To control household electrical sources of lighting use a variety of devices, the most common among all is the switch. This is a simple device, located on the wall and connected to the wires. Product design is different, but the internal concept of the single models is the same.
In our material, we will describe how to connect a switch with one key in order to promptly repair. For convenience, there will be several connection methods with thematic photographs that demonstrate the editing process.
The content of the article:
- Design and purpose of switches
- Types of devices for domestic use
- Location - convenience and safety
Three mounting options for one-button switches
- # 1: Photo installation instructions for outdoor unit
- # 2: Master class for replacing the old switch
- # 3: Connection diagram with junction box
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Design and purpose of switches
A switch is a simple mechanical (less commonly electronic) device for contact circuit / disconnection of an electrical circuit in order to turn on / off lighting devices.
We will touch on the design features and installation of the most simple models - single-button switches.
They consist of 4 main parts:
- work node - metal base with contacts and push-button drive;
- fasteners - legs or antennae of metal, connected to a metal plate;
- decoration design - panels or frames;
- dynamic part - plastic key.
Some of the parts, mostly internal, are made of metal, for example, galvanized steel, the external decorative finish is usually made of safe plastic. Ceramic elements that can withstand load up to 32 A are possible, while plastic is designed for 16 A.
Among the reasons for installing a switch with one key appear:
A photo of
One-button switch installed in case the single-lamp lighting device is located remotely from other light sources
Switches with one key are used to control the LED line that illuminates part of the room, for example, the working area in the kitchen.
Ceiling LED lamps and side lamps regardless of the complexity of the device are controlled by one-key switches
The main reason for installing a single-key switch is damage to the case, which creates a threat of defeat, and failure of the internal mechanism
Single lamp wall light
LED line or fluorescent lamp
LED Ceiling Light
Damaged circuit breaker
The external and internal structure depends on several factors, for example, functional tasks or potential load. As an additional device in some models there is an LED that provides external illumination.
The design of a simple switch with one key: 1 - a key with which the mechanism is activated; 2 - decorative frame; 3 - the working part, which encloses an electrical mechanism
Switches are installed in all rooms where there are any lighting devices that are not equipped with a power cable (for example, for floor lamps or table lamps it is not needed).
This is often the ceiling or wall lamps, chandeliers, complex lighting systems.
When choosing devices for rooms with high humidity levels, you should pay attention to such an indicator as protection level: IP 20 is enough for a bedroom or living room, IP 40 is enough for a bathroom or kitchen, for outdoor (outdoor) installation - IP 55
Types of devices for domestic use
There is no strict division into categories, since different manufacturers have their own “branded” model series, however several types of switchesunited by any one sign.
The two most common types of modern switches are the one-button wall model and the control panel, which usually comes bundled with a lighting device.
For example, by the principle of switching on all devices can be divided into:
- mechanical - elementary keyboard devices, easy to install and use (the function of the key can be performed by a lever, toggle switch, button, cord, rotary knob);
- electronic touchpowered by the touch of a hand;
- with remote controlequipped with remote control or motion sensor.
The most popular is the first group, the traditional and received recognition from the early days invention of the electrical circuit, the popularity of the third is also gaining momentum, and the second is somehow not caught on.
Motion sensors save energy and provide additional protection. For example, if you install a similar device at the entrance to the house, it will signal the appearance of uninvited guests.
In residential premises, it is preferable to install internal models (with or without lighting) that do not protrude above the surface of the wall and look more aesthetically pleasing
By design, all switches are divided into single-key and multi-key (standard for domestic use - with 2-3 keys). Each key is used to close / open one light circuit.
If there are several lighting fixtures in the room - a chandelier, ceiling lights and a sconce - it is appropriate three key switch, which will allow alternately or together on / off devices.
Also quite popular are two-button switches which can be seen in almost every apartment. Especially they are relevant for chandeliers with several lamps.
By the method of installation can be divided into two groups: with external and internal installation. Outdoor type usually used when the wiring is open, and interior - with wired cables. To ensure the safety and stability of the installation of the built-in circuit breaker, use the mounting box (socket) - a protective plastic case.
By way of installation, the switches are divided into built-in and overhead. The first are applied when the device is closed wiring, the second - open. Both versions are installed according to similar schemes.
Location - convenience and safety
Before switch installation should consider the most convenient place for installation and subsequent use. The most advantageous zone is located near the entrance doors (from the door handle), but there may be exceptions (for example, near the head of the bed).
Before drawing up a wiring project, it is better to look into the official document - EIR (rules for electrical installation), which regulates some of the installation nuances. For example, clause 7.1.48 states that the switch should be at least 60 cm from the shower cabin, and clause 7.1.50 allows it to be installed no closer than 50 cm from the pipeline.
As can be seen from the installation diagram, the distance from the door to the installation point must be at least 10 cm, and to the floor at least 90 cm
In bathrooms and saunas, the installation of control devices is prohibited, they must be carried outside the room (usually in the hallway).
Three mounting options for one-button switches
Consider three schemes for connecting switches that are similar in construction (have one key), but differ in the type of installation. Also, all options are united by the basic law of the introduction of single-key models: the dynamic element opens the “phase” and not the “zero”. Otherwise, there is a risk of injury during repairs and even with simple replacement of lamps.
# 1: Photo installation instructions for outdoor unit
The location of the wires for this wiring diagram does not matter in principle: they can go along the surface or be inside the wall. An outdoor type of light switch in a residential area is welcome if costly repairs have just been made and there is no desire to tear down walls again and make canals.
The simplest one-button switch connection scheme that serves as the basis for practical actions by novice electricians: the L (phase) wire goes to the switch, the rest goes directly to the light source
We will consider a variant with external cable installation, in which the wires are enclosed in a corrugated protective channel.
In the place where the switch was mounted, the corrugated pipe fixed to the wall with special clips was cut back, and the insulated working wire was pulled out
Under the switch there will be another electrical appliance - the socket, so the cables for both devices for aesthetic reasons are enclosed in a single corrugation.
The power cable related to the outlet will pass through the invoice switch to avoid looping and not increasing the mounting area
The selected switch model is Schneider electric - has a plastic case and a degree of protection ip44. Before installation, we take security measures: turn off the power to the cable on the electrical panel installed on the site or in the corridor.
To make sure that there is no voltage in the cable, use an indicator screwdriver. When the issue of power outage is resolved, we undertake to disassemble the switch.
First, we get the key by hand - this is done quite easily.
Under the key that closes the switch on top, there is another plastic protective strip - the front panel, which also needs to be removed, gently squeezing the holders
The next step is the removal of the working mechanism.
The mechanism for making the circuit / opening of the electrical circuit is not fixed by special holders or springs, so it gets quickly and without problems
Now you need to accurately determine the place of installation of the switch and mark on the wall the point for screwing fasteners. To do this, take the already empty case and apply it to the wall.
Align by level, mark the points for drilling with a marker. Using a drill, we drill holes for fasteners (another method of fastening is possible).
We fix the plastic case in the marked place on the wall, using dowels - the best fixation option on concrete and brick foundations.
From the case of the switch we remove the elastic cap located in the upper part, we lead into the hole of the wire and the end of the corrugated pipe running from the ceiling.
The result should be a neat tight connection of the corrugations to the body with free access to the wires for further work.
Time to proceed directly to the connection. From the ends of the wires we remove the insulating material, we clean 8-10 mm.
Connect the white wire (phase) to the terminal with the designation L, blue - to another terminal, with the designation "1". Gently tighten the bolts and place the working unit in the case.
The wire leading to the outlet is laid in the bypass of the working unit and output in the lower opening of the housing, the second end of the corrugated pipe is also inserted there.
We make the reverse assembly of the switch: put in place the front panel, then fix the key.
At the end of the work we do the testing: we turn on the power supply and press the key several times. If the lighting device lights up when turned on - the connection is made correctly
It is quite easy to install a switch with your own hands, even if installation is complicated by the presence of additional devices.
However, if you are not sure of the correctness of actions, it is better to hedge up and spend the first connection under the supervision of an experienced electrician.
# 2: Master class for replacing the old switch
Often, in connection with repairs in an apartment or a private house, it is necessary to dismantle the old switch and install a new, more modern and convenient one in its place.
Consider the main switch replacement stepsusing step-by-step photos of the process.
Before us is an old unsightly model of a built-in switch installed inside the concrete base of a panel house. It is necessary to remove it, unscrewing the two mounting bolts
Using a screwdriver, unscrew the screws, remove the plastic cover.
Under the lid there is an old connection mechanism in which the wires are bolted. Bolts are visible on the left, metal fastening “ears” on both sides
Our task is to determine the "phase".
To find the working wire, we use the voltage indicator, which usually is an indicator screwdriver with a light signal
Alternately, bring the screwdriver to the contacts, in any case without touching them with your hands (it is better to use insulating gloves). For precise determination, set the key in both positions.
When off, the “phase” will power only one contact. The second wire is for lighting.
Having established the purpose of the wires, turn off the electricity supply, check for the presence or absence of voltage, and, having made sure of safety, begin to disassemble the old switch. We unscrew the fasteners of the metal holders (“legs”), take out the working unit.
Carefully disconnect and isolate the wires: first the "phase", then the second wire. For insulation it is better to use electrical tape of a different color, so as not to make a mistake when connecting
Finally we release the mechanism, straighten the wires - the place for the new switch is prepared. We take a new product, purchased in advance, and prepare it for installation, in other words, we disassemble.
Remove the key, unscrew the protective panel and see the internal mechanism - with two mandatory clips and spacers.
Screws located at the edges, regulate the movement of the "legs", and located on the top serve to connect the wires - they are controlled by the contact pressure plate
Approximately 1 cm we clean the ends of the wires, insert them into the holes located under the upper screws, make sure that the winding doesn’t slip in along with the bare wire. Tighten it so that the wires do not move.
If the holes are marked, “phase” is inserted into the hole marked “L”, the lead wire is “1”. Instead of the above designations, the numbers “1” and “2” can be used - then the “phase” will go to “1”
Having connected wires, we insert the working node into an assembly box.
To prevent the mechanism from “walking” inside the bottom plate, fix it with the help of metal holders, tightly tightening the side mounting screws
Install the top panel, fix the key.
We test the operation of the device, although it is better to make the first check before the internal mechanism is fully secured so that it does not have to be redone.
So, to install the new switch, we needed tools (screwdriver, pliers, knife, pliers, indicator screwdriver), some insulating material and 20 minutes of time. Calling an electrician would cost about 500 rubles.
# 3: Connection diagram with junction box
When they get bare walls, which is found in new modern standard houses, they have to insert interior doors on their own, lay the floors, tidy the walls.
Wiring is no exception. Therefore, we consider how to connect the switch together with the lighting device, the circuit breaker and the junction box.
You need to start by choosing a connection scheme. The figure is the simplest, with one light source, single-button switch and access to the dashboard, we complicate its installation of automation
Our goal is to install all the devices in the places designated for them and connect them together with wires, without confusing them. We try to install the distribution box in the center.
An open or closed cable installation method does not affect the layout of circuit elements.
As a result of the pre-installation should get such a scheme: automatic block + junction box + mounting box for switch + light output + three-core cable with a cross section of 1.5
First of all, we connect an automatic protection device that protects the network from overloads and power surges.
Determine with wire color which we need to connect the switch:
- white - phase;
- blue - zero;
- yellow - land.
We clean the wires and insert them into the terminals intended for them. The yellow wire is used for grounding, fixing it separately with a special clip.
Three-core wire is considered to be universal. To connect the lamp it would be enough to have a two-core one, however, it is better to predict events and just in case prepare wiring for connecting 2 devices or a chandelier
The role of the lamp will play an ordinary cartridge and a light bulb (incandescent, LED, energy-saving).
We clean the wires and connect them to the cartridge, inserting into the holes intended for this. The yellow wire is gently bent and insulated.
Connect the wires to the wiring box to install the switch.
When connecting the switch, the yellow wire is also not useful. We clean the other two, isolate the yellow one and turn it aside.
Modern models of switches have labeled terminals, which makes it easier to fix the wiring. We insert them into the necessary holes and fix them with screws.
After connecting the wires to the switch mechanism, insert the working unit into the installation box, put the case on top, fix the key
All circuit elements connected, it remains to connect the wires in the junction box.
We remove the insulation, we clean the ends of the wires, we twist them first with our hands, then with pliers. We make the connection according to the colors according to the picture, remove the uneven tips with nippers
We believe the correctness of the connections with an indicator screwdriver and test - we press the switch key.
If the light comes on and goes out under the control of the switch, all the steps have been performed correctly. Turning off the power, we hide the wires and close the junction box.
As you can see, the entire wiring diagram can be performed independently using a minimum of simple tools.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Useful video instructions will help novice electricians learn the theory and correctly apply it in practice.
Instructions from the manufacturer legrand in which it will be about how to install the switch on their own:
From the following video you can learn about the connection of a single-button switch and a socket:
And how to replace the switch with your own hands, you will learn from the following video:
As you have noticed, the principles of connecting various electrical devices are similar, but there are small differences. If you decide to replace the circuit breaker or lay the entire circuit, carefully study the circuits, consult with qualified professionals, and in the process be sure to follow the measures precautions.
If you have any questions about replacing single-key switches or there are additions to the material, please leave your comment in the block below.