When growing tomatoes, use abundant mineral nutrition to obtain high yields. In this case, the tomato begins to give a lot of additional shoots. This leads to a thicker planting and lower yields. Planking tomato is used to regulate growth.
What is pasynkovanie tomato?
A tomato can grow a sprout in every bosom of the leaf, starting from the first true one. It is part of the main stem and does not differ from it in the type of growth. Leaves are located on it, brushes with fruits are laid. These shoots in the initial stage of growth are called stepchildren. If you leave them, the tomato begins to branch and thicken. On the hands of the stepsons, ovaries are formed and the fruits are overloaded. This leads to the grinding of all fruits. One of the stepsons can grow rapidly, begins to lead in relation to others and becomes the main top.
To level the ratio of green mass and the number of fruits, to adjust the load, use pasynkovanie tomato in the greenhouse. This is the removal of unwanted shoots in the axils of the leaf before the onset of their thickening.
It is best to remove them before they grow to a length of no more than 5 cm. Until this size, the stepson still slightly draws nutrients and removal does not harm the tomato. If they are removed later, the tomato is injured and it loses its yield.
When is it necessary to stew a tomato?
The first stepchildren can be observed already on the seedlings. Therefore, when planting, immediately remove all unnecessary shoots, which may be about 1 cm. This is a laborious job, but it will relieve from the additional load during maintenance work in the greenhouse.
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After planting in the ground at a permanent place, the tomatoes begin to intensively form stepchildren. It is necessary to periodically, at least, after 6-7 days pass through the rows and remove unnecessary shoots before they begin to grow.
Remove stepchildren have to constantly. Pasoning tomatoes is an important part of the maintenance work in the formation of a tomato. In greenhouses, this operation is carried out even after the start of harvesting.
How to correctly pinch tomatoes?
Formation of stepsons in the determinant and indeterminate varieties of tomato is different. Let us consider in detail the rules of pinching tomatoes, depending on the type of bush.
Pastage of tomato with indeterminate bush
Indeterminant varieties are characterized by unlimited growth of the main tip and all lateral shoots. If you do not stew such plants, they quickly occupy the entire volume in the greenhouse, and you will not be able to get a quality crop.
How stepson tomatoes in the greenhouse with indeterminate type of bush? Depending on their variety, they form one, two, and also three main shoots.
When forming, which includes only one stem, remove all stepchildren in the leaf axils, leaving only the main shoot with fruitful brushes. In the greenhouses, they gradually lower the tomato and put the stem on the ground surface, and continue to remove all the stepchildren.
Forming into two or more main stems, respectively, the same amount is left to grow additional shoots. They turn into fruitful shoots and become additional stems. The rest of the shoots are gradually removed, not allowing them to outgrow.
Masking a tomato with a determinative shrubThere is always the likelihood of removing the desired shoot, which will continue to grow the whole plant.
The main shoot of a determinant tomato is always completed, i.e.ends growth, forming a brush at the end. If at the same time remove all stepchildren, then the plant does not have a growth tip. It no longer forms shoots with new fruitful brushes and leaves. The harvest of such a tomato is limited only by previously formed fruits.
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In order not to remove the necessary stepsons, the following rules are followed:
they are removed not earlier than 4-5 cm in height;
before the start of removal determines the stepchild, which will be the main growth shoot;
, when it is doubtful that the escape is removed, it is left to grow; it can be pinched afterwards, completing the growth.
Masking a tomato in pictures will more clearly show the places of removal of excess shoots and the formation of a bush.
Varieties and hybrids with a superdeterminant type of bush branching have their own peacock features. Currently, varieties of tomatoes are not bred. If you delete all the extra shoots before the first brush, then later they can, in general, not stepchild. Such tomatoes include, for example, Alaska, Bely pouring 241, Vershok, Boni M, Gavrosh, Soil Gribovskiy 1180, Moskvich, Rocket, Siberian early, Yamal.
Most determinant varieties grown in open field do not stepchildren, as this leads to a decrease in yield. Pasing a tomato is most relevant in greenhouse conditions, because they are trying to get the maximum yield, having recouped the cost of maintaining expensive designs.
How to carry out a pasynkovaniya operation?
The most common way to remove shoots is to break off their hands.
It is advisable to do this with rubber gloves. Carry out the operation in the first half of the day, when the stems are more juicy, the shoots easily break off.
Pasaces are clamped with the thumb and index finger, then it is rocked in opposite directions until the moment of separation from the plant. A small wound appears at the point of breaking. Until the end of the day, the injury site dries out and a pathogen infection does not get into it.
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Pasynki can also be cut with a knife or scissors. When using a cutting tool, the following rules should be used:
blades should be sharpened to the razor sharpness, so that the damage during cutting is minimal;
movements must be fast and accurate so as not to damage growing stems or other important organs;
, after performing an operation on one plant, before transferring to another, it is necessary to dip the tool blades into a disinfectant solution, for example, 1% bleach or 1% potassium permanganate;
leave a piece of shoot about 1.5 cm to slow down the formation of new unwanted shoots in this place;
cut parts put in a container and taken out of the greenhouse, so as not to provoke the appearance of infectious diseases from plant debris.
Sometimes after a pasynkovaniya, after some time in the place where the escape was removed, a new one begins to grow. It is formed from a sleeping kidney, which was located in the leaf bosom. Therefore, you have to re-delete stepchildren.
Sometimes a new shoot begins to grow in the lower part of a tomato after a long time, when several brushes have already formed. The escape is also formed from a sleeping kidney, but at the same time, the stepchild might not have formed in this place. This is a varietal feature or a tomato gets too much nutrition, so the appearance of additional stems is stimulated. In order not to overload the plant and not to thicken the planting, these stepchildren should also be removed in a timely manner.