Not all owners of suburban areas are ready to lay out large sums of money to attract drillers to install a water well. However, the convenience of using its own water intake is difficult to overestimate. You can save by building a water source with your own hands. How to make it?
You will learn all about how manual drilling of wells is carried out in the proposed article. We will tell you how and in what way the work is done, what will beginner drillers need to implement the idea. Taking into account our recommendations, you will be able to drill and arrange production.
For independent craftsmen, we led and dismantled all the methods of manual drilling, explained in which cases they should be used. Attached the scheme of drilling rigs and shells, available for self-production, posted a photo-collection and video instructions.
The content of the article:
Types of wells and their features
- Abyssinian well
- Features of the wells on the sand
- Deep artesian well
Self Drilling Methods
- Manual screw method
- Core Drilling Technology
- Shock rope method
- Rotational impact method
Step-by-step drilling technology
- Preparation of the necessary tools
- Making a screw from scrap materials
- Drilling operations
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Types of wells and their features
Own water source is a great opportunity to provide yourself and your loved ones with clean life-giving water and to satisfy household needs. By drilling and well construction It is possible to solve the problem of water supply for several decades ahead.
The choice of method of drilling and the scope of work on the arrangement of the well depends on the type of hydraulic structure.
If the water on the site is located presumably at a depth of 10-15 meters, then it is more profitable and easier to arrange an Abyssinian well. The hydraulic structure of this type uses an aquifer located above the waterproof clay layer. Water carrier feeds due to infiltration of precipitation and waters of nearby water bodies.
A novice craftsman who can only master the basic skills of drilling can even drill a simple well-needle hole.
A relatively shallow narrow well is a column of thick-walled AIV pipes with a diameter of 50–80 mm. In the lower, the very first column link, a special filter is arranged by drilling holes in the pipe walls.
Pipes perform the function of the barrel; the Abyssinian well does not require additional casing. It is not drilled, but immersed in the ground by means of driving.
Compact size abyssinian type water intake allow you to place it in almost any free space near the house. The most common method of punching this type of hydraulic structure is percussive drilling.
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The Abyssinian well, or well needle, refers to the few workings that can be quickly and easily drilled by hand.
Its device requires a specific tool that is not removed from the mine until its operation is completed.
The first link of the drill string is equipped with a tip that facilitates penetration and a filter that prevents the penetration of mineral inclusions from the pumped water
The photo shows the three stages of making a filter for the Abyssinian well. First, holes are drilled in the pipe, then it is wrapped with wire, to which a filter screen is attached.
The essence of the device of the needle well is to drive a string of narrow drill pipes into the ground before opening the aquifer. Facilitate the process of small-sized screw installation
Drilling machine with auger drill passes the soil to the required depth. In the formed hole is much easier to install a column of pipes with a filter in the first link.
Since the Abyssinian boreholes are mainly drilled up to 10–12 m, manual mechanical or surface electric pumps are used to pump water from them.
In terms of the volume of water produced, the Abyssinian well is not inferior to traditional water intake workings. The only drawback is the technical purpose of the water.
Advantages of the Abyssinian well
Tool for needle hole device
The first link of the drill string
Abyssinian well filter
Mechanized method of penetration
Drilling narrow workings by the screw
Needle Well Pumps
Abyssinian water abundance
Features of the wells on the sand
With the depth of the aquifer up to 30 - 40 meters, common in loose, incoherent sediments, construct sandy aquifer well. It is called that because it extracts water from water-saturated sands.
The fifty-meter depth of the source is not able to guarantee crystal clear water, and therefore the contents of the well should be checked in the laboratory for the presence of chemical compounds
The aquifer of the well on the sand is located only three to four tens of meters from the surface. And in order to achieve it, one does not have to go through hard rock and semi-rock. Therefore, it will not be difficult to manually drill a sand well if one of the methods described below is applied.
Deep artesian well
But planning to drill an artesian well cannot be done on its own. Artesian water is spread along cracks in impermeable rock and semi-rock at a depth of about 40-200 meters.
The task of drilling a well on limestone can be managed only by professionals who possess the necessary knowledge and have special drilling equipment at their disposal.
To determine the depth of the water they should be guided by the data of hydraulic structures of this kind, drilled not far from the upcoming site of work.
Since an artesian well is able to provide water to several sites at once, drilling services are conveniently ordered by the club. This will significantly save on drilling and equipping the source of water supply.
Self Drilling Methods
In order to choose the best for you personally drilling method, you must first examine their specifics and understand what tool is needed, whether it will be possible to drill with your own hands.
Manual screw method
Drilling with the use of auger is one of the most common and accessible methods. It is effective in setting up wells whose depth does not exceed 40 m.
The auger is a helical rod equipped with a drill bit and angled steel blades.
The essence of the method lies in the fact that the screw, like a corkscrew, is screwed into the ground. As the soil penetrates the soil, the helical rod destroys the layers, and its metal blades bring the waste earth to the surface.
Augers used for manual drilling of wells are of two types:
- The rods, the cutting blades to which are welded at a right angle.
- Constructions, blades to which are welded at an angle of 30-60 °.
The design of the second version is more convenient. Due to the location of the blades at an angle, the crushed soil does not fall inside the well, but is completely removed to the surface.
To facilitate manual labor and speed up the process, you can use small-sized screw installations.
This technique is particularly effective in the case if the work is to be done with complex soils, which include inclusions of rock in the composition
Compact augers operate on the same principle as the hand drill, but are driven by an electric motor.
You can drill a shallow well for taking water to water the garden without drilling toolsusing a garden drill. True, for casing walls you will need pipes from which the shaft is made, and metal pipe-rods required for extension.
Core Drilling Technology
Core drilling is performed using a special tool in the form of a pipe, equipped with a crown. The specifics of drilling and the diameter of the pipe, which does not exceed 160 mm, allows you to work quite quickly. For the day of work, depending on the density of the rock, you can walk up to several tens of meters.
With the help of the mount, located in the upper part of the core pipe, one and a half meter rods are built up as the tool penetrates. The build-up is carried out in stages, forming a technological column from the projectile with the rods.
The crown is made of durable metal. The edges of the crown are sharpened so that its incisors can easily cope with dense rocks. The shape and size of the used crowns is determined by the physico-mechanical characteristics of the rock.
As it rotates, the pipe, equipped with a crown, is buried in the rock and forms an opening for a well of a corresponding diameter.
When dealing with superhard rock formations, a chisel is first used before immersing the pipe. Then, using a crown, a well is drilled, and the slurry is driven into the core tube and lifted to the surface.
In the process manual well drilling A casing string is installed in the core method to strengthen the walls of the structure. To facilitate the process of penetration inside the projectile periodically serves clean water or clay solution.
Shock rope method
The method involves breaking ground by lowering a heavy drilling tool from a height of two meters.
For this purpose, a drilling structure is used, the main elements of which are:
- tripod, which is placed above the drilling site;
- unit with a winch and a cable;
- driving glass attached to the end of the cable.
The use of the winch allows you to reduce physical loads, and the use of rotating the motor shaft with a gearbox - to automate the process.
A hammer pipe made of metal pipe should have a well-sharpened cutting edge that can even break hard rocks. To break overly dense soils, an additional steel rod is used as a weighting agent for the glass, fixing it just above the drilling structure. Loose rocks removed by sap.
Sinking down the drilling site with a force, the tool breaks the rock, and the cutting shell located at the bottom of the drill grabs the sludge and brings it to the surface.
The glass is freed from the soil it has seized through its bottom, knocking the walls of the projectile with a sledgehammer. Purification of the sludge is carried out through a technological opening located in its upper part.
The work is performed in the following sequence:
- In the selected location, they dig a 1x1 meter hole at a depth of 0.5 meters.
- In the center of the pit at right angles set garden drill. By turning the tool around its axis, it is buried in the ground. As required, the screw rod is increased by the pipe, fixing it by bolting.
- After the appearance of wet sand, the auger is removed. Instead, a specially assembled casing structure is installed in the hole, which is hammered with a sledge hammer.
- The rock that has collapsed during the installation is removed by the sludge. Each time the projectile captures and holds a part of it when it is introduced into the reservoir.
- As the casing is buried, it is increased by another segment of the same diameter. The segments are screwed together or welded together in order to obtain a single sealed barrel.
- For deepening, the casing is carefully turned and listened to the sounds being made. Gnash will occur during friction of coarse-grained sand, rustling - fine-grained, silence - during the passage of clayey soil.
- For drilling loose rocks, such as loose sand, gravel, gravel, used zhelonku. Clay rocks and dense sands pass by a glass.
- After performing a series of consecutive blows, a glass or a sill is lifted to the surface, extracting soil from it. After this, the work cycle is repeated.
As in the previous methods, to facilitate the manual drilling of a well, a clay mixture or water is poured into the hole, and then it is pulled back using a special bucket. At occurrence of noise in the course of drilling the well should be filled in with water. If the water goes slowly, the pipe should be buried by half a meter, if it is fast, only by 20-30 cm.
For shallow production, you can easily do it yourself. This will require a pipe with a diameter of 100-120 mm, a metal earring and an eyelet for fastening the cable, which must be attached to the top of the pipe.
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Stage 1: For well development by zonification, a tool is needed which is a pipe with a valve at the base
Stage 2: The shell is forced down to the bottom, with its weight and sharp edges it destroys the rock. The soil is pushed into the tube cavity and held in it by a valve.
Stage 3: At the bottom of the sink throw several times until they go deep by 30 - 50 cm. The projectile is then removed from the well and freed from rock that has accumulated in the pipe.
Step 4: In order to maintain the verticality of the well and not to “scoop up” the incoherent rock, the casing is installed as it penetrates the production. Ideally, it is flush with the drill or a few centimeters ahead of the projectile
Borehole at the dacha
Water Well Casing
Rotational impact method
The main difference of this method is that the drilling rig performs both shock and rotational movements in parallel. This approach speeds up the drilling process. This method is especially effective when it comes to arranging a hydraulic structure, if the geological section in the locality is heterogeneous.
The rotary percussion method also involves using a tripod, with which it is much easier to immerse and then remove the drill to the surface.
Shock-rotational and shock-rope drilling methods are effective when setting up wells in loose soils, the particles of which are not interconnected. Both methods are suitable for drilling and extraction of clay soils: sandy loam, loam.
When drilling in loose rocks due to the insufficient connection of soil particles between themselves at the stage of well construction, the probability of shedding its walls is high. Therefore, wells on the sand are necessarily equipped with casing and filters that prevent ingress of large inclusions into the extracted water.
Step-by-step drilling technology
Among all the methods listed above, the screw is considered to be the simplest. But it should be borne in mind that it is effective only when drilling loose and clayey soils.
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The screw tool is screwed into the ground according to the principle of traditional screws. The soil destroyed by the auger is carried out on the blades of the drill. The more blades, the more soil can be removed.
As the production is deepened, the rods are alternately screwed to the first link of the drill string. This method achieves the required depth
To connect the drill rods is safer to use couplings than the locking fingers. If drilling is done using a drill tripod or machine, you will need a swivel
In order to speed up the production of drilling by dozens of times, it is better to rotate the auger using
Screw - drilling rig in the form of a screw
Drill rods for extension
Hand Drilling Tools
Hand drilling mechanization
Preparation of the necessary tools
Before you drill a hole manually, you need to prepare the tools:
- drill or small-sized screw installation.
- drilling rig with a winch.
- set of 3-4 bars.
If it is necessary to set up a well at a depth of over 8 meters to facilitate the diving of the drill and its subsequent removal from the wellbore, the equipment is fixed to homemade rig.
The drilling tower can be constructed from wooden bars or metal pipes by assembling a tripod-shaped structure from them.
The size of the tripod proportions must match the height of the section of the drill string. To create a construction, the bars are laid in the form of a triangle and fixed by means of a bolted or welding joint.
They make holes for the insertion of a metal pipe, which will serve as a support. The dimensions of the base are determined only by the stability of the structure.
In the upper part of the structure, an additional hole is provided, through which the rod will pass.
To protect the wellbore from destruction and shedding of the walls, a casing string is installed that has a high bearing capacity for shear and compressive formation loads. For work using pipes made of metal, asbestos cement or polymers.
To create a casing, it is convenient to use pipes equipped with a threaded joint on the outer and inner surface
When assembling a structure, segments of such elements are easily screwed into each other without using additional assembly units.
Making a screw from scrap materials
Material for manufacturing drilling toolsIn this case, a helical rod, a pipe d100mm can protrude. For this purpose it is better to use stainless steel pipes, the wall thickness of which is at least 5 mm.
The upper part of the structure should have:
- on the upper end there is a screw thread on the outside for connection with a rod;
- at the lower end - a screw auger with at least two turns.
To facilitate the process of twisting the drill, a handle 1.5 meters long is welded to the upper cut of the pipe. The transition element between the handle and collapsible rods will be a tee, equipped with an internal screw thread.
The cutting blades of the drill are made from strips of sheet metal with a thickness of 2-2.5 mm, which are welded to the pipe at an equidistant distance
1.5 meter long rods are made from a pipe of the same diameter:
- the first rod with an external screw thread at the lower end for attaching the drill;
- all subsequent threaded rods at both ends of the same size.
Couplings should have the same thread parameters. As the need to build their designs simply screwed to the auger, after unscrewing the handle.
Some masters use auger drill as a screw. The tool knife in this case performs the function of the cutting blades of the auger. Bars for building are made separately.
To use the tool as a drill and to be able to reach great depths with it, bars are made of d25 mm pipes for building
Trying to improve the tool, some craftsmen additionally weld reinforced cutters to the factory edges of the improvised auger.
On well site dig a hole in the size of 150x150 cm. It is necessary in order to ensure the stability of a vertically installed pipe. So that the walls of the dimple do not crumble, they are strengthened with board pieces or pieces of chipboard.
The drill is immersed in the recess and, holding the tool by the handle, they begin to screw into the soil gradually in the direction of the clockwise movement.
A drill is immersed in the recess and, holding the tool by the handle, they gradually begin to screw into the soil in the direction of the clockwise movement. It is more convenient to perform this work together: the first one will scroll the tool handle, and the second one will press on it from above.
After passing the first meter begin to form the trunk of a structure with a diameter of at least 12-15 cm. To do this, lower the casing into the recess. The diameter of the pipe should be slightly larger than the size of the blades of the drill. In the future, the clogging of pipes produced in parallel with the deepening of the well.
After the drill is buried 1.5–2 meters, it will be quite difficult to rotate the tool yourself. To facilitate the work will help the use of pipe wrenches and other gripping devices.
After passing every three to four meters, the screw rod should be removed to the surface and its mouth cleared of earth
When the moment comes that the drilling tool will be deepened to its full height when diving, it should be “increased”. For this, a rod is fixed to it by means of a threaded connection or a “finger-rod” extension.
At this stage it is important to ensure the strength of the connection elements. In order to simplify the task of determining the depth covered, it is advisable to mark accumulated bars.
During the passage of the layers continue to form the casing, not forgetting to check the vertical trunk. Even minimal curvature can impede the free fall of casing. Therefore, if during work the drill begins to beat against the walls of the casing, wooden wedges are hammered to correct the verticality of the trunk between the soil and the casing.
Work continues until the soil delivered to the surface is wet. This will indicate that the aquifer is already close. To overcome the aquifer, it will only be a little deeper.
The casing can be, but it is undesirable to mount after the completion of drilling. After installing the casing in the well completely drilled from the well again will need to remove the collapsed soil, but will have to act zhelonkoy.
So that the extended casing does not sink into the barrel until the next segment is attached, it is held by a yoke
For temporary fixation of the casing, installed in the drilled trunk, you should use the device in the form of a clamp, equipped with handles. It will not allow the casing to fall into the production before the next segment of the casing will be connected.
But It is worth noting that this method is far from the most rational, since it requires a long clearing of the face from the sludge. When forming the column, do not lower the pipes to the bottom of the well. They should not reach the lowest point of the bottom about half a meter.
To form a casing string, plastic pipes are introduced in series, connecting the elements as they deepen.
To facilitate the drilling process with the help of auger, experts recommend washing with water from time to time. The jet pumped into the casing cavity by the pump will flush the blade to the surface.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Drilling of the well by the shock rope method:
The subtleties of making a screw do-it-yourself:
Those wishing to know how to properly drill a water well by hand, we brought proven methods. It is necessary to choose the best method of drilling, to seriously approach the selection of the necessary equipment, and when carrying out drilling strictly follow the advice of experienced craftsmen.
The result of these efforts will be a personally equipped source of water supply, providing clean water to all households.
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