A spotlight is an inline illumination element with a relatively small canopy. Usually consists of a single light bulb. Used for interior design, saving space.
From the history of the
spotlights. Apparently, the first spotlight was born on September 22, 1949.So it says in the patent US 2648764 A, dated February 5, 1950.Inventor Ivan Kirlin( from the eponymous company of the state of Michigan, USA) writes that wire insulation was the main difficulty. In those days, incandescent bulbs were massively used, the lion's share of electricity was used to heat the environment.
Mr Kirlin writes that it turned out to be difficult to bring the wire with rubber insulation to the top of the ceiling embedded in the ceiling. Previously, it was considered better to plaster ceilings, but this prevents the removal of heat. The inventor proposed:
- suspended ceiling to be made from sheet material( metal, drywall);
- to supply the top of the plafond with insulating material;
- in the ceiling leave holes for heat transfer.
As a result, Mr. Kirlin writes, the temperature will not go beyond the limits of acceptable insurance company underwriters. Even then, the patent offered something resembling Armstrong's ceilings: the metal panel, together with a spotlight, is mounted on the ceiling with screws and similar methods, and if necessary, maintenance is easily removed for the duration of the work.
A distinctive feature of the design is the presence of a box of metallic material. The author offers a variant of rectangular, square, other shape. The case resembled a parcel box on the inventor's sketches; a reflector was fastened inside. Today, the vast majority of spotlights show a domed shape. At the same time the body serves as a reflector. Metal walls are proposed to be welded.
The enclosure is insulated from the ceiling using a non-combustible sheet material. Air is vented through the holes in the housing( above the reflector) to the nearest ventilation channel above the suspended ceiling. So, there is a built-in lamp, bulky, analogue of today.
Design of a modern spotlight
Unlike bulky ancestors, modern spotlights are small. The dome-shaped reflector is made of metal, characterized by excellent reflective properties, greatly reduces heat transfer. Thanks to the heat-resistant material of the cartridge, overheating is not terrible design. The point of entry of the wire is still protected by an insulator.
The main thing - the type of light bulbs. In such devices it is not recommended to use light sources with filaments. Instead, use energy-saving light bulbs. This reduces heat generation by an order of magnitude. Safety measures become redundant.
The fastening system has undergone a maximum of changes. The author of the invention assumed the use of a transom, reclining from the ceiling or wall to the side for maintenance( today a similar design is seen in GOST R IEC 60598-1).Today, not every point lamp requires support for installation, most of which are fixed with latches directly to the plane of the suspended ceiling. Spring clips simplify the process to the maximum, it remains to lead the wiring and fix in the right place.
Use metal corrugation on a wooden base or simple techniques, including open laying on the floor( according to the requirements of ПУЭ 6).If the ceiling is suspended, wooden support is certainly present. The design of the lamp is slightly different - the canopy is held in place by a strong metal bracket that is attached to the ceiling. But more often used wooden bar.
The canvas is simply stretched when assembled, then cut crosswise in the right place. Torn edges are wrapped inside( up), installation of the lamp is carried out. In the case of a ceiling made of drywall, the bracket and the base are usually not required; sheet stiffness is enough to hold the spotlight in place. For details, see the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Varieties of point lights
The store is dominated by primitive dome-shaped recessed lights, in fact, created a mass of structures. In North America in 1958, it is customary to distinguish 4 ways to install instruments. The main criterion for dividing into groups was the fact of contact between the thermal insulation and the luminaire box. Assumed two cases:
- Arrangement of a new suspended ceiling.
- Reconstruction of the old.
Using a combination of two subgroups, 4 methods were used. The gradation of the instruments was according to the diameter of the ceiling( by that time they had already become round).Often used options for 4, 5 or 6 inches. Small( 2 - 3 inches) mostly wore a special purpose. According to GOST R IEC 60598-1( IEC 60598), spotlights are divided into two groups:
- Suitable for coating with heat insulating material.
- Not intended to be covered with insulating material.
By the way, the term does not have a dotted term in standards; instead, the epithet is embedded. That is fully consistent with the English name. It is logical, because the invention came from the west. For the rest, the classification is carried out on a general basis according to GOST R IEC 60598-1:
- Four groups are usually assigned for protection against electric shock: I, II, III and 0. Each product is assigned a single class. For example, a product that is powered by a transformer BSNN( group III), but detects a ground terminal( group I), falls into the lower of the two categories. Considered a representative of Class I protection against electric shock:
- Class 0 does not provide additional means of protection against electric shock. This group does not include devices with a supply voltage of more than 250 V( in Japan - not higher than 127 V), intended for operation in difficult conditions. These include devices with a reflector of an insulating material, or metal, separated from the current-carrying parts. Some elements exhibit double electrical insulation.
- The first class of protection against electric shock implies that all conductive, but not current-carrying parts of the device are grounded. If breakdown of isolation occurs, no one will suffer. Knock out traffic jams or circuit breakers in the panel. This directly indicates that at least three-core cable is used for installation. Individual members of the family include elements with double insulation or are powered from a system of safe extra low voltage( 50 V AC or 120 V DC).
- The second class of luminaires is marked with two concentric squares( one in the other).Allowed to put in bathrooms and bathrooms, apply reinforced or double electrical insulation. Grounding is absent, otherwise the device is assigned to class I.Many have seen glass ceilings and substrates in the bathroom. All of the above tightly connected together without gaps and gaps( body elements simultaneously act as insulators).There is a vivid example of the mentioned group. The case is sometimes metallic, then increased requirements are applied to isolation from current-carrying parts.
- The devices of class III protection against electric shock are safe, powered by BSNN systems( 50 V AC or 120 V DC).In this case, touching the current carrying part is painful, but not fatal. It is marked with a square on one side, inside is the symbol III.
- According to the degree of protection of the case against ingress of dust and foreign bodies. The classification is determined according to IEC 529. According to the documentation, two digits follow the IP symbols( short for International Protection), the first characterizes protection against penetration of various objects, the second indicates the ability to withstand the pressure of moisture. Sometimes there are two letters with the decoding of test requirements:
- IP Plain lamp, no distinctive symbols.
- IPX Drip-proof, marked with a stylistic drop icon.
- IPX Rainproof, marked with a droplet icon in a square frame.
- IPX Splashproof, marked with a drop symbol, enclosed in a triangle.
- IPX Jet-protected, indicated by two icons in a row, as in IPX4.
- IPX Waterproof, short-term immersion is allowed. Marked with two droplets, standing side by side.
- IPX The strongest degree of protection against moisture. Diving is allowed. Marked with two drops icons, next to it is the allowable depth of care under the water in meters( letter m).
- IP3X.Protection against ingress of foreign bodies with a diameter of more than 2.5 mm. Ordinary lamps, no icon.
- IP4X.Protection against ingress of foreign bodies with a diameter greater than 1 mm. Conventional devices, the icon is not provided.
- IP5X.Dustproof, there is a small square of the grid, standing on its side. Weaving sticking out along the edges.
- IP6X.Dustproof. The difference of the badge from the previous one is that the edges of the square are even, weaving does not protrude beyond the edges.
- According to the material of the base, it is customary to single out:
- Suitable for installation on a flammable surface. They are marked with a triangle, with their feet pointing upwards, inside it is the letter F.
- . Suitable only for installation on a fireproof surface. The icon is the same as in the previous case, but crossed out crosswise.
- Luminaires suitable for installation on a flammable surface with the ability to separate from it a layer of insulating material. The icon, as in the first case, is on top of a symbolic sheet with curved edges of the material.
- By features of operation:
- For work in normal conditions.
- For working in harsh environments( marked with a hammer-like icon).
Requirements must be considered when installing. They are written in standards, and labeling icons just help you find the product on the store counter. If special designations are not provided, look through the manual or ask the dealer for a certificate.
The rules for installing spot lights
The requirements for this class of devices are defined in GOST R IEC 60598-2-2.installation features are not listed, it is proposed to be guided by the requirements of manufacturers. In the US, all are equal to insurance companies, which means that the devices are produced according to the specified dogmas. Calculated in advance the temperature, insulation, type of base.
Install appliances on walls, ceilings and separate floor sections. Minus - you first need to install drywall or tighten PVC.What is not always convenient. It is more difficult to hammer holes in the wall so large as to fit the reflector of a spotlight. Known options for mounting on Armstrong ceilings.