Water supply portion - the first task of the owner. The more grandiose plans for the improvement of your territory, the greater will be felt the absence of water. Water is essential for the implementation of construction works, for the garden, you're going to break up, and for their own daily needs.
If done well on the water with his own hands, the dream of a water supply not only materialize, but will significantly save. We will tell you which way is best to drill and a projectile will need independent artists. Given our tips you without too much trouble to arrange its own source of water in the area.
The content of the article:
The main types of water wells
- Abyssinian well tubular
- The well on the sand (of filters)
- Borehole without filter
How does a typical well?
- Functions casing
- The inner filter tube
- Apparatus for borehole tip
- Caisson adapter packer
Four kinds of drilling
- Method # 1 - Drilling by hand
- Method # 2 - budgetary auger drilling
- Method # 3 - rotary drilling (for rock)
- Method # 4 - cable drilling
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The main types of water wells
There are several ways to get a real life-giving water, which we'll tell you. There are several techniques that can be used for self-extraction of water in the suburban area.
Choosing a suitable option you will have your own, because it depends on the topography, as well as technical equipment, finance and skills that you possess. Consider the main borehole construction.
It is difficult to give preference to any one structure: each has its advantages and disadvantages, so the choice depends on the topography of the site owner and opportunities
Abyssinian well tubular
If your site has a source, the improvement of the well - great water extraction. Mine this facility will act as a fluid accumulator. If the source is quite active, up to 2 cubic meters of water will always be at your disposal.
Abyssinian well - it is essentially the same well, but the long and narrow. Due to the fact that its length may be about 8-12 meters, the water that fills it, do not get contamination from the soil surface.
Abyssinian wells is often called the well-needle, because the tube is driven into the ground with the creation of this building, really looks like a needle
With punching technology and arrangement of the needle-hole, otherwise referred to as the Abyssinian well, will introduce the following video clip:
The well on the sand (of filters)
Burying of this design is carried out by 15-30 meters in any way: the screw, the shock-rope, coring. Borehole wall formed by the pipe diameter of an average of 100 - 180 mm.
Recessed downhole end of the barrel is equipped with a filter. As the filter using a stainless steel which is welded or soldered to the first link pipe string before dipping it into an admixture of coarse sand with gravel.
Since the well can be represented schematically design "on sand", wherein numeral 1 is a casing, number 2 - statistical water level, and the number 3 - strainer
This design is able to satisfy the demand for water of a small country house with two water points. If the operation of the facilities is seasonal, it will last about five years. With continued use, you can count on 15 years of supply.
When the well is still silted up, it will be possible to try to wash. If resuscitation will not give the desired effect, it is necessary to drill a new barrel. Have it close to the previous one.
Borehole without filter
This structure does not need a filter. Such a well may reach depths of 100 meters or more. Water extracted with the help of such facilities is contained in the limestone crevices. Accumulated in them by condensation of liquid can not only be crystal clear, but also mineralized.
Mostly mineralization is acceptable for everyday use. If the produced water on the structure refers to the number of mineral water, then use it for domestic purposes is impossible.
Scheme artesian wells 1 - jig 2- statistical water level 3- intermediate column, 4- perforated production casing
It is difficult to determine in advance the depth of the well, which will have to penetrate in search of water. You can only find their way around, talking to the neighbors in the area and to learn from them, which parameters have similar facilities on their territories.
Ground layers are deposited unevenly, and received information still can not be considered accurate for your site. For this reason the casing acquire restated received data.
How does a typical well?
If you do not focus on the nuances, the essence of a well device on the water for a country house one: it is a long, narrow vertical shaft to a depth of water of occurrence. Walls produce reinforced casing. Wells are different from each other in width, depth and additional devices that enhance their performance and reliability.
Also well casing equipped with appliances for forced lifting fluid and its distribution. To select the right pumps and holding tank, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the well, the most important of which is its depth and flow rate.
Production rate - a measure of its performance: the maximum amount of fluid produced per unit of time. He calculated in cubic meters or liters per hour or per day.
Well depth up to 10 - 12 m equip surface pumps. Depending on the flow rate pump source complementary hydraulic tank or not
Abyssinian wells are usually drilled not deeper than 10 m. For pumping water from these stations use surface
Wells depth over 10 meters require the use of submersible pumps. They are easy to find on the implementation of the elongated body made of stainless steel
Submersible pump connected to the water supply pipe and lowered in production, taking into account the specified distance from the equipment manufacturer and the bottom of the water table
Surface pump for shallow wells
Pump station for downhole needle
Deep well pump
Installation downhole pump
Casing is the main element of the well. Casing is performed by means of separate segments, soldered, welded or screwed together. Particular attention should be paid to them equal to the diameter: the whole structure should create a straight flat column.
If the casing external thread, links connect couplings, because of which the diameter increases penetration.
Casing pipes are needed to:
- the drilling of the well was not mine shedding;
- the barrel is not obstructed during its operation;
- upper aquifers do not penetrate the building.
Widely used casing pipes made of steel alloys and polymers (PVC, unplasticized PVC, HDPE). Less commonly used cast iron and asbestos cement products obsolete. The space between the pipe and the ground surrounding the mouth of the poured concrete, when output was drilled in loose soil or aquifer lies at a considerable depth.
Only after this work is set all the other equipment. Sometimes a slight "squeezing" on the surface of the tube may occur during operation of the well. This is a natural process that does not require taking any additional measures.
The most popular are metal and plastic casings threaded. The photograph shows an installation blue casing of plastic
The inner filter tube
The wellbore formed in a double casing is lowered filter tube. Through its perforated first link filtered water will flow inwardly obzadki and then extracted pump to the surface.
Once the pipe is installed at the desired depth, it is desirable to fix the mouth. For this purpose, a collar, which prevent spontaneous subsidence of the pipe.
Step 1: The lower edge of the resin pipe bends previously flattened. Retreat 10 - 12 cm and drilled holes Ø 8 mm. The height of the perforated area depends on the capacity of the aquifer
Step 2: perforated portion wound wire made of stainless steel. The step between the windings equal to the distance between the holes
Step 3: wrapped around the perforated portion of the tube net, it temporarily fix the torsions of the insulated wire
Step 4: Wire wrap homemade stainless steel filter and remove the twist. It follows that the outer winding did not coincide with the internal
Production well screen
Wire for attaching the filter screen
Fixing grid homemade filter
Mounting the filter mesh
Apparatus for borehole tip
The upper part of the casing is equipped with head part. The basic design of this device is the same for any kind of end walls. It comprises a flange, the cover and the rubber ring.
Different types of end walls different kind of material from which they are made, and additional options.
End walls are made from cast iron and plastic. This sealed unit. It is used for fixing the pump cable and outputting a water pipe
Due to the low pressure produced via the well head in the pipes, is increased influx of water and as a result the production rate.
Caisson adapter packer
Associated with the well, provide a special tank for them to high humidity did not affect the operation of instruments - caisson. It is made from either metal or plastic.
Metal caissons, unlike plastic, can be repaired, they are better adapted to the climate with significant temperature variations. In addition, the product of a metal can self-assemble from parts which are sold separately. But the plastic models are cheaper, and they do not rust.
Who arrange caisson for wells personally on our site will find detailed instructions for its construction.
To tightly connect the ground water and well, will need downhole adapter. This device is usually placed in the place where collected all the equipment in need of protection from water. Most often it is a technical room. One part of the adapter attached to the casing column and another portion screwed to the hose from the pump.
Metal caisson - costly thing: the price up to 40 thousand rubles, so you can buy it and collect the parts of yourself that reduce the cost of purchase
Sometimes there is a requirement to allocate an artesian well deep local portion on which, for example, be carried out repairs. For this purpose, use and packers - seals for wells.
These elements are part of a well device, exerting great influence its functionality.
Four kinds of drilling
Drill a hole into the water with his own hands, you can different waysFor implementation of which is used exclusively as a muscular effort and technical means.
Consider the most popular types of drilling:
Between these technologies are different ways in the construction of rock destruction wells and methods of soil removal from the surface stem structures. For penetration openings with different drilling methods used different types of equipment, which affects the cost and quality of the finished design.
Method # 1 - Drilling by hand
For manual drillPerformed by a screw, cable-or a combination of technology, you need the following equipment and materials:
- drilling rig;
If the well, which is expected to build, will be deep enough, you will need a drill rig. With this construction, the immersion occurs with drill rods and its subsequent lifting.
If the well is not deep, you can do without the tower. In this case, working with a drill is performed manually.
The function of the drill rod can perform narrow tubes which are interconnected by means of threads or special keys. drilling tools in the collection structure to be attached to the bottom bar.
Drilling tools for manual drilling: a, b - lozhkovye borax; in - auger; r-d - drill bit; e - bailer
Soil violate the integrity of the cutting nozzle drill. They are made of strong steel trehmillimetrovoy. The edges of the tips you need to sharpen based on the fact that the drill will rotate clockwise and destroy soils as a result of the rotational-translational motion.
First, choose a place to drill. In the soil make a recess for about two bayonet spades. So dug guiding reference point for the drill. Above us a place designated entry of the drill rig must be installed.
The height of the tower should correspond to the length of the drill rod: it should be slightly above this length. Only in this case the bar can be easily and simply pull out after work.
Getting started does not seem like a complex. The first turns of the drill is quite easy to enter the soil. This task force under the handle and one employee. But upon further immersed into the ground with every turn of the drill goes harder and slower.
At this stage of work without an assistant is not enough. If the drill has been difficult to raise to the surface, it should be turned counter-clockwise, and then try again.
Manual water well drilling as an industrial method was applied more recently. And now it is possible in those places where it is difficult to deliver drilling equipment
When the subsequent penetration of the drill meets considerable resistance, it may be a risk of equipment failure. Therefore, we must try to soften the soil, using for this purpose the water.
The work goes on, the drill is moving down, but do not forget that every half a meter of its promotion is necessary to release the tool from the ground, and this should be raised to the surface. When the tool is completely submerged in the soil on the handle, it is necessary to increase the following bar.
The entire drilling process is time consuming, most of which have to spend to lift the drill to the surface of the soil and its treatment. Therefore it is necessary to use as efficiently as possible each cycle, trying to extract out as much soil as possible.
When performing only the first time, drilling manual work can be done by yourself, then you definitely need a helper
If the layers are held tool, characterized by high flowability, there is a risk of collapse of the well shaft at the most inopportune moment. To avoid this, use a casing that will prevent the shedding of the shaft walls.
But here's the condition of the land, which comes to the surface, it changed: the drill has reached the aquifer. There are very few. Over the aquifer must be waterproof. Boer is necessary to immerse the impervious layer to the well received in the maximum amount of water. The maximum depth, which is achieved by manual drilling, is from 10 to 20 meters. It is at this depth, most often, and is the first aquifer.
Lying on the first surface of the dirty water, which is pumped by manual or submersible pump. To wash well enough to take a few buckets of dirt. If clean water is not to rush to change the dirty, you should drill more a meter or two.
Like any other job, manual drilling can be upgraded by applying a hydraulic pump and an electric drill. Perform such work is possible even without assistants. The entire drilling process can be seen in this video.
Method # 2 - budgetary auger drilling
It is believed that a screw, not rotary drilling is the most simple and financially affordable option devices well under water. It is the use of a screw method built into most modern small-sized rig.
Auger drilling can be carried out with the help here is a mobile unit that can be easily transported to the place of its exploitation
Schneck - is known to all Archimedes' screw. Those who have seen the fishermen drilled hole for ice fishing, are what is at stake. In a similar manner and creates a shallow, up to 10 meters, bore hole. In operation, it does not apply the drilling fluid or water, by means of which in other cases is washed instrument.
If you contact a specialized organization, it is likely they will be use in their work for auger drilling equipment that is easy to transport and widely It applied.
The peculiarity of this kind of work is that it can not carry on all kinds of soil. With the help of the screw is impossible to pass rock or quicksand, but on a dry and soft sedimentary soils, this method has proved itself very well. In carrying out this work should be given to the protection of the mine from the contaminated water from the soil surface.
Screw - drilling tool, which is a large-sized screw, screwed into the ground. Destroyed rock brought to the surface on the blades of the auger
Diameter of screw flights determines the diameter of future wells. The diameter of the casing to generate should be 1 - 3 cm larger than the screw to the drill string to move freely
The easiest drilling rig with auger drive the muscular effort. As the penetration tool increasing of screwed rods
Drilling screw - the fastest way of penetration, but it is very bad relieves barrel production from the ground. Good retrieved sandy loam with loam, unconsolidated rocks to raise almost impossible
The simplest embodiment of the machine for mechanized drilling screw is a frame with a motor, activating the rotational motion
The movement of the screw can lead not only to a gasoline or diesel engine, but also the electric device
In industrial plants climb and descent of the screw shell produces hydraulics. Drill a hole in the water so you can in a few hours, but before the installation of the filter have to clean the barrel bailer and wash
During the drilling should be immediately installed in the production of cased. It prevents shedding of soil in the formulation and form a trunk generation
Typical screw design
The dimensions of the drill
Drilling machine manual
Cons auger drilling
Compact machine for drilling auger
Electric drive for the auger
Industrial Drilling Rig
Water well casing
Method # 3 - rotary drilling (for rock)
If the production will have to hold in the rocky soil, then to create it using the rotary drilling method. It is based on application laid special drill pipe which resembles upturned thin glass with primers blunt cone bits along the bottom edge.
Tested through the cavity tube of communication used in drilling. Hydraulic system creates a WOB, fight their way into the rock. Complements pipe string load weight.
In rotary drilling rock break like this bit, which can overcome even the solid obstacles in its path
The primer is eluted from the well using a drilling mud, is fed into the pipe in one of two possible methods:
- Direct flushing. The solution was pumped into the tube by a pump, and then flows through the annular space along with the rock.
- Backwashing. The solution enters the gravity tube, and from the annulus it together with the breed of the drain pump.
It is believed that the backwash effectively direct: it can help reach large production rate due to the highest quality opening aquifer. But to carry out this washing method, you must use expensive equipment that affects the growth of the cost of work. Direct flushing cheaper feedback.
Method # 4 - cable drilling
If you want to get well, that will serve you for 50 years, and is conceived to implement sufficient time, effort and nerves, choose a cable-drilling method. We have to work for a long time. You will slowly but surely make its way to the cherished goal.
This shock-cable structure consists of a frame, and the percussion cartridge bailer which is made of a thick-walled tube and is responsible for the drilling process itself
The process is based on the use of specific drill - bailer. This thick-walled pipe segment length of 1 to 2 m with the valve ball or valve petal below. In the upper part of the tube cut "window" for the extraction of soil, the top equipped with a lug torso.
Tied to a rope thrown over the block, Bailer free throw for slaughter. Falling down it loosens the soil and captures its valve. The process is repeated several times before removing from the barrel bailer. Extracted from the well Bailer free from soil: inverted and shake it through the hole.
This method is considered to be mine penetration is very labor-intensive, but effective. Besides water saturated sands and loose sediment from the borehole to remove only the shock-rope method. When zhelonirovanii not used drilling mud, so it can not be confused with the well appeared groundwater.
Due to the high labor intensity, this method is superior to the price of Rotary. In addition, if the goal is to pass beyond the first aquifer, have to bear the costs of mine isolation from the jars, which are located above.
To apply this additional casing. In addition to increasing the flow of materials is increasing and the amount of work that are carried out by experts. Therefore, such a structure will be costly.
Even information about how to drill water wells without equipmentYou can get acquainted with the article provided by us.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Roller visualize the drilling process manually setting the filter casing and the casing:
Each type of well water has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Now that you've got an idea of the form of wells, their device structures and methods, it will be easier to do the choice in favor of a design based on the characteristics of your site from their own financial opportunities.
If you've drilled well with his own hands, tell us about how difficult or easy was the process in execution. Please write comments in the box located below. Ask questions, share experiences, post pictures on the subject of the article.