The well is an old hydraulic structure, which has not lost its relevance to this day. The owners of country houses and cottages agree with the need for such a structure on the site. It can be a traditional source of water or it can serve as a basis for arranging an autonomous water supply system.
In any case, from time to time it is necessary to clean and repair the well: it’s quite simple to do it yourself. Next, we will tell you when repair is necessary and how to carry it out without the help of specialists.
The content of the article:
- When to repair?
- Safety when working in the well
- Planned repairs
Wooden wells and their repair
- How to replace a wooden well log house?
- Replacing the logs in the wooden house
Repair work in the concrete well
- Joint damage and cracks
- Shift Concrete Rings
- Pneumatic repair method
- Dry well deepening
- Work on the repair of brick construction
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
When to repair?
The first "bell", indicating that something is wrong with the well, is the deterioration of water quality. It acquires an unpleasant taste, smell, becomes turbid. Drinking this water is not recommended. Yes, and for household appliances and sanitary equipment, it is also unsuitable: filter cartridges “fly” quickly, and appliances deteriorate.
The causes of contamination in the well can be very different:
- A large number of oozy natural deposits on the walls and bottom of the mine, which are a mixture of organic microparticles, bacteria and unicellular algae. The organic mixture decomposes, which gives the water an unpleasant taste and smell.
- Accidentally in the mine large pollution. This may be an animal that fell into the well, or leaves that have fallen into the water, debris and the like.
- Organic matter and soil particles entering the mine through lining that has lost its tightness.
To prevent cloud water and other troubles, the owner of the well needs to carry out all repair work in a timely and competent manner.
Through the joints of concrete rings that have lost their sealing, ground and sewage seeps into the well, which significantly impairs the quality of well water.
Well shaft repair activities are of two types:
- scheduled maintenance;
- unscheduled repairs.
The first are held regularly, after a certain period of time. Their goal is to maintain proper cleanliness in the well shaft and timely detect minor damage that needs to be repaired immediately.
It should be understood that any major damage or accident is always preceded by many small faults. If you do not fight them, serious problems will ripen.
In the course of planned repair work, the filter is usually replaced or completely cleaned, and deposits and deposits are removed from the walls. mines, disinfection, elimination of minor defects and damage, as well as pumping water, which is necessary after repair or long just me.
Unscheduled repairs are carried out to eliminate major defects caused by extraneous mechanical effects, improper operation, etc.
Work at great depths is very dangerous, therefore it is necessary to strictly observe the safety instructions.
Safety when working in the well
Work at depth is very dangerous, so it is unacceptable to neglect the rules of personal safety. Experts recommend for the period of repair work to fence the mine boards, put on the edge.
In addition, the area around the wellhead should be freed from foreign objects so that nothing can accidentally fall into the barrel. Especially if there is a working person there.
All tools and equipment must be intact and safe. Be sure to check the tensile strength of the rope that will be used to lift the tank with sludge or soil.
If work is expected at a depth of more than 6 meters, another safety rope should be tied to the bucket. Lifting mechanisms, if used, should work flawlessly.
Before the first descent into the barrel, as well as after the breaks and every morning, it is necessary to check the air quality in the well. This can be done by lowering the burning candle, if it goes out, it is necessary to carry out measures to ventilate the trunk.
Then check the air quality again. If the inflow of harmful gases in the well is strong and constant, it is necessary to carry out continuous ventilation.
For these purposes, a fan or a burning stove installed on the surface is used, the blower of which is connected to the bottom of the shaft by means of a pipe. When lowering or raising any items you should always alert those working below. In the process of immersion, the depth of the unprotected wall of the barrel should not exceed one meter.
To clean the walls of the well from deposits, you can use a high-pressure washer. With him, the process will go much faster.
For the normal functioning of the well, it is necessary to regularly conduct routine work on its cleaning and inspection. In the course of their conduct, small damages are often detected, which are immediately eliminated.
Cleaning the well is carried out in stages:
- We dismantle the nad-hut house or construction lid in order to ensure free access to the mine.
- We pump out all the water from the well. This will have to be done several times. The first is before the diagnostics of the mine, the subsequent ones during the work, and the last time after the completion of cleaning.
- We clean and wash the walls of the mine. To remove plaque, use a stiff brush and a scraper. To speed up the process, you can use the machine for high pressure car wash.
- We conduct a thorough inspection of the walls and bottom of the structure.
- We eliminate the defects found.
- We clean the bottom from the debris of the soil and deposited mist. If necessary, replace the bottom filter. As an option, it can be lifted to the surface, washed and laid again.
As seen, cleaning the well - an indispensable component of carrying out and unscheduled repairs, since it is simply impossible to detect problems in a polluted well.
What kind of work you need to spend depends on the type of construction. Consider the most common problems and solutions.
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A concrete ring shaft is a common well arrangement that requires specific repairs.
The end of the water intake structure requires restoration no less than its underground part.
The list of planned maintenance measures includes cleaning the walls of the building, sealing the seams, and replacing the bottom filter.
Replacement of worn concrete rings is leading among the capital events.
The most common reason for repair is the appearance of gaps along the seams. They are restored during maintenance.
When offset concrete rings often requires capital measures with partial dismantling of the trunk
To restore the flow rate of the water source helps the deepening of the well shaft
When deepening a concrete well, the trunk is increased by concrete rings to the required depth
Repair of a concrete well shaft
Repair ogolovka well
Bottom filter device
Bottom filter device
Sealing joints between rings
Offset concrete ruts
Well shaft deepening
Extension barrel repair rings
Wooden wells and their repair
Wooden well is called, the mine which is a log cabin. The problem for such a structure often becomes premature damage to individual crowns, which must be replaced.
Sometimes during routine inspection it turns out that almost all the crowns are affected by rot. In this case, no cleaning of the logs with their subsequent processing will help;
The main problem of wooden wells - premature damage to one or more of the crown of the crown. If necessary, they can be replaced with new ones.
How to replace a wooden well log house?
If the decision is made to completely replace the wooden frame of the wooden structure, perform the work in this sequence.
Stage number 1 - pumping water from the mine
First you need to completely pump out the water from the well, using any suitable pump. It should be noted that the pumping will have to be carried out continuously, because the water will arrive continuously. After draining the structure, you can proceed to further work.
Stage number 2 - repairing damaged crowns
The lower rims of the structure, which was assembled according to all the rules, must stand on special strong supports. They need to be carefully removed, which is usually not difficult. They are most often badly damaged and can be reached one by one, carefully helping yourself with a crowbar.
As practice shows, a well-built blockhouse for this operation does not "react" at all, since the years of operation made it almost monolithic.
After that, we begin to carefully disassemble the log house below. We lift logs upward. If suddenly it seems that some elements are well preserved and can still serve, we still dismantle and raise them to the surface. Subsequently, we use them when installing a new log house.
After all the details have been raised to the surface, clean the mine from the crumbling soil and remove the out-of-date bottom filter. Then we seal its walls with a wide board in order to prevent fallings.
To dismantle the old log house, you will have to disassemble the near-well house, after which you can begin dismantling the structure. Works are conducted from the bottom of the last crown inside the well.
Stage number 3 - we are building a new log house
The material from which it will be collected should be taken care of in advance. For a log house it is not necessary to take conifers, which give bitterness from tar into the water. Optimally choose moisture resistant ash or oak. The latter must be moraine, that is, past special processing. It consists in placing logs in running water for at least a year.
During this time, all tanning and other undesirable substances will be washed out of the wood, and the material will be well prepared for long-term contact with water. Treated in such a way and dried oak logs are ideal for facing the well.
Work with a log house is similar to the construction of a log house. All elements of the structure are folded as necessary, numbered and disassembled for subsequent installation.
The quality of the work done is very important. Untidy gaps are simply unacceptable. They will definitely get the soil from the mine walls, because you can not caulk a log house.
The feature of the well log is that the lower part is chopped without residue. If you make the upper part of the structure with it, you get the traditional Russian version of the arrangement of wells.
The above-ground part of the well-frame should be larger than the underground. It is quite simple to do this: all elements are lengthened onto a tree trunk and chopped “into the bowl”
Stage №4 - we put the wreaths in the well
Work will require at least two people. One will be at the bottom, the second at the top - for safety net. At the bottom of the well poured new bottom filter. Then we put on it new props, bars, on which we will lay the log house.
The first crown is collected at the top and, holding together with temporary boards, carefully face down the shaft. Omit it on the props. The next crown is assembled and lowered similarly.
But he will already settle down on the walls. Gently knock him so that the earth does not crumble from the walls. Thus we raise the log house to the surface of the earth.
All the dirt that fell to the bottom of the well: clay, construction debris, the soil is immediately removed. Otherwise, our bottom filter, even before it starts its work, will be plugged with a cork, resulting in mud trampled by the feet. After the mine comes to the surface, its dimensions change.
It should become wider. It is quite simple to make it: all elements are lengthened on a tree trunk, and the building is chopped into a bowl. Thus, we bring the mine to a height of about 1.5 m, it is possible and more, if there are kids in the house.
The above-ground part can be fastened with metal pins or staples. For underground it is unacceptable. Our well is almost ready, it remains to equip its aboveground part to your liking.
Before replacing spoiled crown logs, be sure to secure the logs lying above them. With this design, the elements are “suspended” on trestles, which allows for all the necessary work.
Replacing the logs in the wooden house
If the destruction is not so global, repairing your wooden well will be easier. You can get by replacing several parts inside the log house. Work carried out as follows.
If the damaged elements are below the water level, install the pump and pump out the water. Then we proceed to the strengthening of that part of the log house, which is located directly above the destroyed logs.
To do this, we mount a special device. Above the well head from two sides we install goats. We lay four short logs on them. On them we fix on two strong long boards which we lower in a felling.
To them, nails with long nails crowns, located above the damaged elements. Thus, we “hang up” the preserved part of the log house.
Alternatively, instead of long boards, you can take strong ropes with hooks and fix the logs with their help. After reinforcement has been carried out, carefully remove the damaged logs and lift them to the surface.
Guided by their size and shape, we are preparing a new part to be inserted into the frame. It must be admitted that this is quite difficult to do, since the new log must be covered with the groove of the old upper part.
First, carefully cut down the lower part of the lower located old log, so that it is on the same level with the groove. Then we take the prepared log, put it in place and carefully hammer it in with a wooden hammer.
After that, reliably wedged. Instead of logs, you can use elements of concrete that are cast to the size of an old part. This greatly increases the efficiency of the repair.
After a well-done repair, a wooden well will last a long time. You can upgrade and his nadkolodezny house, decorate it with interesting decor
Defective elements of the log cabin can be repaired by concreting using sliding formwork. Before the start of repair work we prepare the site where the worker will be located. The easiest way to knock it out of sturdy boards.
The dimensions of the structure should be such that it is freely placed inside the mine. The platform is suspended on cables on a beam lying on the top of the well, and lowered into the trunk.
We fix the reinforcing mesh to the wall above the damaged area and install the sliding formwork. Prepare a cement mortar with a fine filler and pour the mixture into the resulting gap.
After the composition hardens, we will get cement cement, which is almost as strong as concrete. At the end of the repair work well necessarily disinfected.
Repair work in the concrete well
Concrete mines, in spite of their strength, also require repair work. The most common reasons for its implementation - the shift or destruction of the constituent rings rings.
Joint damage and cracks
The cause of the problem may be a shift of the rings or their destruction. If only the outer layer has suffered, repair work is carried out from inside the well. First, carefully we clean the wall of the mine.
Then we determine the degree of destruction, for this seam or crack we knock. All chipping elements are removed, after which we carefully seal up the damage.
Careful termination of the interring seams is a guarantee of the well’s normal functioning. For work, you need to select a qualitative composition that will last for a long time.
If it turns out that the crack is through, the work will have to be carried out from the outside of the well. For this, we dig a concrete column around the perimeter so that a repair trench is formed in which it is possible to work relatively freely.
After the damage is completely excavated, we clean the wall of dirt. We fix the defect with cement or mastic and cover it with a waterproofing layer.
Shift Concrete Rings
To prevent this problem from occurring during the installation of concrete rings, it is recommended to scrape them, that is, fasten them together with metal plates measuring 0.4x4x30 cm.
At each joint is installed at least 4 of these brackets. Under their mounting in the body of the rings are drilled holes. Plates are fixed with 12 mm anchor bolts. Such a procedure does not allow the rings constituting to move relative to each other.
If the scraping was not performed, and the shift occurred, proceed to repair work. Digging a repair trench around the column. We descend to the shifted ring.
We return it to its place, after which we close the seams on both sides and seal them with sealant. Then we put the fastening brackets on each seam across the entire column, so that it would not be necessary to correct the shift of the ring again.
To prevent the concrete rings from moving relative to each other, they need to be fixed with special brackets. In this case, the column will be able to resist ground movement.
If the first method for any reason does not suit, use the repair column of plastic pipes, the diameter of which will be less than that of rings of concrete.
Plastic elements are lowered into the shaft and are connected by twisting along the thread, which must be pre-treated with a sealant. Repair column raise the entire height of the concrete shaft. The free space between the ring and the pipe is filled with sand or sand-cement mixture.
Pneumatic repair method
This is a new method that professionals often use. It consists in the elimination of surface defects from concrete due to the use of special reducing and protective means.
These compounds significantly increase the resistance of concrete to mechanical stress, increase resistance to temperature fluctuations. In addition, they provide anti-corrosion protection of valves and reliable waterproofing.
The composition for the work is prepared in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Before applying the mortar, the concrete base must be prepared: remove dirt, clear the crumbling areas and wet them with water.
For better adhesion of the material, it is desirable that the base be slightly rough. The application of the composition and its subsequent drying is carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions.
A plastic pipe can be used to repair shifted concrete rings. It goes down the entire depth of the structure. The space between the columns is filled with rubble, sand or sand-cement mixture
Dry well deepening
Increasing the depth of the well is used when reducing the amount of water or in the case of a complete cessation of its receipt. It should be noted that this is a very time consuming and expensive procedure that does not guarantee a positive result. You can make the deepening in different ways.
Deepening through the use of repair columns
To implement this option, repair rings smaller than the diameter of the main column are used. They alternately fall down, undermine and settle down. Thus, a repair column is assembled.
After water appears in the mine, the work is stopped, the joints of the rings are sealed and scraped. The main and repair columns are fastened with brackets or corners, the space between them is filled with rubble.
Build up the top column
This method can only be used for relatively new wells that are no more than 6-12 months old. After this period, the land around the structure is too compacted, and it will be impossible to besiege the column.
The bottom ring digs up from the bottom to a shallow depth, after which a draft of the structure occurs and the actions are repeated. The main drawback of the method is that there is a high risk of the column getting stuck.
One of the ways to repair is to deepen the well of concrete rings with a repair column of a smaller diameter. The space between the new and the old column is filled with rubble
Building up the bottom
This method can be used for wells that have served for several years. It consists in undermining the ring by 25-30 cm, after which the wall is built up with brickwork or a concrete structure, which is poured into the installed formwork.
The main drawback is the high labor intensity and low speed of the process, because before the next undermining by 25-30 cm it is necessary to wait until the solution acquires full strength.
There is material on our site that describes ways in more detail. dredging wellsWe recommend that you familiarize yourself.
Work on the repair of brick construction
Brick-lined wells are the easiest to repair. The elements of their facing are small and easy to replace. First of all, the walls must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, otherwise it is easy to miss the damage.
If gaps have formed between the bricks, they should be qualitatively sealed from the outside of the structure. We are preparing a repair trench. Reaching the defect, clear it up to 10 cm in depth.
After this, we properly coat the gap with clay, going a minimum of 5 cm. Inside the well, the work comes down to replacing the damaged bricks and restoring the crumbling plaster. A defective brick or its remains are carefully hollowed out of the wall. We take a new part and insert it into place of the old one, laying it on the cement mortar.
Brick-lined wells are fairly easy to repair. Broken brick neatly hollowed out and replaced with a new one.
Before plastering carefully prepare the base. Use a steel brush to clean it from dirt and mucus, otherwise a sinus forms in which water can accumulate. And this will lead to the rapid destruction of the new plaster.
Old cover carefully knock and remove all unreliable parts and crumbled fragments. After this, once again we clean the base and proceed to plastering.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Maintenance work wooden well:
Repair of a concrete well with seam insulation:
Repair of the well using a plastic pipe:
Repair damaged well is quite simple. You need to accurately determine the cause of the problem and choose the best way to solve it. It is important to understand that the work will have to be carried out in depth, which is quite risky.
Therefore, you should not ignore the safety rules. Competently executed repair works guarantee the further trouble-free service of the water source.
If you have already faced repairing a well and you have successfully completed this task, please share your valuable experience with our readers. Tell us what problem you have and how you managed to cope with it.