsii producing energy on an industrial scale. For private owners, they can serve as a centralized energy supplier.
heating system with solar collectors provide energy consumption immediately after its receipt
The principle of operation is based on the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electrical its type. Produce them in the form of modules to an aluminum frame or on a flexible polymer fabric.
In the first case, the module is protected by a high-strength glass top and the bottom of the insulating film. In the second case, the two protective shells are made of polymers.
Photovoltaic cells are connected by bus bars, whose function is to transfer energy accumulator or consumer. For buses connect contacts that serve to connect the individual cells in an integral system and to connect to consumers.
The principle of operation of photovoltaic cells based on the ability of cells to convert solar energy into electricity
With reference to the organization of atoms of silicon solar cells are divided into such categories:
- Monocrystalline. Supplying the most pure silicon manufacturing technology which has long been used in the manufacture of semiconductors. The essence of the production lies in the artificial cultivation of the single crystal, which eventually cut into a plate of 0.2-0.4 mm thickness. This is the future cell battery, which will require 36 units.
- polycrystalline. In the manufacture of the plate are used, obtained from the molten silicon after slow cooling. Energy and work effort technology requires less because there are solar cells with much smaller polycrystals. Usually such a standard battery of bright blue.
- Amorphous silicon. The technology of their production is focused on the principle of evaporation phase. As a result of the evaporation process a thin film of silicon deposited on the carrier element, which envelop the top transparent protective coating. This category is called thin-film solar panels, installed on the walls of houses.
Monocrystalline battery the most productive. Depending on the model and manufacturer of their efficiency varies in the range of 14-17%. Polycrystalline lose to them on performance criteria, the efficiency of an average of 10-12%.
The most inefficient system - geliobatarei amorphous silicon. They are designed for the processing of the scattered radiation, are mounted on the walls of buildings as a complement to a more powerful system located on the roof. Efficiency in the range of 5-6%.
Polycrystalline solar options - the average offer in terms of price and performance
Based on the data obtained from the leading manufacturers of solar modules, such as a company SunTechPower, It becomes clear that the efficiency of single crystals is increasing every year, and soon efficiency can reach about 33%.
However, to date, the best performance numbers belong to the company's products Sanyo. The peculiarity of these panels is multilayered external element, which greatly increases the effectiveness and efficiency solar collectors It is 23%.
In view of the characteristic silicon processing procedures polycrystal structure contains undesirable formation that prevent the better absorption of solar energy.
Also, the crystalline particles of the microstructure module are located in a chaotic manner in relation to each other, making it difficult to sublimation energy. Consequently, the panel efficiency rarely exceeds 18%.
Sometimes there is a symbiosis between amorphous and poly / monocrystalline collectors. This is due to the fact that for the normal operation of polycrystalline require intense sunlight, in contrast to the amorphous panels. Therefore the union of two technologies could be a way out.
also has significant changes in the production of film systems. Thus, at the present stage, there are often enough film solar module based on cadmium and indium.
At each stage, constantly monitored silane coating, otherwise there may be problems associated with the performance
It is proved that cadmium is very well absorbs sunlight, so it had adopted many manufacturers in the field of solar energy. As is known, a radioactive substance, but not to worry because of the possibility of exposure, as metal share is not so large as to cause at least some harm to the atmosphere, not to mention the man.
The semiconductor indium successfully produces 20% efficiency, ahead of cadmium. Because indium is much more in demand in the consumer electronics, namely, the production of LCD TVs, manufacturers often replace other analogue metal - gallium.
Geliooborudovanie film has a flexible structure, which greatly simplifies the installation of
Speaking about the advantages of polymeric film modules and collectors in general, I want to highlight a rather low price, as compared to crystalline panels, complete security and environmental friendlinessThanks to the stable state chemical. substances. Also, a number of additional advantages can add flexibility and versatility.
The design features of solar collectors
The simplest version of a flat solar collector is a kind of box-body, whose face is a blackened metal surface. Inside the coil is filled with water, a mixture of water with antifreeze or air means.
The bottom and walls of the box is closed with thermal insulation, the need to save energy received within the battery.
Metal plate, coupled with tubes to collect and transfer the heated coolant in the heating system. This part is called the absorber. Most often used for its manufacture copper sheet featuring high thermal conductivity.
The outer side of adsorber required to be intensely black for maximal absorption of solar radiation.
Solar panels are tubular type tube or a coil with a metal plate on top
To adsorber from a metal surface is not reflected rays from above set durable clear coat. Usually it is tempered glass options with a minimal metal content.
Outside it is applied to a particular optical sheath, not radiating heat in an infrared light. It improves performance device capable of heating the water to 200 ° C.
Tubular panel sensitive to atmospheric negative. After heavy rainfall, especially hail, it is recommended to carefully check the integrity of the facial cover collector.
The wind of the leaves, dust and debris suspension of branches may also damage the surface. Scratches and chips will lead to a sharp deterioration in the performance of the hardware.
There are several variants of the device of solar panels, as during the operation of developers gradually eliminate deficiencies
The vacuum is equipped with a variety of multi-layer tube, constructed on the principle of the thermos. Such a system allows up to 95% better than the previous model to retain heat.
The bottom portion of the multilayer pipe is a liquid which, when heated by the sun is converted into steam. At the top of this kind of a sealed flask mounted capacitor. Reaching its vapor condenses and transports in the heat.
Geliopaneli working on the vacuum principle, efficiency is typically tubular in areas with a small number of sunny days.
The collectors concentrators equipped with a device with a mirror surface, which focuses the received energy on its absorber surface. Mirror area is greater than the same size of the absorber, thereby increasing the reception efficiency of solar energy.
The mirror element can generally focus on point or fine line without any loss in performance.
Due to the heat-receiving tube apparatus according to the principle thermos device performance increases by almost twice
Less hubs that accept they can only direct radiation. Because the latest developments are equipped with swivel monitoring devices to eliminate or reduce the impact of this lack of equipped.
Tracking devices make the collector to turn after the traffic lights, to collect all its rays.
This is the most effective collector geliopaneley species allows heated heat medium to the maximum as compared with other temperature. However, they work well in desert areas, there are many, which is why demand is mainly industrial organizations.
Solar collector-concentrator operates by focusing the solar energy by the absorber having a smaller area
An interesting new solution became spherical collector design, catching literally everything possible to perceive its rays. It is not necessary to equip the rotary mechanism, by the way, volatile and require a mains connection.
The spherical design differs from the conventional in that the does not consist of individual tubes connected to the inlet and outlet fitting, and the heat of a single screw.
Receiver coil be filled with process water which when heated is moved upward by the helical path and is heated in the outlet, and thence to the heating system.
After cooling the coolant returns from the heating circuit to the inlet manifold spherical. The process is repeated.
The spherical shape allows the full light of day to take the sun's rays without the use of rotary mechanisms
Significant plus spherical system is that the heat comes the whole day. It is not necessary to equip the turning mechanisms in need of power supply. Due to the helical pattern is different minimal loss of energy in the pipeline.
All types of solar collectors are classified as seasonal auxiliary energy systems. Depending on the model, their inner conduit can accommodate up to 200 liters of fluid, and the minimum amount used in vacuum modules, is about 60 liters.
Build a solar collector is realistic with their hands. The site is a collection of articles devoted to homemade from Solar.
We advise to read:
- How to make a solar collector for heating their own hands - a step by step guide
- How to make a solar cell with his hands: instruction on self-assembly
Installation instructions geliobatarey
Panels that are classified as "flat", it is advisable to install in the summer season, when the level of insolation above. This will be the best option value for the energy produced, and therefore the purchase of solar collectors fully justify all the money spent.
Anyway, the energy potential of the equipment allows it to be used in the hot water and heating systems.
The process of energy conversion is very sensitive to temperature. It should be taken into account during installation. First thing is to make sure that the home thoroughly insulated, otherwise there may be unexpected malfunction of the system.
Heating system with solar panel presents a closed loop with a circulating coolant thereon
For each region, provided optimum variant of the installation of equipment. The calculation is made on the degree of the same insolation. Use according to rules, the collector must be positioned so that the angle of incidence of sunlight on its surface was 90 °.
Only in this case the efficiency of the work will be maximized system. To achieve absolute accuracy when mounting the panels is possible by measuring the latitude.
An important factor will be the direction in which the panels are located. Because the highest power level is reached substantially in the middle of the day, dispose the panel is oriented in the south direction. There may be some variation in the process of installation, in the east or west direction, but not too much.
In addition, the decrease in efficiency is often observed on the background of falling shadows of the trees on the panel header. In winter it is recommended to increase the angle of geliopaneley, it will improve the level of system performance.
Step 1. The choice of the angle of inclination
Efficiency collector is primarily dependent on the angle of the panel arrangement relative to the horizontal surface. for optimal light absorption it is recommended to keep the slope in the vicinity of 45 °.
Optimal solar panel tilt angle depends on the season. Well, if the instrument is equipped with a device for adjusting the angle
Azimuth is necessary to keep at around 0 ° (the forward direction to the South). Allowed some deviation in the 30-40 ° for better sun exposure. To increase rigidity, there are specials. aluminum construction.
This is primarily a characteristic of the collector on the inclined roof type. They prevent change your settings, due to weather, and the fast speed of installation, together with the retaining hooks and profiles, to save time.
Step # 2. Construction of the primary circuit
At the first stage, the assembly of all components of the heating boiler, compressors, heat conductor, etc. For convenience, we recommend positioning elements of the system in an easily accessible place. when installing expansion tankShould take into account the absence of obstacles between him and collectors.
The temperature inside the tank is measured using a temperature sensor. It should be fixed to the bottom of the tank.
The next step will be the organization of the ventilation system. When installing the circuit you need to create offtakeComing out of the expansion tank. The best solution is to bring the communication to the roof. This will contribute to the regulation of pressure changes inside the heating system.
Solar panels - a part of the heating system, which must besides them include boilers, centrifugal pumps, piping, etc.
The process fluid motion inside DHW depends on circulating pump. It should only be used for systems with closed water circuit type. In addition, for the convenience of fluid change, the expansion tank must be provided with a drainage system. For this fit the installation of the crane somewhere in the bottom of the device.
Step # 3. To understand the peculiarities of operation
Geliosistema It operates on 220 V. Each model has a unique connection scheme that is supplied.
Wiring must be carefully insulate and temperature controllers and various relays must be placed in an extremely dry environment. For better tightness is recommended to protect the equipment with a hydrophobic material.
Always make sure that the ground is connected to the system. This will protect against life-threatening situations.
Step # 4. Selection method for joining elements
Spike copper circuits and electrical components necessary to produce, using a special solder paste. Before that, you need to make a clean joints. Better to do it with a steel brush.
The elements leading to the distribution tank (pipes, coils) are welded or bolted pre sliced thread. It is important to understand that the tube with the chilled liquid must be suitable to the bottom of the tank, and a hot - to the top.
Step # 5. Installation of solar panels
Preparatory stage: it is necessary to prepare for the installation.
To install solar panels useful conventional tools installer: a drill, screwdriver, hammer, pliers, screwdrivers, wrenches
Two solar batteries required as power supply for the apparatus independently operating systems
The set includes screws, bolts and nuts, anchors, rivets, clips - that is, any hardware, which can be useful for the installation of metal profiles and panels
Quickly and easily panel mounted on specially selected fasteners, which are included for assembly or sold separately
The traditional set of assembly tools
Solar panels in the form of panels
Fastening tools for mounting
Elements of aluminum profiles for mounting
Followed by solar installation. Instructions for the installation of 2 panels for mounting any number of solar collectors: the installation does not change the principle. The main thing - to find the area to be installed.
As a suitable site is selected front - side, south-facing, ie the maximum sunlit
Finishing the building - Soft siding, so additional support is required for installation. Frame made of aluminum profile it is necessary to make the size of solar panels
Aluminum is light enough not to damage the façade cladding, and strong enough to withstand the weight of the panels - 2 pieces of 8kg
For lifting the panels under the roof quite ordinary ladder, but at the time of installation, you must comply with safety regulations
To simplify the mounting procedure is better to take the help of a second person, one firmly holding the panel, its second fastens
After installing both panels should again check the strength of the fasteners, as the construction will endure the load during strong wind and rain
First you need to connect a cable connecting the solar panels and the controller, are on the outside of the house (under the panel)
Cable on the outside of the house through a hole in the wall stretched inside - left only to connect the battery terminals
Step 1 - Selecting a location for mounting
Step 2 - Removal panels sizes
Step 3 - installation stands aluminum profile
Step 4 - lifting the panel on the facade
Step 5 - fastening the first solar cell
Step 6 - fixing the second solar batteries
Step 7 - Connect the external cable lines
Step 8 - Connection of solar panels to the electricity system
The last stage - testing system.
Additional information about the installation and connection of solar panels is presented in the articles:
- Schemes and ways to connect solar cells: how to carry out the installation of solar panels
- Wiring diagram Solar: the controller, the battery and serving system
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The use of solar panels in the autonomous communication systems:
Demonstration of the production of one of the leaders in solar cell production:
The principle of design and operation of the vacuum manifold:
Solar year to improve performance in the conversion of solar energy. The developers already offer a huge selection of flat collectors and tubular type, with the use of quartz deposition or monocrystalline modules.
All this is gradually updated by alternative energy sources, whereby the solar energy will soon be available to everyone.
Have experience connecting or using solar panels to heat your home? Or have questions on the subject? Please, share your thoughts, leave comments and participate in discussions. Communication unit located below.