Water heaters are divided into flow and storage, gas, electric and wood burning. cylinder device depends on the type of fuel, power, capabilities. Small storage model does not differ from the flow. Consider the types of water heaters, look inside, see how the water heater works.
types of heaters
When choosing a water heater, consider a number of aspects. Some like the upper eyeliner - the tank is on the floor, the other wants to hang the device over the toilet in the bathroom. The crucial detail - outside of the housing. Making adjustments and dimensions.
A variety of water heaters
Types of heaters:
- By the principle of action:
- By fuel type:
They give four combinations (net of rare species). Consider the specifications of water heaters.
Form factor and size of the water heater
Appearance of water heaters without differences. Should choose the form-factor - allow to define the place as to pave the communication. Types of water heaters are similar in appearance. The choice depends on the type of energy source - gas or electricity.
Instantaneous electric water heaters - the only type of miniature. They occupy the space savings are considerable weight, but low power. Flow for increasing a power consumption - flat electrical shield threatened.
For reference, in a typical apartment of Khrushchev protective equipment holds 5 kW.
Storage water heaters are in the form of vertical cylinders. With the top liner can not be hung on the wall, and set up on the floor - so safe.
Geysers reminiscent of a school pencil case. Hung vertically. Not very heavy, powerful, bypass restrictions switchboard. It should take the products of combustion correctly. It is not recommended to use a ventilation duct, so as not to endanger people. If penetrate into carbon monoxide (with no control) - smell difficult. Comes poisoning and death.
When installing, leave the 10 - 15 cm from the sides for service. In electric models - from the bottom, too (for periodic cleaning heater, tank deposits). Water heater relies on the instruction set only. Do not install:
- upside down;
- on the side.
Otherwise, do not be surprised that burned heater or any serious damage.
Setting the right water heater
For the top of the basement is perfect eyeliner, home to the bathroom do not always find a place for the installation. Gas models are suitable for private homes. The project is needed for the installation. In water heaters up to 30 liters with a capacity of less than 6 kW poor performance.
The volume of water heater tank
The very aspect of the choice of the tank volume is concerned wishing to buy a water heater. Be careful: often such models are called boilers from ignorance. Boilers - another class of devices used in a pair with the boiler or heating system. Choose carefully who looked no different from the water heater.
At a young family takes about 50 liters of water (electric models). Power gas water heaters tremendous work in flow mode. Ignition burner continues to maintain a pilot flame - consumed natural gas in the idle state.
water heaters tanks
The gas water heater better speaker? The first temperature controlled - bath treatment regime stable. Columns only the degree of protection. To complement, their cost is higher by 4-5 times.
For instance, the water heater from Poland with the consumption of 2 kW over night warming to 200 liters of water to a temperature of 70-80 degrees (the initial temperature of 5 degrees Celsius). The day will heat up as much. It is possible to calculate the flow of boiling water and waste electricity.
Covering the heater tank
The entire structure of the tank cover - the secret of manufacturers. Similarly, part of the enamel. With steel tank has the same coefficient of thermal expansion. Damage will be a form of abuse (if there is no drain of the safety valve).
Inspection of heating element heater
It is important that the coating had no visible injuries. It is recommended to the store to take a flashlight, ask the service crew to remove heater (either magnesium anode for gas models), illuminate the surface for scratches. The slightest damage to the shock lead corrosion.
Do not clean the plaque abrasives, the more angular-grinding machine (grinder). And, of course, you need a magnesium anode.
Why in the water heater magnesium anode
Operation of the equipment without the magnesium anode leads to the exposure of the heater from electrochemical corrosion. Metal has the potential. It appears conducting medium (water with hardness salts) between materials, current appears. It decompose one metal recovered another. Copper is in a winning position.
For example, red heater metal tank - steel. It should be worn out protective coating - corrosion starts. Water heater breaks down. Needed magnesium anode.
Choose only storage water heaters with magnesium anode. Flow models are not affected.
Top manufacturers of water heaters:
- Thermex (Russian manufacturer);
water heater tank
Why do water heaters of aluminum, pure copper - no? The first metal is easily torn, is deformed toxic in pure form, it is not resilient and ductile. Surface Tank be covered food tin. Copper and bronze dishes eaten for centuries. Materials used in the manufacture of fittings for hot water instead of cold iron.
Reasons why not use the copper:
- even become heavier copper. tank wall thickness, load at 3 atm withstand difficult. With aluminum such difficulties are absent, but the production provides a seamless tank - a product is not afraid of water hammer, does not rust. But afraid of galvanic corrosion.
- Actually, the electrochemical corrosion. Copper - the aggressor, neighbors, without prejudice to her only stainless steel, plastic. Enough to put in the system part of aluminum, cast iron - anticipated negative consequences. But the instantaneous water heaters in copper pots. This water heater is "downstream". container size is small, the weight will not exorbitant. Copper is not afraid of compression and expansion cycles in the work - than steel. Shallow tank area will not give a shock of electrochemical corrosion. But do not put near the aluminum products.
Justify the choice of designers for the benefit of the authors of copper can not. It is possible to build the capacity of the steel. In this case, aluminum radiators are not a hindrance. The accumulative models steel tank. Changes only cover:
- The disadvantage: the surface has to be protected from corrosion. The heating elements are supplied with magnesium anodes.
- Steel coated with enamel to protect against corrosion. The coefficient of thermal expansion close to enamel steel, ensuring the durability of the coating. Manufacturers claim that such tanks magnesium anode is not necessary. But scratch the surface a little enough to damage due to the small area began to recover copper heater. Blow rests on a small surface, which leads to corrosion. Water heater breaks down.
water heater parameters defined by TAN. From the characteristics of the power unit of the device depends. Apparatus electric storage-type water heater supplemented with a magnesium anode. The rod is placed geographically to PETN. Close - the thermostat, sewn into a tube. TEN has 5 pins:
- Two for the AC power supply 220 V.
- One for grounding.
- A pair of terminals for withdrawing the thermostat signal.
Sometimes the disconnect device stands right there on the PETN. Thermostat is not adjusted - preinstalled activation temperature. It's uncomfortable, but cheap models. The volume of the storage tank of the heater is between 40 liters and above. Anything less is considered flow-through, flow-cumulative. Technical characteristics of the storage water heaters include type allow itself to any network. Power rarely exceeds 2 kW. The water is heated for a long time, but accumulated enough for a night for a family. It serves as a criterion for selecting equipment. The principle of operation of the heater to obtain a full tank of boiling water. Then I use this water: hot water mixed with cold water. Manufacturers do not recommend to heat above 70 ° C.
PETN multiple spirals, provide different power. Middle thermostat probe, as clamped with one end of the copper tube. Analyzing the water heater, remove the heater, disconnect the wiring. Gently pulled the thermostat. Fastener System is different:
- Tank heater is screwed into the threads along the perimeter of the base.
- PETN pressed outwardly nut bracket, nuts pressure directed outwards, and the base is oval. Turn on the heating element 90 degrees, pull the assembly from the tank. If you fall into the TEN during disassembly, will scratch the tank with the consequences.
- Heater attached externally to 5, 6 or other number of bolts - dismantling is easy.
Pour out the water from the tank, disconnect the appliance from the electrical outlet. Now proceed to the repair and prevention.
gas water heaters
Gas water heaters often flow. For normal operation requires power 4 kW and higher. Anything below, will be given to a trickle in the diffuser.
Apparatus gas cylinder allows to enjoy the hot water at the expense of natural gas. Note: according to the norms of gas heaters should not stay in the bathroom.
The main part of the gas cylinder - a distribution unit, which are flows to the main and pilot burner. Other work during the emission of the pilot lamp (traction control), others are fueled cathode (control main burner flame). Device instantaneous water heater protects from excesses. Extinguished the fire is over tap water, will reverse thrust - the device turns off.
The principle of operation of the heater is the same: the conversion of energy to heat. A great variety of models. Gas appropriate in individual households with a chimney and a system of blue fuel supply. Electric suitable for villas, apartments. Both models are suitable for hotels.