To connect the machine in the panel on the site cause an electrician and explain the task. Outside the apartment the landlord has no right to do anything: to replace the machine gun in the dashboard, play with the phases, carry out grounding. Hunters now wean simply. Look at the photo: visible layout electricians in the panel. The conductors are live at 220V, and between them - 380V.And it is clearly visible: not the slightest signs of isolation are observed. At the same time, the body of the shield is grounded. Imagine if the hanger is to close the circuit. ..
The rules for the assembly of junction boxes and the installation of
automatons On the set, most people have good old traffic jams. Disposable. The vein burns, you have to make bugs - a thin wire is soldered on both sides of the fuse. Characteristics of the device vary, the power of operation becomes uncertain. Technical datasheets for the current give a working value that the wiring pulls for a long time. For example, the following information corresponds to the PVS 3x0.75 wire:
- Rated current 16A.There are data - the parameter of three-core cables is 14A.
- Power 2300 watts. There is a first task. The current in 16A is multiplied by the voltage of 230V, it turns out to be 3700 W, 14 A - 3220 is coming out. From where, one wonders, is the figure 2.3 kW taken?
- Peak current is 4.5 kA.From the characteristics, estimating the number of veins in a branch, we find useful information. For example, how long will cope with copper hair in case of emergency? Suppose the harness is woven from 15 lived. Each withstands 4.5 kA / 15 = 300A.It's a lot. Even in modern new buildings, machines are rarely placed above 63A.It is clear that when using even a single conductor, the wiring will burn out earlier than it will knock out the cork.
- Often there are fantastic information, calling the range of suppressed interference and cable length.
Outcome: it is difficult to find reliable information on your own. It is better to use official standards. And in GOST it is difficult to find the operating current, not to mention the maximum. Present information: for a section of 0.75 square millimeters, the working value is 6A.The value is regulated in fact( see table 9a GOST 7399).If you take the typical automatic protection for 50A, they correspond to the copper wiring with a cross section of 0.75 square millimeter.
Noticed - the numbers differ from the above. The state does not imply the possibility of the restoration of burnt traffic jams by the population. Need to buy in the store. The protection machine is good because it is reusable. Special device is guaranteed to disconnect the voltage in an emergency. Those who believe that 50A is the trigger value are mistaken. This is a working value. The situation with multiple exceedances is abnormal. And the fact explains the necessity of dividing the apartment into branches.
Suppose it is recommended that overhead lighting be placed residential 1.5 square millimeters for copper, for ovens and electric stoves - 4. It is clear that the insulation burnout threshold varies. A single machine at the entrance to the apartment can not equally protect everything. It turns out, the device will only save the house from fire( and that is not a fact).The connection diagram of the automatons in the panel looks like this:
- The access shield is more needed for electricians, we don’t have the right to dig into it on our own and change anything. The wiring refers to the common property served by the management company. On the site are machines that can cut down the electricity in the apartment. In reality, the apartment has two traffic jams.
- An electrical panel is placed inside the apartment. Often, the dimensions do not allow to build equipment into the wall, you have to find a place. For example, placed in the ceiling area.
How to dissolve the switchboard in the apartment
We found out: an electrician works in the stairwell, buying security automats, you need to know in advance how many amps to take. Parameters of new buildings are significantly different from the Khrushchev. As a result of such work on the site in the area of the counter will appear two machines. Now fast forward to the apartment.
Installation of machines in the switchboard is made on special brackets. Actually, the size of the boxes varies depending on the number of components. Recommendations will help to determine their sum:
- In the room there are at least two branches: lighting and sockets. The first ones are wired by two or three wires( depending on the need for grounding) with a copper cross section of 1.5 square millimeters, the second - 2.5.At the same time, the protection machines are also selected: on 10 and 16А, respectively. The exception is electric cookers, the core for stoves with a power consumption of 6 kW is selected with a cross section of at least 6 square millimeters, and an automat on 20A.Attentive readers notice: the current consumption in this case is higher. In reality, the circuit breaker turns off when the nominal is exceeded by 45% in about an hour. The housewife needs to know this when implementing recipes. Many will ask how to check the actual consumption of equipment, which may differ significantly from the nominal. There are current tongs, the rules of use have already been explained. Thus, the head of the house receives a task from his beautiful halves( which keys to turn on and by how much), and then he has to choose the cross section of the conductor and the machine, based on the requirements. An example( 6 kW, 4 square millimeters, 20A, 1 hour of work) resulted above.
- Conditioners are a separate line. It is recommended for each room to hold its own branch, if the climate technology is too much and the technical work is carried out metered.
- If the equipment is placed near the sink, the bathroom should be no closer than 60 cm to the borders of the water distribution point. Moreover, the connection is through differential automata. Devices operate on leakage current( no more than 30 mA according to the rules of the Russian Federation).See also GOST 50571.11.
- A separate branch of the machine is required for electrification of the loggia. The cross section of the core is taken 2.5 square millimeters. Without sockets enough and 1.5.
- At the entrance to the switchboard, it is recommended to install two automatic devices one after the other - regular and differential. The rated current is obtained by adding the average consumption.
The choice of models deserves attention. For example, the differential automat AD-12 IEK MAD10-2-016-C-010 with a response current of 10 mA and a price above 1000 rubles is found on sale. Nearby is the device Difavtomat AD-4 TDM SQ0221-0006 with the same denomination. But the trigger current is higher - 30 mA, and the poles are twice as large. In Russian, the second differential machine for 900 rubles is suitable according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and allows connection of twice the number of devices. Both are mounted on a standard bracket. Which one will you take?
Circuit Breakers come at a price four times lower. There are variations. There is a gradation according to the class of the disconnecting device from A and further according to the Latin alphabet. In houses and apartments it is recommended to use B and C. They differ in response current. The collector engine can cut them down easily. We have already given an example in the review with testing of starting a drill, where it is shown that the no-load current at the highest speed is significantly lower than the starting one. Using overly sensitive protection devices, there is a chance of permanent tripping due to protection tripping.
In each case, we recommend using current clamp to assess the consumption of devices. General recommendations:
- Electronics is connected through more sensitive protection machines, for example, A or B.
- . Connecting household appliances, including washing machines and vacuum cleaners, it is better to choose class C.
Other machines have a rather specific purpose. Before installing, assess the consequences in advance. And vice versa, if there are large and powerful machines in the garage, it may be necessary to purchase class D automatic devices. There are many types of automatic machines; we see no reason to bother the readers. We remind that for each type of devices( including lighting) determine the maximum starting currents. Easy to save when using LED bulbs. In this case, the requirements for the wiring and the nominal of protective automata fall sharply, all illumination in the house can be put on a single node.
The automatic machine in this case applies a differential( since the branch enters the bathroom lighting).This will obviously help to save when using multi-pole devices( one automatic differential protection device is purchased, he manages sockets for the washing machine and lighting).As the money in the family budget can vary the amount.
How to assemble anelectrical panel
A.Zemskov is of the opinion that the assembly of switchboards should be done by professionals. The connection of automata in the panel is carried out with the obligatory checking of contacts, on the brackets, the connection is carried out by tires, and not by ordinary wires. The rest is not complicated, terminals are often clamping for screwdrivers under the cross. There are devices where the core is embedded without a tool. The cost increases accordingly.
It is clear that automatons are electrically connected in parallel, with conventional RCDs interrupting the phase circuit, the differential ones require connection and a neutral conductor. None of the ground disconnects leaving the site. We remind you that in the kitchen, according to the rules, at least 4 outlets are installed for 10A, in the room there is a piece for every 4 meters of the perimeter. Difficulties show clearly: it is not always an independent connection of the machines in the panel - the best idea.
Now the express instruction of connecting the machine in the dashboard:
- We make an electrical connection with the necessary terminals.
- We put on the bracket.
Do not forget to choose the correct values of automatic circuit breakers, the diameter of copper conductors and start the phase to break, not the neutral wire. Add: in 220V sockets are fed into the left socket, the switches in the working position are set by pressing the top of the button.