Content of the article:
Tomato is the most common vegetable crop among summer residents due to its wide variety of varieties and great benefits due to its great value. Tomatoes have become a favorite ingredient for many dishes at hostesses because of the ease of use and the possibility of using both raw and canned. Growing tomatoes has its own characteristics to get a high quality crop. Let us consider them in detail and indicate the important points at each stage.
Before describing how to grow tomatoes correctly, it is necessary to dwell on one of the main points that is associated with seed. Selection of seeds is one of the most important points in obtaining tomatoes. More than half of the success of growing them depends on it. The seeds laid the full potential of the crop, which can be realized in specific conditions.
When choosing tomato seeds, the following points should be taken into account:
- manufacturer's reputation( a company that has proven itself for several years will pack only quality seeds, they can be expensive, but this will give a greater likelihood of obtaining the plants and fruits described on the package);
- is suitable for this growing region( for each of the 12 light zones there are different varieties and hybrids, so you need to buy seeds for the specified area, but there are intended for garden plots that can be grown everywhere);
- need to create greenhouse conditions or suitable for open ground( choosing seeds, you need to know the purpose of their cultivation in protected ground or without it, because you can get the declared yield only in those conditions that are specified in the description);
- variety or hybrid( as a rule, hybrid plants have a high yield potential compared to varieties, but under adverse conditions, varieties can show themselves better, and seeds can be collected from the best varietal plants for further reproduction);
- potential yield( need to pick seeds with high potential, which can be realized during the season);
- immunity to certain diseases and pests( this property reduces the number of treatments of plants with harmful pesticides and obtain better quality fruit);
- type of bush and its height( knowing the parameters of the plant, you can choose the optimal planting scheme and prepare in advance a support for the stem, if necessary);
- ripening( often, getting earlier fruits, the overall yield decreases, so it is desirable to have tomato seeds of different ripening periods, so that there is an even supply of products during the season);
- the purpose of the harvest( you must immediately decide for what purposes the fruit will be used, therefore it is recommended to have tomato seeds for fresh consumption, for pickling, juice and paste);
- fruit shape and color( tomatoes can be grown not only with the usual red color, but also with yellow, orange, pink, black, and the shape can be varied from flat-rounded to plum-like);
- taste qualities of the pulp( the higher the sugar content, the more pleasant the fruit tastes, so it is advisable to pay attention to this indicator);
- resistance of fruits to mechanical loads( if you need to transport fruits over long distances, they must have dense skin and fleshy pulp, tomatoes with lower requirements for this parameter are suitable for local consumption).
Preparation of seeds
The question of how to grow a good crop of tomatoes, begins with the preparation of seeds. Choosing varieties for your plot, you must perform the preparatory work. If the seeds have already been processed by the manufacturer and are signal colored, then no additional measures are carried out. On seeds that have a natural light brown color and have a slight pubescence, shortly before sowing, the following operations improve the quality of seedlings:
- sorting ( in 5% aqueous sodium chloride solution, only full seeds are lowered to the bottom, washed in running water,used for the next stage);
- disinfection of ( for 20 minutes they are placed in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, which removes the surface infection that causes germination diseases);
- bubbling of ( enrichment of air through the bubbles in the water provides additional germination energy);
- germination ( soaking in water for 3-5 days, the first shoots appear and the seeds need to be hardened, for better resistance to adverse conditions);
- hardening ( for 5 days, germinated seeds are placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of +5 degrees, which improves the adaptive properties of future seedlings).
Sowing and growing tomato seedlings
Obtaining high-quality seedlings is one of the important steps in growing tomatoes. After complete preparation of seeds, they are sown in prepared cups with nutritious soil. You can sow two or three seeds in one cup, then leaving only one seedling after germination. There is an option first of sowing in cassettes with cells of 1.5x1.5 centimeters, and then transplanting seedlings upon reaching the phase of 2-3 true leaves into cups with a diameter of 5 centimeters. Both methods are acceptable, but the second is more convenient, as it saves space under the seedlings in the first month of cultivation.
To obtain high-quality seedlings, it is necessary to observe the following temperature conditions:
- from sowing until germination + 24. .. + 28 degrees;
- up to phase 1-2 of this sheet + 15. .. + 18 degrees;
- to phase 3-4 of this sheet + 20. .. + 22 degrees;
- before the phase of appearance of the first peduncle + 22. .. + 24 degrees.
To obtain a “stocky” seedling, three sprays of Atlet solution are carried out in the phase of two, four and seven true leaves. This will not allow the seedlings to stretch.
The technology of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
After planting seedlings at a place of constant growth, growing tomatoes in a greenhouse includes the following works:
- watering ( carried out when the moisture content in the soil is less than 75% of the total field capacity, determined by compressing the soil into a fist, if the lump crumbles, irrigation is necessary);
- loosening of the soil ( after the appearance of a crust on the surface of the soil, it must be destroyed by loosening, which will provide additional air supply to the roots and reduce evaporation);
- fertilizer ( fertilizing is carried out weekly with fertilizer, in which nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium are in proportions 1: 3: 2 at a rate of 10 grams per ten-liter bucket for 5 plants);
- treatment against pests and diseases ( prophylactically against infections, spray 1% Bordeaux liquid from planting seedlings every month with 10 ml of Fufanon added to a 10-liter bucket, stopping a month before harvesting);
- garter( as plants grow, they are attached to a support, tied with ribbons of fabric or twine);
- pollination of ( during abundant flowering, in order to obtain a larger number of ovaries, it is necessary to tap on the plants during the daytime so that pollen spills out and falls on the stigma of the pestles);
- removal of stepchildren( plants form according to the type of bush);
- pruning of the lower leaves of the ( the lower part of the trunk is exposed from the moment of full loading of the first hand in order to improve the airing of the plants and stimulate maturation).
Compliance with the above conditions eliminates additional questions on how to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse.
After the start of ripening, the first sampling is carried out to stimulate further production of ripe fruits.
Cultivation of tomatoes in the open field after transplanting is similar to the greenhouse technology.