The duration of the heating season in our latitudes, close to 2/3 years. Rate varies by region, but the average is about 250 days. For us it is very important to all matters concerning the efficiency of the heating system, which largely depends on the correct choice of its devices.
Let us examine what radiators better than different varieties. In the article presented for consideration criteria for selecting the heating devices are described in detail. For independent house masters, we have given advice from experienced plumbers.
The content of the article:
- Characteristics radiator
How to correctly choose the device?
- Principles of classification of radiators
- Information about the schemes of heating systems
- Specificity central heating
- Autonomous heating Features
- Steel panel heaters
- Characteristics of cast iron batteries
- Overview aluminum radiators
- Analysis of bimetallic radiators
- Several installation tips
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Regardless of the complexity of the heating system, the primary goal is to maintain the desired temperature in the building or apartment. heating radiator plays a key role in carrying out the heat exchange between indoor air and coolant.
Uniform heating, efficient heat dissipation, the climate control, stable operation - the main requirements to the radiator.
In residential areas are established, single, panel or sectional, twin radiators do not emit toxins when heated
The main parameters that influence the choice of a particular model:
- The operating pressure of the system. It depends on an autonomous or centralized network enabled device. It is arranged Gravity or compulsory basis. On the average ranges from 3 to 10 bar, or in the same range atmospheres.
- Thermal power. Characteristics required for the calculation of the required power for heating the thermal premises. We need it, and for the selection of individual components of the cell battery. Processing 10m² rounded required 1kW.
- Modularity. Quality inherent in collecting radiators, enabling assembly and disassembly of the device to the individual requirements.
- The rate of reaction at tº. More precisely, the ability to react to changes in temperature of the coolant. period of time to cool down and warm up.
- It can be equipped with automatics. Devices that monitor the weather conditions and your own eliminates air pockets.
Presented today to sell devices provide free circulation heat transfer fluid on the system. Different corrosion resistance and attractive appearance.
Sectional radiators differ in size and shape of the sections, ensuring the supply of the necessary amount of thermal energy
Thermal radiator efficiency depends on the area of energy dissipation surface. Flat metallic convector has a much smaller area as compared with the sectional aluminum, the same geometrical size. Because the last generates heat throughout the area of the ribs.
How to correctly choose the device?
During Soviet times, the question of which is better to choose a radiator, never asked for a simple reason. Industry was producing only two of their kind - steel and cast iron. We live in a happy time diversity, technological and environmental excellence.
Global and domestic industry offer a choice, a fairly wide range. There are several grounds on which it is advisable to divide the radiators.
Principles of classification of radiators
Radiators can be divided based on the manufacture of:
- steel panel heaters;
- iron battery;
- aluminum radiators;
- Bimetallic radiators.
According to design features:
Each of these types is best suited for their operating environment, and therefore has its own nuances. A separate type radiators - highly specialized. Are devices designed to solve one problem, often to the detriment of the overall functionality.
Cast Iron appliances for heating systems are corrosion resistant, perfectly keep warm, but heavy and not strong enough against mechanical impacts
Aluminum appliances easier to iron, but worse retain heat. developed surface of the radiator is created to increase the heat transfer
Bimetallic devices for heating systems are an improvement of aluminum. To increase the strength of the inner part of the housing is made of steel alloy
Steel radiators attract reasonable price and an abundance of models of different shapes, size, volume. Steel appliances are equipped with built-in thermostatic valve
Classic cast-iron battery
Aluminum for heating appliances
Bimetallic battery options
Low cost of steel panel radiators
The specialized species include floor convectors, in recent times, more and more are gaining popularity. Mounted in the floor, apply with a large glass area.
Their disadvantages floor convector note limited effectiveness, which is justified by the small height, hence, negligible heat transfer area. However, they can not only heat the room, but also to form a thermal curtain against drafts, as well as not allow misting.
There are baseboard heaters, which are installed in the skirtings installed instead of long metal boxes. All fittings and adjustments, and closed plinth. Convenient in that they do not violate the overall design of the room.
Panel radiators are delivered in the factory, which guarantees the integrity and stability to the waterhammer
Designer radiators come in all sizes and configurations. They are made of different materials: iron, steel, aluminum. The main drawback - the high price.
Bathroom and shower, special radiators are used, towel. They are distinguished by simplicity of design and protection from moisture. Made of stainless steel or chrome-plated.
Radiators for bathrooms selected considering the corrosion resistance of the materials from which the device is formed
Information about the schemes of heating systems
From heating circuit it depends largely on what the heating batteries are best suited to each case. Single-pipe heating circuit includes intake and outlet of coolant to the radiator on one pipe. With such a system, each battery is connected in series along the chain to a common riser.
It used less and less because it has a number of disadvantages: the complexity of the system settings, as changes in one radiator affect everyone else, having a common large-diameter riser.
When the double pipe heating circuit radiators connected in parallel, one is supplying coolant pipe, the second - retraction. This system requires a much longer pipeline, but does not have the drawbacks pipe system. Adjustment of the radiator does not affect the others.
From circuit heating it depends largely on which battery heating are better suited to each case (click to expand)
On the basis of the coolant communication with the atmosphere of the heating circuits are divided into open and closed. at open system, The highest point in an expansion tank communicating directly with the atmosphere. Circulation in this system is carried out naturally, due to the bias and differential pressure pipes of hot and cold coolant.
A closed system is a special, expansion tank with a diaphragm. The coolant is not in contact with atmospheric air. In such a system, forced circulation, which is much more reliable, and requires no slope. Most modern systems - closed.
In open water tank circuits can quickly cool down in the winter. Because for them to choose cast iron made battery - inertial instruments (click to enlarge)
When open heating system, overpressure ejects the coolant in the expansion tank, directly connected to the atmosphere. This coolant large percentage of oxygen, causing corrosion.
The single-pipe heating all devices are connected in parallel circuit, coolant flows from one to the other and cools. also preferred are iron instruments, stores the long heat for these schemes (click)
When the double pipe system radiators connected in parallel, and the coolant is not in contact with atmospheric air.
Specificity central heating
When central heating, heat transfer fluid is under high pressure. Circulation can not occur continuously. It is therefore desirable to use a radiator with high inertial properties.
Which during intensive circulation, to store heat without overheating the room. Conversely, do not cool rapidly, while the circulation of the termination.
Cast-iron battery - a traditional component of the centralized heating systems, due to their resistance to waterhammer
The ability to maintain long iron obtained by heating the heat - unstable quality for priority supply of energy inherent in centralized networks
Due to the thermal inertia is practically useless to use in par with cast-iron models of automatic temperature control and climate control appliances
Radiators made of cast iron is almost unrivaled in the natural movement of the coolant system of the self regulating temperature of the coolant due to its own inertia
Cast iron radiators in centralized networks
Batteries with high thermal inertia
The difficulty with automatic temperature control
The preferential use of batteries of iron
The higher inertia of the radiator, the more even the temperature will be kept in the room. When central heating as a coolant normal process water.
However, due to the extensive and complex system it is often heavily polluted and gassed. As a result, the coolant causes increased corrosion. Concomitant sediment will clog the narrow channels of the radiator, greatly reducing the effective heat dissipation.
Autonomous heating Features
The basis of individual heating systems are most often gas-fired boilers or similar equipment operating on liquid fuel or pellets. A particularly effective when the double pipe system.
Such a system is closed, the constant circulation of coolant and by using circulating pump. Boiler equipment switched on automatically, depending on the temperature of the coolant.
When properly configured, it allows for a very efficient operation. Using low inertia radiators and manifolds of the system actually delivers coolant, only to the necessary heating radiator. This happens due to constant circulation.
The heating system with collectors - combs allows you to install any radiator, because distributes coolant on all devices
This radiator efflux is faster, the lower the coolant temperature. Hot coolant goes directly to the coldest cooler, due to the greatest pressure difference.
Since heating equipment Automatic constantly maintains the set flow temperature: the lower the inertia of the radiator, the better the room temperature will be maintained. It characterized by high quality and a lack of coolant gas pollution, low pressure.
Individual heating on solid fuel boilers is based on the loaded manually. In particular, this leads to significant differences in the coolant temperature during the day. To reduce the cost of the entire system is very often used in a single pipe system is open type (communicates with the atmospheric air).
When the single-pipe gravity flow design pressure of the system is minimal heat transfer fluid is contaminated and polluted by corrosion products. It is desirable to use heat sinks with high inertia and resistant to corrosion.
On principles pipe system and apparatus embodiments radiator connection to it you can read in the article, recommended us to educate.
Individual heating cottages, the lodge differs possibility of reducing the coolant temperature to freezing temperatures. As a specific antifreeze coolant used, among other advantages, have anti-corrosion properties.
The system is characterized by low pressure. For rapid warming of the premises, reasonable choice is the use of heat sinks with minimal inertia.
Steel panel heaters
Steel heat sink has a solid monolithic construction. The plates are placed in a casing.
Steel heat sink has a solid monolithic construction. The plates are placed in a casing
The design of the convector consists of steel tubes and steel plates. To give the aesthetic appearance of all placed in a steel casing. Due to the flat and smooth surface of the housing, it is less dust settles, and the device is easier to maintain.
Steel convectors are popular because of the low price. Are lightweight, do not require the installation of reinforced brackets. Design features provide active circulating air masses. The outer casing is not very warming, burned hard.
Arrive from the manufacturer in finished form and do not provide for changes. Due to folding design ensures no leakage. Have high inertia. Steel heating devices suitable for all kinds of schemes.
Compact radiators are one of steel radiators species. Used as the main or additional equipment
To optimize heat transfer miniature steel panels are complemented by a reinforced fins, thereby increasing the heat capacity
Due to the increased heat-conducting surface area of heat transfer increases by 75%, so compact devices are mounted at locations with the greatest heat loss
Cheap and efficient compact radiators installed in public and private buildings, can be used in low-temperature systems with coolant, heated to 55º
Compact radiators - a kind of panel
A method for increasing the heat transfer
Advantages of compact steel appliances
Scope of the compact radiators
Among the disadvantages of steel equipment:
- Low corrosion resistance. In manufacturing applied to corrosion sensitive material.
- Rapid cooling. When the emergency shutdown system of the device almost immediately lose the operating temperature.
- Low heat dissipation. It associated with the small area of the total radiation.
- Limited lifetime, especially when low-quality coolant.
Water hammer - occurs when there are two streams: the liquid and removed from the air system. The liquid is incompressible, the excess pressure in the venue streams transmitted to the pipe wall. Particularly dangerous for high-rise buildings.
Characteristics of cast iron batteries
traditional cast iron radiators They are bulky and simple form. The modern design of the cast-iron batteries, may well compete with the advanced models. Pleased with simple and smooth surface, clear that it is possible.
Structurally made of separate fins which may be collected individually, directly on the object. Separate section has a high power. Due to the thick iron are heavy and high inertia.
Conventional cast iron radiators are bulky and simple form, but the longest retain heat
Radiators, cast iron are heated for a long time and a long cool down. Massive devices have the longest lifespan attract reasonable price. Virtually not sensitive to the quality of the coolant.
Cast iron battery is preferably used for a central heating installations. They are suitable for stand-alone systems with natural circulation of coolant. In other individual heating circuits are not recommended.
The whole point of inertia iron devices that are slow to respond to changes in temperature background. In a climate controlled buildings they are not compatible: because and one and the other will operate discordantly. In addition, the automatic majority of models not equipped.
The disadvantages include:
- impressive weight. Installation requires the use of reinforced brackets.
- Restrictions on the use. Retrofit installation of autonomous systems is impractical.
- Slow heating. It takes a long time for the heating appliance and the work environment - the inertia of the radiators is very high.
- Sensitivity to waterhammer. Before buying a must see what kind of pressure can leave the device of brittle cast iron, and consider how likely surge in the system.
- Small heat dissipation area. Uncomplicated rib structure can not provide good air convection.
Capacity iron sections from 2.5 to 3 liters. They work calmly under pressure of 6 bar. There is a cast iron models, designed for installation in systems with a pressure of 9 bar, a short-time increase of up to 16 bar.
Inertia - a rate of heat transfer from the radiator to the surrounding air. The greater the inertia, the longer the radiator takes time for heating and cooling. For example, imagine an oven made of brick. It remains hot, even after the fire was extinguished, but it requires a lot of time in the heat.
Overview aluminum radiators
Aluminum radiators are attracted an interesting design. Advanced profile panel provides high heat dissipation efficiency, which means high performance with small dimensions. However, the cleaning of such radiators is difficult to produce because of the advanced and florid surface sections.
Aluminum radiators are divided into sectional, collapsible and whole. Calculated by the average pressure of the coolant. Power individual ribs is smaller than of cast iron. Have low inertia properties quickly heat up and cool down. aluminum radiators perfect for individual heating.
Mechanical properties of the starting material allows to produce aluminum radiators with highly developed surface
Scope of the radiator is limited due to the inherent disadvantages of aluminum:
- Sensitive to the quality of the coolant. Small weight and dimensions allow devices to reduce the diameter of the pipeline. Narrow tube can quickly become clogged with scale and sand.
- The relatively high price. The cost of aluminum devices leads wanting more manifestation of humanity on the part of manufacturers.
- Weak resistance to waterhammer. Aluminum is in fact the plastic material is not able to resist high mechanical and hydraulic pressure.
The best representatives "aluminum" is recognized as products of AI-Si, can operate at a pressure of 6 bar systems. volume 0.5 L sections. It is strongly recommended to be installed in private homes, especially to the climate system.
Aluminum - chemically active element. Easily reacts with alkaline additives commonly used in the coolant, under the central heating. It authorizes the use of copper fittings.
Analysis of bimetallic radiators
Bimetallic radiators - upgraded version aluminum counterparts, reinforced by steel elements to improve the pressure resistance. AT bimetallic models Steel can be made only channels that combine the radiator headers or the entire inner component - that is, and canals, and reservoirs.
In the latter embodiment, the aluminum contact with the coolant entirely excluded. Which prolongs the service life and reduces the frequency of system maintenance. two metals Union has good convection, suitable for installation in a private and individual housing.
Reinforced steel structural elements and the average inertia makes bimetallic radiators is practically universal
The bimetallic models of radiators made of steel alloy or the entire internal surface or only channels
Bimetallic radiators are easy to adjust the automatic devices, they are considerably less inert than iron battery
By analogy with aluminum radiators Bimetallic dial the required number of sections, which allows to link the unit with optimum heat dissipation
Advantages bimetallic heating radiators
The use of steel for the gain of radiators
Relulirovka bimetallic battery temperature
Sektsionnay unit assembly principle
The list of shortcomings including:
- High price. Devices are not too pleased with affordable cost.
- Difficult-component surface. They are easy to clean and should always make sure that the surface did not accumulate dust deposits.
Displacement of sections depends on the manufacturer, it is in the range from about 0.17 to 0.3 liters. Withstand pressure 16 - 40 bar. Depending on the model may be momentarily resist pressure 24 - 60 bar.
* Bi-metal - this is not fusion, namely the pairing of the two metals. Therefore, the coolant energy is transmitted first to the steel pipe, and then an aluminum or copper heat exchanger.
Several installation tips
On an efficient, reliable operation of the heating system, it affects not only the correct choice of the type of heating radiator.
There are some simple rules of installation:
- The distance to the wall, at least 4 cm.
- The distance to the floor sill and - at least 10cm.
- The size of not more than 75% of the width of the opening to equip.
Distances affect the proper distribution of the air streams, providing uniform and rapid heating of the premises. In addition, the distances are important for fire safety, if the floor is made of flammable material (parquet, plank, linoleum).
The radiator is arranged in the window niches in places accessible for inspection, maintenance, repair. The standard width of the radiator by 75% already opening
The use of decorative screen will reduce the efficiency of up to 15-20%. Wrong connection to the flow and return pipes would reduce productivity to 20%. The most effective solution - connect the supply pipe to the top of the radiator, and removal - from the bottom of the radiator.
Information about how to connect the heating elements, taking into account the requirements of building regulations, shown here.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Useful tips from experts to help deal with the heating system:
The best choice of a radiator can be considered as one in which achieved the greatest comfort. The radiator can be inconspicuous, or vice versa - to be part of the overall design. But most importantly - reliability and no hassle.
Tell about how you chose the radiator to replace the old batteries in an apartment or furnishing a new home, you will be able to block located below. Please write comments, ask questions, share tips and pictures of the article. We are interested in your opinion.