- №1.What is porcelain stoneware?
- №2.Advantages of
- No. 3 porcelain stoneware. Types of porcelain tiles
- No. 5 porcelain stoneware classification. Is porcelain stoneware and tile the same?
- №7.Disadvantages of porcelain tile
- №8.What should I look for when buying?
- №9.Features of laying porcelain tile
- Surface preparation
- Laying tile granite
Which porcelain tile to choose for flooring? Why porcelain tiles, and not ceramic tiles? Is there any difference between these types of coatings and what is the distinctive feature of porcelain, we will look at this article in detail.
№1.What is porcelain stoneware?
Porcelain stoneware is a very strong and durable type of coating that can rightly be considered a substitute for natural stone. The composition of porcelain stoneware includes such natural components as clay, mica, sand and feldspar, and a special additive in the form of granite chips gives this material special strength.
Porcelain is produced by pressing and sintering. All components are mixed together in the required proportions, pressed at a pressure of 400-500 kg / cm², after which they are amenable to high-temperature annealing in a furnace( 1200-1300 ° С).With this technology, it was possible to achieve the absence of pores in the finished material and its high strength.
At first, porcelain stoneware was used as a flooring in industrial premises with high loads, now the technology has leaped far forward, which allowed the use of porcelain stoneware not only as a floor covering in residential premises, but also for wall and facade decoration. We will consider in more detail those types of porcelain stoneware that are used as a floor covering.
porcelain stoneware The main advantages of porcelain stoneware are:
- Environmentally friendly through the use of natural ingredients.
- Small water absorption coefficient .Due to the almost complete absence of pores, porcelain tile does not absorb water, which makes it frost-resistant. Also, the absence of pores allows not to be afraid that the adhesive mixture will tread on the tile surface and spoil it, as sometimes happens with tiles.
- Chemical Resistance , whether it is alkali or other acid, which makes it possible to clean it with absolutely any means.
- Wear resistance and high bending strength .Porcelain is so durable material that has a very high bending strength per m², which makes it possible to lay it even on an uneven surface.
- Resistance to mechanical stress .The glossy surface of porcelain stoneware does not lose its shine and is scratch resistant for many years.
- Color Consistency .Porcelain stoneware is absolutely not affected by ultraviolet light, which allows it to maintain the clarity of the pattern and the brightness of the color even with prolonged exposure to the sun.
- Anti-slip coating .There is a matte, slightly rough form of porcelain stoneware, which will remain non-slip even when wet.
- Thermal Conductivity .This material does not pass cold and well will keep heat.
№3.Types of porcelain stoneware
The following types of porcelain stoneware are most suitable as floor covering:
- Technical porcelain stoneware. Ideal option for facing of floors in the production room.
- Brushed porcelain stoneware. This type of porcelain stoneware is not susceptible to any additional changes after the heat treatment cycle. This makes its surface a bit rough and unobtrusive. But he has a high hardness and anti-slip properties.
- Polished stoneware. A more capricious look than the previous one has a smooth, even surface, almost mirror-like, due to the treatment with abrasive substances. Such processing somewhat reduces its durability. For a longer service life, it must be treated with special mastics, which create an additional protective layer on its surface. Otherwise, during long-term operation, polished porcelain stoneware smoothly turn into matte.
- Satin .This porcelain stoneware has an unobtrusive light shine, which is obtained by applying to the surface of mineral salts before baking in the oven. This type of treatment does not affect wear performance.
- The structure of the porcelain stoneware has a relief surface that allows you to imitate the texture of wood( parquet porcelain stoneware), leather or various types of stone. Visually and to the touch practically does not differ from natural materials.
- Glazed porcelain stoneware is produced by applying special glaze to the surface and then firing. The glazed surface is much stronger than ordinary ceramic tiles, but this type of porcelain stoneware is not recommended for use in high-traffic areas and high levels of mechanical stress. Over time, it loses its visual appeal.
- Laminated porcelain stoneware has a mixed texture - half polished, half matte. This effect is achieved by removing the thin, uneven top layer using special polishing stones. This type can be safely used for flooring in areas with high traffic and high loads.
- Double backfill. The top layer of the tile, approximately 3 mm, is made up of the components of the required colors, and the bottom layer is made up of the main components. Thus, bright, colored tiles are obtained, the wear resistance of which is maintained at a high level.
№4.Classification of porcelain tile
- Size. The most popular size of floor tiles is square tiles with dimensions of 300 × 300 mm, 450 × 450 mm and 600 × 600 mm. If you have in mind some design and unusual project, and the floor will be the center of your interior, then you also have the smallest tiles - 50 × 50 mm, and non-standard sizes - 200 × 200 mm, 150 × 300 mm,300 × 450 mm, 300 × 600 mm, 400 × 400 mm. If you still have not found the size that suits you, you can get it with waterjet .
- Caliber - is the value of the allowable discrepancy of the size of tiles, which is 3-5 mm. In the process of heat treatment, the edges of the tiles are slightly deformed, so they can differ from each other to avoid large discrepancies in size, the tiles undergo the process of rectification, that is, trimming the edges on special equipment. Such tiles of porcelain stoneware for subsequent installation will be match ideally .
- Thickness. The maximum thickness of porcelain stoneware is 30 mm, the minimum is 3 mm. With , is properly installed, the flooring is 3 mm thick, its strength and durability are as good as 30 mm thick, so there is no point in preferring the thickest, and therefore more expensive, porcelain stoneware. For example, recommended for flooring tiles, 8.5 mm , can withstand a load of 200 kg / cm2.
Abrasion class. Abradability( wear resistance) - main technical characteristic porcelain stoneware. Depending on the degree of stress and mechanical stress, 5 is distinguished from the main classes of abrasion resistance:
- PEI I, PEI II - for low-traffic areas in soft shoes( bathroom, toilet);
- PEI III - for residential premises with medium terrain, without access from the street or from the yard( balcony, kitchen, hall);
- PEI IV - for public spaces with a high level of terrain;
- PEI V - for rooms with any level of maneuverability and mechanical impact.
For example, for flooring throughout the apartment, class III abrasion is quite enough, and class I or II can be used for the bath and toilet. If your task is to choose porcelain tiles for a private house, then in the corridor, choose class IV, and for the porch, give preference to class V, which, moreover, is frost-resistant. In the rest of the rooms, class III will be enough.
№5.Is porcelain stoneware and tile the same?
Many people mistakenly believe that this is indeed the same type of flooring, they just decided to reduce the name and raise the cost. .. But this is far from the case. The differences between really are, with what significant :
- The ceramic granite undergoes heat treatment at much higher temperatures than than tile, which explains its higher strength and wear resistance .
- Because of the high temperatures, porcelain stoneware components literally melt during processing, which completely eliminates the appearance of micropores. This prevents the ingress of moisture into the internal structure, therefore, porcelain stoneware is able to withstand high subzero temperatures and not crack at the same time. The tile has a porous structure and does not withstand large temperature differences.
- Porcelain tiles are easy to clean - due to the lack of micropores, the surface is less polluted. Enough wet cleaning to maintain its beautiful appearance.
- Porcelain tiles are absolutely resistant to any chemicals chemicals. This facilitates the cleaning process. A tile does not tolerate aggressive substances and can lose its luster from exposure to it, for example, alkali.
- On the surface of porcelain stoneware, even after a long time, does not form cracks and chips .Given that on a tile you can observe microcracks on the surface after a couple of years of operation.
- Porcelain, due to resistance to ultraviolet , even after 50 years will not lose its color and clarity of the pattern, which can not be said about the tile, which eventually burns out.
- On the surface of porcelain stoneware, practically does not form stains. Have you noticed that when laying tile, the adhesive mixture sometimes appears to the surface and has to be changed, since this is an irreversible process? This will never happen to porcelain stoneware due to its monolithic structure. Even if the dye is poured onto the surface of porcelain stoneware, it can easily be removed without a trace.
- Porcelain tile has a large indicator of bending resistance , which allows you to lay it even on an uneven surface. The tile at the slightest distortion breaks.
- The best porcelain stoneware has absolutely smooth and clear edges , which allows to seamlessly install .
Due to the variety of colors and textures and their consistency, resistance to mechanical damage and chemicals, frost resistance and bending resistance, porcelain tile is used for cladding walls and floors in inside premises, as well as and outside .Thanks to its high levels of hardness and abrasion, it is an ideal type of coating for industrial and public premises. Also it will be used in the decoration of the halls, pools, floors in cafes and even at train stations. After all, this material is really eternal, and the ability to produce various sizes makes it almost versatile .Whatever room you may think, you can always choose the necessary type of porcelain stoneware. Porcelain stoneware replaced even parquet! Both visually and to the touch does not differ at all from a natural tree.
granite Despite a number of significant advantages, as well as any material, disadvantages stoneware also available:
- Gres can prevent the cold bleed and retain heat, but, by itself, this material cold , actually like tiles. Exit - the use of heated floors.
- All types of porcelain, except for technical, matte and structured, when wet, will be slippery .
- Of course, is also worth noting the high cost of porcelain stoneware compared to tile. But in this case, can be argued , because it is better to spend money once and get coverage with a guarantee of for 50 years or more than constantly changing cracked or burnt tiles. Moreover, now there are a lot of types of porcelain stoneware from different manufacturers with different pricing policies. The highest price is for Italian porcelain stoneware, but there is also Belarusian, Turkish, Greek and Baltic, which allows you to choose the material with the best price-quality indicator.
# 8.What should I look for when buying?
- Before you buy, you must already know what size you want tiles .So you can easily navigate into their number of , dividing the desired coverage area by the area of one tile.
- Note that all the tiles match the color and shade of the .All tiles must be from the same batch, otherwise the hue difference will be very noticeable after laying!
- The caliber of all tiles must also be the same - this will ensure a beautiful, uniform styling without visible differences in size.
- Required check the weight of the !The recommended tile for a floor covering, 8-8,5 mm thick, has weight not less than 18,5 kg. Do not hesitate to clarify this point, otherwise you risk to buy a fake!
- The reverse side of the tile can also say a lot. It should be shallow, small squares with sides of a maximum of 2 × 2 cm. The larger and deeper these technical notches, the lower the quality of the material.
- Do not forget about stock, which should be 10% of the total number of tiles with a diagonal method of laying and 5% - with the other methods.
- An foot on a black background will be displayed on the porcelain stoneware packaging. If this sign is repeated, then this is a higher class of durability. If you see snowflake - it is frost-resistant granite.
No. 9.Features of
porcelain stoneware installation If you decide to refuse expensive professional services, and decided to perform porcelain stoneware , you should be very careful about this issue because the correctness of the installation will depend on the durability of the coating.
Porcelain, as a very durable material, is very difficult to cut, so that you do not have difficulties and surprises in the process of laying, immediately prepare all the necessary tools :
- You definitely need tile or ;Kneading adhesive mixture
- Drill and a special construction mixer to facilitate the mixing process
- capacity for water
- Rubber Rubber Hammer Plasticrestik , which regulate the width of the seam, are selected to suit your taste
Because granite is very hard, you need to choose a mix that will withstand heavy loads. It is better to choose plastic adhesive mixture with high "tenacity", besides, it prevents tile lag if your house is not fully settled and "walks" with changes in temperature or slump of the foundation. When the adhesive mixture is selected, proceed to the next step.
Although porcelain stoneware and provides for drops up to 15 mm, it is better to pre-level the surface by making concrete pouring, after performing waterproofing, then thoroughly primed with .If the porcelain tile is laid on a heated floor, then the sequence will be as follows - waterproofing the room, laying the heated floor, pouring concrete( screed), impregnating with soil, laying ceramic. By the way, laying on old wooden floors is not allowed .After surface preparation, you can proceed to the mixture. Stir the adhesive mixture according to the package instructions. If you are laying the tile for the first time, you should not knead the whole mixture at once, suddenly you will have difficulties in the process, and the mixture retains its adhesive properties for a long time. It is better to start with a small amount, literally a couple of tiles and try to lay them, thereby checking their capabilities.
for installationrubber hammer and remove the excess mortar around the tile
Put the following tile according to the thickness of the plastic crosses
If you want, withWith a thicker layer of adhesive mixture, to compensate for surface irregularities, it is better to additionally apply glue to the tile itself.“Combing” the mixture on the base and on the tile must be perpendicular to each other. If you are facing a porch, give your preference to the seamless method .If, nevertheless, it is not possible to replace wooden floors with a concrete screed, then a layer of moisture-resistant plywood must be laid over the old flooring. The adhesive mixture in this case must be elastic.
When laying porcelain stoneware on the floor, you are unlikely to avoid the need for cutting, such as holes for pipes near radiators. It also very rarely happens that all the tiles lie intact for the entire width or length of the room. The Bulgarian or a tile cutter will help you to cut off the excess. And for shape cutting it is better to use jigsaw with a diamond wire. Do not forget that it is better to lay trimmed tiles in the place where the furniture will stand and they will not be visible.
Good luck with your endeavors!