Solar panels for home and garden: the principle of work and the calculation of the required number of

Science has given us a time when technology is the use of solar energy has become public. Get solar panels for the home owner has the opportunity to everyone. Summer residents are not lagging behind in this regard. They often find themselves away from centralized sources of sustainable electricity.

Cognition device and calculation principles of operating units solar approximates reality ensure its natural site electricity.

The content of the article:

  • Device and solar battery action
  • Types of solar modules panels
  • Scheme of the solar power
  • The peak load and average daily power consumption
  • The procedure for calculating the energy performance
    • Preparation for arithmetic calculations
    • Drawing up specifications consumers
    • An analysis and optimization of the data
  • Selection gelioelektrostantsii nodes
    • Determination solar operating voltage
    • Battery Acquisition solar modules
    • Construction of battery power
    • Choosing a good controller
    • Selection of the best performance of the inverter
  • Useful videos on the topic

Device and solar battery action

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Once inquiring minds opened to us natural substance produced under the influence of sun light particles, photons, electrical energy. The process called the photovoltaic effect. Scientists have learned how to manage microphysical phenomenon. On the basis of semiconductor materials they have created a compact electronic devices - photocells.

Manufacturers have mastered the technology of combining miniature transducers geliopaneli effective. Efficiency of solar panel modules from silicon widely industrially produced 18-22%.

Indicative diagram of the solar energy supply
From the description scheme clearly visible: all the components are equally important elements of the plant - of them competent selection depends coordinated work of (+)

Of going solar cell modules. It is the end of travel of the photons from the Sun to the Earth. Hence, these components are light go on their way already in the circuit as a DC particles.

They are distributed on batteries, either undergo transformation into charges alternating electric current voltage of 220 volts, various domestic technical supply devices.

How are solar panels for the home and garden
Solar power is a set of series-connected semiconductor devices - photocells convert solar energy into electrical

Types of solar modules panels

Geliopaneli modules are assembled from solar cells, otherwise - photovoltaic cells. The massive use of photovoltaic cells have found two species. They differ from silicon used for their manufacture semiconductor species is:

  • Polycrystalline. This solar cells made from silicon melt by prolonged cooling. A simple method of production determines affordability, but the performance of polycrystalline options does not exceed 12%.
  • Monocrystalline. This items resulting in slicing thin wafers artificially grown silicon crystal. The most productive and expensive option. Average efficiency near 17% can be found monocrystalline solar cells with higher efficiency.

The polycrystalline solar cells flat square shape with non-uniform surface. Monocrystalline appear as thin homogeneous surface structure squares with cut corners (psevdokvadraty).

So look FEP - photoelectric converters
So look FEP - photovoltaic cells: solar module characteristics do not depend on the variety of used items - it only affects the size and price

first performance at identical panel power is greater in size than the latter due to the lower efficiency (18% versus 22%). But percent, on average, ten less expensive and have a preferential demand.

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Monocrystalline solar cells
Monocrystalline silicon wafers of polycrystalline times more productive analogues, but much more expensive
The negative conducting paths on the wafer
On the back side of the wafer laid minus conductive lines on the front - plus-
Polycrystalline solar cell elements for assembly
Polikristalicheskie silicon wafers cheaper because popular among independent artists. Soldering elements in a similar way
Parties polycrystalline solar cell
The polycrystalline plate are connected to the modules, which should be at 36 or 72 pieces. Modular batteries collected panel
Monocrystalline solar cells
Monocrystalline solar cells
The negative conducting paths on the wafer
The negative conducting paths on the wafer
Polycrystalline solar cell elements for assembly
Polycrystalline solar cell elements for assembly
Parties polycrystalline solar cell
Parties polycrystalline solar cell

Scheme of the solar power

When watched by mysterious-sounding names of nodes that are part of the sunlight supply system, comes the idea of ​​supertehnicheskoy device complexity. At the micro level of the photon life it is. And clearly the general scheme of the circuit and the principle of its actions look very simple. From the light of heaven to "light bulb Ilyich" just four steps.

Solar modules - the first component of the power plant. This thin rectangular panels assembled from a certain number of standard wafer solar cells. Manufacturers make a variety of graphic panels for electric power and voltage multiple of 12 volts.

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Installation of solar panels on the roof slope
Solar cells are used in regions with a low amount of cloudy days, exploiting them as primary or secondary energy supplier
Installation on the terraces, verandas, balconies, attics
There is a sense in the construction of solar systems in areas with underdeveloped infrastructure, which are not yet connected to the centralized power grid
Solar system on a sloping roof extension
During the summer dacha solar devices can provide electrical energy and heating system
Inner solar mini power unit
Equipment to monitor performance and adjust the solar panels do not take up much space, typically includes an inverter, controller and battery
Location on the free portion of the site
If the site has a free, well-lit space, solar power can be placed on it
Built on the street equipment unit for battery
With good protection against atmospheric negative control and monitoring of the solar battery can be placed in the street
Build a solar panel of the finished battery
Solar power for private homes can be assembled from prefabricated panels
Solar Battery Manufacturing their own hands
Significantly cheaper and almost equal in performance to the solar cell, collected his own hands from silicon wafers
Installation of solar panels on the roof slope
Installation of solar panels on the roof slope
Installation on the terraces, verandas, balconies, attics
Installation on the terraces, verandas, balconies, attics
Solar system on a sloping roof extension
Solar system on a sloping roof extension
Inner solar mini power unit
Inner solar mini power unit
Location on the free portion of the site
Location on the free portion of the site
Built on the street equipment unit for battery
Built on the street equipment unit for battery
Build a solar panel of the finished battery
Build a solar panel of the finished battery
Solar Battery Manufacturing their own hands
Solar Battery Manufacturing their own hands

flat-shaped device which is arranged to open to direct rays surfaces. The modular units are combined using mutual connections in geliobatareyu. Battery task to convert solar energy received, giving a constant current of a predetermined magnitude.

Batteries - all known electric charge accumulation device. Their role within the power system from the traditional sun. When home users are connected to a centralized network, energy storage stocking electricity. They also accumulate its surplus, if consumed to provide enough electrical power of the solar module current.

The battery pack circuit sends a required amount of power and maintains a stable voltage as soon as the consumption of it increases to a high value. What happens, for example, at night when idle or during fotopaneli malosolnechnoy weather.

The use of solar energy supply in the house
Scheme home energy via solar cells is different from the embodiment with collectors ability to store energy in the accumulator (+)

Controller - an electronic intermediary between the solar module and battery. Its role is to regulate the battery charge level. The device does not allow their boiling overcharge or falling below a certain electric potential standards required for stable operation of the entire solar.

Inverter - inverting, so literally explains the sound of the word. Yes, because in fact, the node performs the function when it seemed electricians fiction. It converts the direct current of the solar battery module and a variable with the difference between 220 volts potential. It is this tension is working for the overwhelming mass of household electric appliances.

An example of installing the panels - solar collectors
The flow of solar energy is proportional to the position of the light: When installing modules, it would be good to provide for adjustment of the angle depending on the time of year

The peak load and average daily power consumption

Fun to have your own worth until geliostantsiyu lot. The first stage on the way to owning the power of the sun's energy - the definition of an optimal peak in kilowatts and rational average daily power consumption in kilowatt-hours or holiday home economy.

Peak load creates the need to include multiple electrical appliances and It is determined by their maximum total capacity considering some characteristics inflated launchers of them.

Power calculation maximum reveals vital need simultaneous operation of any electrical appliance, and which not. Such indicators are subject to power characteristics of the power plant units, ie the total cost of the device.

Daily power consumption of the appliance measured by the product of his personal power at the time that he worked on the networks (electricity consumed) during the day.

Total average daily consumption is calculated as the sum of the energy consumed by each consumer of electricity for the daily period.

A few tips on rational energy consumption
Subsequent analysis and optimization of the data about the loads and power consumption will provide the necessary completion and follow-up of the solar energy system with minimal costs (+)

The result of energy consumption helps to rationally approach the flow of solar electricity. The result of the calculation is important for the further calculation of the battery capacity. This parameter of the battery pack price, a lot of standing component of the system depends more.

The procedure for calculating the energy performance

The process of computing literally starts with a horizontally arranged, in a section that is deployed tetrad sheet. Light pencil lines of the sheet form is obtained with thirty graphs and lines by the number of household electrical appliances.

Preparation for arithmetic calculations

The first column features of the traditional - the serial number. The second column - the name of the appliance. The third - his individual power consumption.

Columns from the fourth to the twenty-seventh - day clock from 00 to 24. In them through the horizontal slashes are entered:
- in the numerator - the operation of the device during particular hours in decimal form (0.0)
- in the denominator - again his individual power consumption (this repetition is necessary to calculate the hourly loads).

Twenty-eighth the speakers - the total time that the device is working everyday throughout the day. In the twenty-ninth - record personal device power consumption as a result of the multiplication of individual power consumption at the time of the work for the daily period.

Table exemplary power home appliances
Drawing up of the expanded consumer, taking into account the hourly load specifications will leave more conventional devices, thanks to the rational use of (+)

Thirtieth column also is standard - a note. It is useful for intermediate calculations.

Drawing up specifications consumers

The next stage of the calculations - the transformation of notebook form in the specification residential consumers. From the first column is understandable. There shall assign the line numbers.

In the second column to fit the name of energy consumers. It is recommended to start filling appliances hallway. The following describes other facilities counterclockwise or clockwise (to whom as convenient). If there is a second (etc.) floor, the procedure is the same: the stairs - round. At the same time we must not forget about the devices on staircases and street lighting.

The third graph indicating the output front of the name of each electric appliance better filled simultaneously with the second.

Columns from the fourth to the twenty-seventh match your every hour of the day. For convenience, they can immediately procherknut horizontal lines in the middle rows. Received the top half of the lines - as if the numerators, lower - denominators.

These columns are filled row. Numerators selectively executed as time slots decimal format (0.0), reflecting the operation of the appliance in one or another specific hour period. In parallel, where tabulated numerators, denominators fit with power indicator device, taken from the third graphs.

After all time filled columns are transferred to the individual estimates of daily working time of electrical appliances, moving the lines. The results are recorded in the corresponding cells of the twenty-eighth the speakers.

Table-clock autonomous power modes
When the solar power is playing a supporting role to the system is not running on empty part of the load can be connected to it at a constant power supply (+)

On the basis of the power and working time successively calculated daily consumption of all consumers. It is stated in the twenty-ninth yacheyah column.

When all the rows and columns are filled with the specification, make the results of the calculations. Folding pografno power of the denominators time column load obtained each hour. Summing downward individual daily power consumption twenty-ninth the speakers, find the average daily total.

The calculation does not include the self-consumption of the future system. This factor is taken into account ancillary factor in the subsequent final calculations.

An analysis and optimization of the data

If the power of gelioelektrostantsii planned as a backup, data on hourly power consumption and of total average daily energy consumption helps minimize the consumption of expensive solar electricity. This is achieved by eliminating the use of energy-intensive consumers to the restoration of central power, especially in the hours of maximum loads.

If the solar power system is designed as a DC electrical supply, then the results of hourly loads are pushed forward. It is important to so distribute the electricity consumption during the day to remove much prevailing highs and strong lows falling through.

Exception peak, leveling of maximum loads, elimination of sharp dips in the power of time allow to pick up the most cost-effective options for solar system components and provide a stable, more importantly, long-term trouble-free operation geliostantsii.

Real and rational graphs of hourly energy consumption
The graph reveals the uneven power our task - to move the highs at the time of greatest activity of the sun and reduce the total daily consumption, especially the night.

Presented drawing shows the conversion obtained on the basis of the graph prepared irrational specification optimal. Indicator daily intake was reduced from 18 to 12 kW / h, the average hourly load from 750 to 500 watts.

The same principle of optimality embodiment is useful when using the power from the sun as a backup. Needless to splurge on a capacity increase of solar modules and batteries for the sake of some temporary inconvenience, maybe you should not.

Selection gelioelektrostantsii nodes

To simplify the calculations will be considered version of the application as a solar battery to give primary electrical energy source. User Guide conditional sale in the Ryazan region, where the permanent residents from March to September.

Visibility of reasoning give practical calculations based on data management chart of hourly energy released above:

  • Total daily average power consumption = 12,000 watts / hour.
  • The average load consumption = 500 watts.
  • Maximum Load 1200 watts.
  • Peak load to 1200 x 1.25 = 1500 watts (+ 25%).

The values ​​required in the calculation of the total capacity of solar devices and other operating parameters.

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Step 1: Preparing for the construction of mini power plants
Before the construction of mini power plant is necessary to calculate the required capacity of the group of devices and to determine their amount
Step 2: Standard equipment of the solar battery
In the store before you buy should be carefully check the packaging of each device and view them for damage
Step 3: Transport solar cells
Transport of solar panels manufactured in the factory packaging. The device requires correct transportation, after which the need to re-verify the integrity of the screen and cabinet
Step 4: Assembling the batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions
solar cell assembly preferably carried out in an open free-site or in a fairly spacious room
Step 5: The angle of the solar power element
angle for mounting on a support member of the kit has to take into account the time of year and the direction of the sun's rays
Step 6: Specificity of the solar panel arrangement
Place for solar equipment location should be chosen so that a number was not created by the shadow of tall buildings and trees
Step 7: Setting up the hardware for controlling solar systems
Controller, inverter and ABA solar mini power plant installed in heated rooms, do not have the threat of flooding
Step 8: Build a large-scale solar power plant
If necessary, supplement the solar power plant operated by power modules are complemented by similar devices in the required amount
Step 1: Preparing for the construction of mini power plants
Step 1: Preparing for the construction of mini power plants
Step 2: Standard equipment of the solar battery
Step 2: Standard equipment of the solar battery
Step 3: Transport solar cells
Step 3: Transport solar cells
Step 4: Assembling the batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions
Step 4: Assembling the batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions
Step 5: The angle of the solar power element
Step 5: The angle of the solar power element
Step 6: Specificity of the solar panel arrangement
Step 6: Specificity of the solar panel arrangement
Step 7: Setting up the hardware for controlling solar systems
Step 7: Setting up the hardware for controlling solar systems
Step 8: Build a large-scale solar power plant
Step 8: Build a large-scale solar power plant

Determination solar operating voltage

Internal operating voltage of all solar systems based on the multiplicity of 12 volts as the most common denomination batteries. The most widely geliostantsy components: solar modules, controllers, inverters - available under the popular voltage 12, 24, 48 volts.

Higher voltage allows the use of lead wires of smaller section - and this improved reliability of contacts. On the other hand, the failed network 12V batteries, can be replaced by one.

In the 24-volt network, considering the specifics of use of the battery, it is necessary to replace in pairs. 48V network will require changing all four batteries of one branch. Besides, at 48 volts, it has a risk of electric shock.

Assemblies branches battery packs of different voltages
With the same capacity, and approximately equal to the purchase price should batteries with the greatest allowable depth of discharge and a maximum current

The main difference between the internal system selection potentials associated with the nominal power characteristics produced by modern industry inverters and should take into account the magnitude of the peak load:

  • 3 to 6 kW - 48 volts,
  • from 1.5 to 3 kW - 24 or equal to 48V,
  • to 1.5 kW - 12, 24, 48B.

Choosing between the wiring reliability and inconvenience of replacing batteries, for our example we will focus on reliability. In the following we shall start from the calculated operating voltage system of 24 volts.

Battery Acquisition solar modules

The formula for calculating the required power from the solar cell is as follows:

PCM = (1000 * Esut) / (A * Sin)


  • PCM = solar battery power = total power of solar modules (panels W)
  • 1000 = adopted photosensitivity photovoltaic cells (kWh / m²)
  • = Esut need in a daily power consumption (kWh, in this example = 18)
  • seasonal k = coefficient taking into account all the losses (summer = 0.7; Winter = 0.5)
  • Zin = tabular value insolation (solar radiation) at an optimal slope panels (kWh / m²).

Learn insolation value can have regional meteorological service. The optimum angle of solar panels is equal to the value of latitude:

  • spring and autumn,
  • plus 15 degrees - in the winter,
  • minus 15 degrees - in the summer.

Considered in this example, Ryazan region is located on the 55th latitude.

insolation map - Russian solar radiation flux
The maximum power is achieved using a solar tracking systems, seasonal tilting angle panels using a mixed trim modules

For taking time from March to September the best unregulated tilt solar array is the summer 40⁰ angle to the ground. With this arrangement the modules averaged daily insolation Ryazan 4.73 during this period. All figures are there, performing the calculations:

  • PCM = 1000 * 12 / (0,7 * 4,73) ≈ 3600 watts.

If we take the solar cell base 100-watt modules, it would take them 36 pieces. They will weigh 300 kilograms and occupy an area size where a 5 x 5 m.

Construction of battery power

Picking up the batteries need to be guided by the precepts:

  1. Not suitable for this purpose, ordinary car batteries. Battery solar power plants are labeled «SOLAR» inscription.
  2. Acquire batteries should only be identical in all respects, it is desirable, from a factory lot.
  3. The room where the battery pack is located, should be kept warm. The optimum temperature when the batteries give out full capacity = 25⁰C. When it -5⁰C to decrease the battery capacity is reduced by 50%.

If you take to calculate the indicative battery voltage of 12 volts capacity of 100 amps / hour, it is easy to calculate an hour he would be able to provide energy consumers with total power of 1200 watts. But it is at full discharge, which is extremely undesirable.

For continuous operation, the battery is not recommended to reduce their charge is below 70%. Marginal figure = 50%. Taking as a "middle ground" the number of 60%, put the basis for subsequent calculations energy reserve 720 W / h for every 100 Ah battery capacitive component (1200 W / h x 60%).

EXAMPLE battery arrangement for the power unit
Perhaps purchase a single battery capacity of 200 Ah cheaper purchase two 100, and the number of contact connections of the battery will decrease

Initially must install batteries 100% charged from a stationary power source. Batteries must completely cover the load during the night time. If you are not lucky with the weather, maintain the necessary parameters of the system and in the afternoon.

It is important to bear in mind that an overabundance of batteries would lead to their continuous undercharging. This will significantly reduce the service life. The most rational solution seems staffing batteries with energy store unit, sufficient to cover a daily power consumption.

To find the required total battery capacity, divide the total daily consumption of 12,000 W / h at 720 W / h and multiply by 100 Ah:

  • 12 000/720 * 100 = 2500 A * 1600 A ≈ h * h

Subtotal for this example will require batteries with a capacity of 16 8 to 100 or 200 Ah connected in series-parallel.

Choosing a good controller

Competent selection of battery charge controller (CRA) - the problem is very specific. Its input parameters must conform to the selected solar modules, and the output voltage - the inner solar potential difference (in our example - 24 volts). must necessarily provide a good controller:

  1. Multistage!!! charge the battery, a multiple of extending their term of efficient service !!!
  2. Automatic mutual, batteries and solar panels, connection-disconnection in correlation with the charge-discharge.
  3. Reconnect the battery to the load on the solar cell, and vice versa.

This small unit size - a very important component.

Wiring interconnecting solar station node
If the part of consumers (eg lighting) translate into a direct 12-volt power from the controller, the inverter will need less powerful means cheaper

The correct choice depends on trouble-free operation of the controller of expensive battery pack and balance of the whole system.

Selection of the best performance of the inverter

Inverter power is selected such that the receiver could provide long-term peak loads. It must match the input voltage difference solar inner potentials.

For a better selection of options is recommended to pay attention on the parameters:

  1. The shape and frequency of the outputted AC. The more close to the sine wave of 50 Hz - the better.
  2. efficiency of the device. The above 90% - the remarkable.
  3. Own consumption of the device. It should be commensurate with the overall system power consumption. Ideal - to 1%.
  4. Ability to withstand short-term two-fold node overload.

Naiotlichneyshee performance - an inverter with built-in controller.

Useful videos on the topic

Videos clearly disclose the topic of the article.

Showing the installation of solar panels on the roof of the house with his own hands:

Selection of rechargeable batteries for solar and species differences:

Cottage solar power for those who does everything himself:

Discussed step by step practical methods of calculations, the basic principle of the effective operation of modern solar panel batteries as part of a home Autonomous gelioelektrostantsii help the owners of a large house and a densely populated area, and a country house in the middle of nowhere to find energy sovereignty.

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