PUE 7 recently entered our lives. Today there is an order of the Ministry of Energy of 2002, the chapters of the documents are approved at the legislative level. Concerning residential buildings are thrown out, corresponding links are left. In any new building, the question of how to connect a socket with grounding is simply not worth it. The wiring is made on three cores, under the side terminal there is a special PEN tap. Usually marked with a yellow-green line( or a double shade of cambric) or shows green insulation. The other two conductors are, for example, brown and blue. The topic of today's conversation is to properly connect a grounded outlet.
The process of installing an outlet with grounding
A tool for mounting sockets with grounding
In own videos A. Zemskov constantly advertises a professional tool. For example, Hilti products. For outlets, the following is provided:
- The sheathing knife has a sickle-shaped edge and is specially made, it is impossible to scratch the core. The danger of connecting to a grounded outlet is that any wire can break off easily. If it is a phase or zero( neutral, there are three phases in the house), we immediately notice the damage and fix it. But the grounding is not so easy to identify, it is required to take and ring up the entire branch, not any installer will do.
- The second tool will be crimping pliers to remove the cambric. Knife ripped the entire cable coming out of the wall, external insulation, now it is necessary to clean the wires to a centimeter and a half, in order to clamp on the socket of the socket housing. They use the usual kitchen knife, but it is possible to scratch the copper, then accidentally break it off.
- For the positioning of the outlet housing in the bottom( wall part) it is customary to use small magnetic levels. They allow you to quickly and easily perform the procedure, without being distracted by subtleties. The socket with grounding is put with a slight delay, then positioned. And with the final tightening of the screws, it is better to actively use magnetic levels.
Electrical wiring of the socket with grounding
Often three cores stick out of the wall in a single black or white external insulation. According to current standards - if the electricians are sensible from the developer - the distribution of wires in the grounding outlet is as follows:
- The yellow-green stripes on the cribrik, or completely lettuce color indicate that it is a grounding conductor, it is necessary to hook onto the side terminal of the outlet.
- Blue usually marks a neutral wire. There is no voltage, this is the land that came from the substation. According to the rules, it is grounded in the basement area with a local circuit dug by caring builders( TN-C-S system).
- A brown or red blood mark is marked on the wire from where food comes to the apartment. According to the rules, when a switch is built in, the indicated core, and not the blue one, must be broken by the button contactor. So safer. As for the outlet with grounding, the phase is traditionally located on the left. The zero wire is on the right.
When installing a grounded outlet, we check where and what is located. Easier to do with the phase. It is supposed to touch it with a special probe with a light indicator to make sure the wiring is correct. Along the way, two other wires are being investigated. Just to make sure that the phase has come to the only core. Probe required to buy.
Secondly, the correctness of the wiring of the neutral and ground wires is assessed. It is necessary to do this without fail, because loading the circuit through the neutral circuit, buried under the house, should not be outgoing devices. Let's make a reservation, at the level of the basement, the branches can be combined, but according to the EMP 7, their contact after the specified point is not allowed. We do not recommend connecting the outlet with a slope from the norm to the ground.
Measurement tester here will not help. It is required to determine the contact between the access shield and the wire. By the way, if there is no ground in the house, the body will be zero. After measuring the resistance, we will see:
- With the access shield, two conductors are ringing: zero and ground. Let the house be connected using the TN-S system; in the substation area there lived a neutral sitting deep in the soil.
- Discrimination is made according to the size of the resistance: we take and turn off the protection circuit breakers. Then the neutral wire breaks( not always), and the grounding is still obliged to perform the functions and ring on the body of the access shield. We remind you that the braid color is yellow-green. Otherwise, it is necessary to dig into the wiring and look for the cause of the malfunction.
How to install a series of grounding sockets side by side
. The rough finish is carried out so that podrozetniki are already in the wall. It is strongly recommended to leave the fastening screws directly in them. That in a carving finishing materials at repair did not jam. Under the sockets according to the electrical project, niches are left in the wall where installers close up podrozetniki. Now already plastered or plastered with wallpaper, we see a slender row of round holes.
According to the rules, a single cable is made here. This suggests common sense. It is foolish to lead to any outlet with grounding on the whole wire. It simply takes the calculated power consumption that determines the cross section of the core, which is able to withstand the onslaught of moving electrons, beating on the molecular lattice and emit a lot of heat. Ideally, the diameter of the copper does not allow the insulation to overheat. It is required to take a caliper or an apartment electrification project and determine the cross section by copper( aluminum is no longer being laid).
A similar wire, as lying in a wall, is laid by loops. The socket on the back of the case must contain not 2, but four phase and zero contacts, plus ground loops mated mutually. If the outlet is wrong, it is permissible to plug two wires into a single terminal, this is not the best option. In case of bad contact, the docking place will start to warm up, a fire is possible. It is better to go to the store and buy a grounded outlet with double the number of contacts. The last one in the row on the wall is typical.
The cable on both sides of the cable is free from insulation, each strand is cut approximately one and a half to two centimeters apart.
If there is no ground loop in a high-rise building
Often there is no ground loop in old houses. It uses a protective zeroing. In short, how to take the ground wire and short circuit with a grounding lobe on the outlet. It is not recommended to do this, but the electromagnetic background of the apartment will sharply recover, and the washing machine will stop beating with current.
Cause: The input voltage filters of imported equipment are specially created so that one output goes to the case. This is not a defect, just according to foreign standards sockets with grounding, difficulties do not arise. If you take the battery by hand, and the second by the PC case, it becomes clear why connecting a double socket without grounding in front of the system unit will not be the best option. Iron bites really and painfully - believe me( Warning: Danger to life)!
According to western standards, voltage harmonics are filtered onto the case in order to protect equipment from the harmful effects of surge and voltage dips. Therefore, the design of the filters is the most efficient and simple. Grounding is required based on security measures.
A curious chip is the device microwave ovens. The potential is located on the body, and the fact that the fine mesh on the metal door requires hinges through the hinges. Otherwise, half of the radiation is reflected inside the camera and fries the chicken, the second - passes and damages health. And the 2.4 GHz wave is perfectly absorbed by the cells of the body due to the absorption of its energy by water molecules. Ground outlet in the kitchen is not the only one. The discharge of the spark plug of the hob with electric ignition also makes its way onto the body.
outlet Without a grounded outlet, your own home is not considered safe. If there is no circuit with grounding in the house, it is required to solve the situation:
- Private entrepreneurs can dig a steel frame in the garden and get a thick tire there to remove the potential. Electrical stimulation will benefit potatoes.
- Contour, as a rule, is present even in the Soviet house. Everywhere is grounded lightning rod. If you take the system TN-C-S, the rules of the standard allow the zero bus to wind up to the lightning circuit. It is recommended to throw off the entrance to the project, pay 50 meters of cable at the running price of 30 rubles and enjoy the benefits of civilization. Basis: ПУЭ 7, where it is stated that during reconstruction a residential building is grounded according to the TN-S or TN-C-S system. The first is not possible, and the second will gain the actions described above.
- The next option is the ability to make a branch yourself. For this you can not use plumbing, sewage or gas pipes( do not forget about the PUE 7).According to the norms, it is possible to conduct insulation through the reinforcement of plates, with a reliable grounding. It is permissible to try to temporarily solve the difficulties by driving a stake under the window and putting a tire on it. According to the norms, a good grounding demonstrates resistance to the ground not exceeding 4 ohms, and organizing this will not work with a single pin. Or bury at 7-8 meters. Agree, the feat is beyond the power of an ordinary person.
As a result, it turns out that it is possible to temporarily resolve the grounding of sockets with the help of jumpers between the neutral wire and the side terminal, continuing to look for solutions to the situation together with the neighbors. Remember an important thing: household appliances in contact with water, is connected through a differential circuit breaker. If zero and ground match, the device will not work correctly. As a result, the chance to earn a strong discharge doubles.