The origin of the thought of transmitting information over a distanceFor example, the Indians have already transmitted messages using smoke from the fire, then covering, then opening the flame. Binary code used:
- Smoke( one) is flowing.
- No smoke( zero).
But there was no need for terms. Similarly about the telegraph. On what basis do researchers abandon the working construction with fire? The alphabet of the Indians was present, the information definitely reached the recipient, perhaps the beginnings of such a transfer existed before our era. Therefore, in the history it is important to apply the correct terms. An example from the English-language Wikipedia domain( telegraph history): "An anonymous reader of Scots Magazine magazine sent a message to the editor in 1753 saying that it is possible to assemble an electrostatic telegraph."
That's it! The inventor of the electric telegraph is unknown! However, the same is said about the DC motor( although I also had a hand with the Apples).Michael Faraday received a letter from an anonymous author who read a scientist’s note in a scientific journal. The text contained accepted suggestions for improving the raw engine. By the way, the inventor of the smoke telegraph, unfortunately, also did not introduce himself to the general public. The first electrostatic telegraph useful to humans was built in 1816 by Francis Ronalds; there is no biography in the Russian-language Wikipedia domain.
The limitations of electrostatic telegraph became apparent: the complexity of the power supply. When Volta in 1800 presented the first prototype of an electroplating cell to the Royal Society of England, no one wanted to rub the sulfur ball with her hands. People quickly get used to the good. The voltage of the galvanic cells was so low that in order to produce an electric arc it was required to assemble into a battery a thousand copper and zinc “circles”.The resulting high voltage becomes very dangerous, as the inventor of the Leyden jar( his name is known for certain) Peter van Muschenbrook was convinced. Rubbing the places affected by the electric current, the researcher wrote that for all the riches of France, he did not want to repeat the experiments of discharging the device with his own body.
Therefore, for security reasons( avoiding the electric arc), it was necessary to invent something that was hitherto unknown. Knowing about William Stergen( his name is indicated differently by sources), who created the electromagnet supposedly in 1824, scientists independently came to the conclusion that it is possible to use the new product with benefit( not for iron filings).Operator’s hand should not be in contact with a circuit carrying perhaps kilovolt of voltage. Standard telegraph key is not suitable. And it took a pulse relay. .. Why pulse? It was controlled by low-voltage pulses of the telegraph key, formed by the hand of the operator!
Who Invented the Pulse Relay
From the above, it becomes clear that there was a difficulty with the definition of the inventor of the pulse relay. And connected with the telegraph. A pulse relay was invented as a means to drive a power contactor. And the voltage is high, and the thing is very difficult. But William Sturgeon managed to lift 4 kg. ..
The design of the first electromagnet left much to be desired. The Sturgen insulated the core, and the wire remained bare, wound only in one layer. So it is difficult to create a large magnetic flux. Joseph Henry was smarter. From Schweigger( presented on September 16, 1820) the scientist knew that it was possible to isolate the wire with silk. What he did. The new electromagnet demonstrated fantastic effort, managing to hold almost a ton of weight.
So, the impulse relay was hardly invented earlier than 1824, but the first design did not differ in speed or power. Consequently, it was bad. In the fall of 1820, Arago noticed that the wire attracted metal filings, but this was not considered as a pulsed relay so far. If you believe the information of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Museum, attempts to make a telegraph were made by Pavel Schilling, the demonstration took place on October 21, 1832.
The information is interesting from the point of view that the Stalin time magazine( Electricity No. 12, 1950) called Schilling an inventorrelay. The review authors conducted an investigation that led to the official website of the museum, where they found out:
- On the receiving side, 6 multipliers could turn left or right, showing the operator, respectively, a black or white circle. The transmitted letter was deciphered according to the alphabet of Schilling.
- The keyboard, which looks a lot like a piano and consists of 12 keys, controlled the direction of the current in 6 wires connecting the receiver and transmitter. Additional 2 lines: "reverse"( neutral) and "buzzer"( bell).
- The device( without indication of the source) was demonstrated by the inventor in his own apartment, located in the city of St. Petersburg.
- The device is a modified idea of Ampere, expressed in 1820.The bottom line: if the multipliers hang letters of the alphabet, it would be possible to transmit information over a distance.
- The impulse relay is not in construction. Information from the Russian-language domain of Wikipedia( on the history of the relay), it turns out, is incorrect.
- A relay in Wikipedia means a call with a clockwork: a multiplier pushed the load with a rocker, cocking the clock mechanism. From this point of view, the magnet Stride is admissible to call a good relay capable of lifting the fallen iron back without the help of the operatorThe device was invented at least 5 years earlier, and the weight of the load reaches a ton( this is already with Henry).From the position of Wikipedia, each of the signal multipliers is considered to be a self-return polarization( depending on the current direction) relay.
By the way, Arago saw that iron filings are drawn by wire. It turns out, the definition given by the Russian-speaking domain, the British rejected not in vain. The relay must, on control signals, close or open the circuit. Moreover, the bell button is not a relay, as is the piano key. Although we have to admit that Schilling is a brilliant implementer of borrowed ideas and, perhaps, the author of the world's first buzzer with a remote platoon of clockwork.
Let's go back to Henry. From his notes it appears that his wife sacrificed a white silk underskirt for the sake of science to isolate the electromagnet. Amazing - everything that is connected with electricity is usually favored by a beautiful floor. As a result, the device in front of students raised the weight of 750 pounds( more than 300 kg).The telegraph of the scientist on the receiving side contained a magnet( youtube.com/watch?v=ru-daEOuUjs), which banged its shoulder along a hollow metal surface in the shape of a mushroom cap.
The true author of the
impulse relay. As is often the case, the investigation brought the authors to the English domain, where an interesting sketch came from the Historic Division of the Smithsonian Institution.
Important. Smithsonian Institution - a group of educational institutions engaged in research activities, owning a complex of museums. Founded August 10, 1846 shortly after the invention of the pulse relay.
On the screens from the resource, it is clear that the design of Joseph Henry also did not contain a relay. The challenger remains - Morse! He invented a binary alphabet, which was used for a long time for negotiations, and realized that it is impossible to achieve a decent effect from a low-powered volt column. Long-distance communication became possible only due to the fact that the telegraph key did not control the circuit directly, but through an amplifying relay.
Joseph Henry Design
In 1831, Sir Joseph Henry designed a beam motor, using the effect of closing and opening the contacts for his own work. This is the world's first electromagnetic relay in the full sense of the word. Here's how the uncomplicated device worked:
- A mild steel yoke with roughly equal shoulders slung over the axis.
- The steel bracket of the yoke at the edges has pronounced bends downwards. Under each is a rod of ironstone.
- From the yoke on both sides are extended hooks, curved sideways downwards, from hard copper wire. These are the power contact groups of each coil.
- Two galvanic elements from traditional circles of zinc and copper stand under them.
- By tilting the rocker in one direction, the operator closes the power of the coil of the opposite side. So that the shoulder begins to lean in the opposite direction.
- This opens the contact group. But the power is received by another coil and begins to push the yoke into its initial position.
These oscillations occur until the elements have exhausted their charge. So the first relay was born. Then he developed a more powerful power source, and in 1834, Thomas Davenport assembled a more successful DC motor.