With any elements of the power supply at home is supposed to obey the laws. To connect the socket on the European standard, you should know the general rules. Today we will review the various documents. See if a particular rule is suitable for a particular situation. Let us tell you how to put a double socket, lay wires and determine the cross-section of copper.
How to put the socket
A number of tips, taken from state standards. The part is of a recommendatory nature, others are required for execution:
- Sockets in schools and kindergartens are located at a height of at least 1.8 meters. The same applies to switches.
- In public places and shops it is recommended to place sockets at a height of 1.3 meters. The postulate is advisory in nature.
- For public buildings it is prescribed to put sockets for convenient use. Usually not more than 1 meter from the floor. No minimum height is specified. But it is written that the installation of sockets in specially adapted fireproof baseboards is allowed.
- In workshops, the installation height is 0.8 meters, on average, it is allowed to increase to 1.5 meters if the power cord comes from above.
- Do not put sockets closer than 0.5 meters from the pipeline.
- Storerooms and utility rooms( classified as fire hazard class P-IIa) do not place sockets for apartments or private houses. Apparently, gasoline, kerosene and other flammable liquids are stored here.
- A 10 A socket on 4 meters of perimeter is placed in the living room. If there is a surplus, you need to add an additional outlet. Moment is important when redevelopment. Suppose a partition separating the storage room is demolished. As a result, the perimeter of the room increases, a socket is added.
- In the kitchen, at least 4 sockets are required, 10 A each. If there is an electric stove, the power bus goes directly to the distribution box( without branching).Moreover, the distance to the consumer is not standardized, but it is impossible to place the distribution points of voltage above and below the sink. The corridor is placed on the outlet of 10 square meters. If it stays on top, a double outlet is connected( with a corresponding increase in the power cable cross section).Curiously, the double socket in the room is taken as one, and in the kitchen - two points( with an appropriate adjustment over the cross section of the cable being laid).
- It is not allowed to connect a switch and a socket when the device runs along a single axis on both sides of the wall - exclusively for different apartments. Apparently, within the living space such actions are allowed.
In the presence of three wires for supplying electricity, sockets are placed with a grounding tab( we assume this is meant as a protective contact).Nominal - transmitting power - not less than 10 A. Equipment installed in rooms where children are staying must carry protective curtains covering the sockets with the plug pulled out.
Special requirements apply to rooms where water is used. Closer 60 cm from the entrance to the shower, at an equal distance from the bath, it is prohibited to install electrical appliances with a small exception. In particular, in zones I and II according to GOST R 50571.11 it is allowed to put water heaters and switches( under the ceiling) with a cord. At the same time, other requirements are not canceled. Suppliers connect in one of three ways to ensure security.
Individual separation transformer
Sockets may be installed in the specified areas, but it is required to be connected via an individual separation transformer. Unlike the standard one, this does not lower and does not increase the voltage, but gives to the output in its original form. The current does not change. There are only losses due to lower efficiency. A separation transformer provides electrical isolation over current. If you touch the end of the secondary winding with your hand, and put the second under the stream of water( attention! It is forbidden to repeat in practice), the worst will not happen. Such a socket has a single subscriber, and any transformer has only one socket. Do not ground any part of the secondary circuit. Focus with the combination of the side lobe and the neutral wire will not work. It is strictly prohibited. But grounding in the bathroom is required without fail. We'll have to drag from the shield or from another place, bypassing the transformer.
Protection class ipX1
Allowed to use in bathrooms equipment, showing a low supply voltage. Up to 50 V. In this case, the requirements for outlets are reduced. It is stated that the case protection of current-carrying parts is not lower than ip2X( isolation from penetration of external solid objects with a diameter of 12.5 mm; in order not to get through a finger), as for wiring, the insulation must withstand a voltage of at least 500 V for a minute. If you take a voltage of 220 V, the requirements are different. Sockets are placed exclusively within Zone III( 60 cm from the bath) and demonstrate protection class ipX1( for public spaces ipX5).These conditional measures are required to comply with the purchase, if you plan to connect sockets and switches in the bathroom.
The third permitted method of installing a socket in zone 3( no closer than 60 cm from the bath) is the use of a differential automaton. Please note that in this case it is forbidden to combine the ground terminal with the neutral wire. The housings of all electrical appliances are combined into a single tire that goes outside and is included in the general outline of the apartment outside the bathroom. According to the rules, the zeroing is carried out simultaneously for an apartment; it cannot be combined with ground wires. Even in the area of the shield to do is strictly prohibited. These are the requirements for the TN-S and TN-C-S systems. Praise to the owner who created the contour, deduced to the shield. The differential automatic device is obliged to respond to leakage current not exceeding 30 mA.
Socket Russian GOST dictate to follow a lot of rules. The rare apartment has a full list of requirements. Give everyone the features of the European standard and the connection of a three-key switch with a socket in order to wash more conveniently, and people do not care that the machine does not have the right to be closer to zone III.
A curious way to determine the load from the sockets on the power grid. According to it, the cross section of the core is selected. Own rules apply to public places and apartments. In the first case, the wiring is divided into three parts: supply( to the consumer), general( wiring to the building, floor), building entries. A specific consumption of 60 W, multiplied by the number of power distribution points and a special factor, is taken at any outlet, the value is taken from Table 6.6 of the joint venture 31-110.Residential buildings are described in table 6.1 of the mentioned document, where the number of apartments is multiplied by the coefficient.
Electricity supply zones
There is a need to divide the apartment into electricity supply zones. We draw on the plan the arrangement of our own sockets, chandeliers, and then it is supposed to break into lines:
- Lighting an apartment. If you take the advice of the pros, this line is recommended to be segmented hard - on the machine to the room.
- Outlets living rooms stand out in a single line. Pros recommend breaking by the number of rooms.
- Separately go outlets for the kitchen. Here, the pros say that the cross-section of the core should be 6 square millimeters of copper, cable power - 10 kW( 46 A).In accordance with the need to select the outlet in the store.10 A( standard for residential buildings) will not work.
- Corridor sockets are recommended to allocate in a single group.
- It is allowed to reduce the number of lines to two in justified cases( consumption, number of rooms).Outlets of residential premises are still recommended to perform separately.
Routing is standardized exclusively for the bathroom, where in zones 0, 1 and 2 only the wires necessary for power supply should be present. The nutrition restrictions described above are not lifted. As for other premises, wiring is not standardized if the cable is hidden in channels, baseboards, boxes, platbands, etc. The laying on insulators is not less than 2 meters from the floor. The passage through the ceiling is carried out in special pipes, channels, so that the wiring can be changed. It is allowed to conceal the laying of wires in penalties, which is done in practice when looking for ways to connect sockets.
European standard forsockets
Everything described above is the notorious European standard. Not seen differential automatics and ground lobes in the USSR.Even the size of the bathroom is done so as to exclude the production of any electrical equipment. Measure out of interest. And make sure that the outlets in the bathroom are not supposed to be in principle. This proves the fact that the standards were in a hurry remade under the rush from behind the cordon technique.
We remind you that the wiring is always conducted by a three-core wire, for example, PVA, and the grounding certainly shows a yellow-green braid. Pay more attention to the number of outlets, their placement. And in the nursery place with protective curtains. The socket strip should not be dangerous for children. The switch is allowed to place lower than in schools( see the features of the classification of premises).
In the kitchen, it is allowed to connect sockets with a loop( not for electric stoves), the main thing is that the number matches. Power is selected according to the intended consumption.