An energy saving lamp is a lighting device, and more efficiently than an ordinary filament light bulb. Today several types of devices fall under the definition. Let's talk about the discharge and LED lamps, their varieties.
The concept of energy saving for electric lamps
Note that about the high luminous efficiency of some types of lamps has long been known. Since the advent of low-pressure mercury lamps in 1938 with acceptable color reproduction, it has become clear that the latest class of devices has a future. But now, when the first LED devices came out, the competitiveness of relatively dim and complex discharge lamps is already being questioned. However, European standards do not divide the equipment on the basis of the technologies invested in it, but as energy is being saved.
The issue is handled by Regulation No. 874/2012, issued on July 12, 2012, in support of the European Parliament Directive 2010 /30/ EU.The document provides information about the lamps, useful or interesting to readers:
- The document applies to all varieties of household lamps: with filaments, fluorescent, bit, LED.The last three groups are also considered energy saving.
- For each light bulb, the energy efficiency level is indicated by a colored sticker, similar to the one shown in the photo. This part allows you to quickly understand what kind of light it is, whether it is considered energy saving.
Energy efficiency ratio varies for directional and non-directional light sources. For example, the rules of the European Union bring to the customers the information presented in the form of a table on the screenshot. From the above figures it is clear that the energy efficiency index( IEE) for directional light sources is higher and much greater than one. Class A ++ devices are considered the best, and the least effective are E. In everyday life, energy saving lamps are usually called, for which the parameter falls within the range of A and above.
We find out how the energy efficiency index is calculated. In the course of the calculations, the actual luminous flux of the light source is compared with the ideal: I I E = Pcor / Pref. Where Pcor is the nominal power consumption, which for devices with external drivers is supposed to be adjusted according to the table presented in the figure. For other devices, the number is taken directly, without changes.
We remind you that the lamp driver refers to a module for converting mains voltage to the required format. For example, inside the base of the E27 there is often a chip of a pulsed power supply. This is a driver, and an internal one. Pref - a kind of consumption of the standard, a kind of ideal lamp. It is calculated according to the formulas presented in the figure, accordingly, more luminous flux 1300 lumens or less.
Do not be afraid of complex expressions, the authors edited the screenshots, providing relevant explanations. You will see that the nominal power of the standard is calculated from the light flux of the experimental lamp using simple formulas. The table lists three options:
- Non-directional light sources.
- With a limiting cone angle of 90 degrees or more, with the exception of warning-carrying symbols on the package about the impossibility of using them in accented mode and with filaments.
- All other directional lights.
The question is how to measure the luminous flux. First, often energy-saving lamps are supplied with packages, where a specific number is written, and secondly, with the help of instruments, the value is obtained in laboratory conditions. Energy efficiency detected by the results of the tests, difficulties do not arise. Actually, all the information in English is easy to read from the screenshots. We translated into Russian for better perception.
Lamps classified as energy saving
Today, two large classes of lamps fall under the definition of energy saving:
LED Energy Saving Lamps
An LED energy-saving lamp, by all indications, will soon supplant other varieties. Judge for yourself: the efficiency is usually higher than A, the service life is in the range of fluorescent devices. Typical values - from 20 to 50 thousand hours. It is easy to distinguish the LED model from others on two grounds:
- A sticker with an energy efficiency indicator will help to distinguish pear-shaped models from lamps with filaments.
- The shape of the bulb makes it easy to distinguish between fluorescent lamps, which are also considered energy efficient.
The lifetime of the incandescent bulb is 1000 hours. If you take a closer look, on the pack( see photo) you will see an identity where one LED equates to thirty ordinary ones. Here it is just meant the life of 30,000 hours. This is enough for 10 years of intensive work. And this is not the main reason for the popularity of LED light bulbs. The latter, up to 10 times less, consume electrical energy for the previous total luminous flux in the visible range. Much is saved due to the lack of heating. As a result, the infrared spectrum is noticeably poorer, however, man does not need it.
Not to say that LED bulbs are much better than fluorescent ones, but with the same luminosity indicated on the package, the first ones create a visually more favorable impression. The naked eye can see the difference. Cost reduction is noticeable after the first month of operation. After the introduction of LED light bulbs into everyday life, the main enemy of the family budget is the refrigerator, in the second place are economical personal computers. Draw conclusions: when buying a dozen LED bulbs at a price of 180 rubles each, the price of one is saved each month.
Approximately in a year in the case described above, it is already appropriate to talk about the return of funds invested in the illumination of the home. Most importantly, it is permissible to forget about the issue of saving light and quietly turn on the light if necessary. We’ll also mention other advantages: wiring and breaker requirements are becoming much softer. The currents are reduced by 10 times, the copper section can be cut to a minimum, this is a direct increase in the budget for the next repair. Chandeliers are acceptable to acquire less resistant to heat, these lamps do not heat up to the fire-dangerous temperature. Emergencies do not count.
The authors are inclined to attribute the complexity of the repair to the only negative of LED lamps. It is extremely difficult to get to the driver, as a result it is impossible to repair the device. In fluorescent lamps, the base is simply removed, which increases the chances of the product returning to life.
discharge lamps The family includes all the lamps where the glow is formed due to a slowly glow discharge. The first successful version is likely to be the Gisler pipes, which existed as far back as the 19th century in European entertainment establishments. Mentioned the fact earlier, in the review of fluorescent lamps, today we will focus on the more practical part. At the turn of the XX and XXI centuries, up to 80% of the luminous flux in developed countries accounted for the discharge type of devices. Service life is also rather big - from 10 to 50 thousand hours.
discharge lamps At the beginning of the development of the direction, it became clear that high-pressure mercury lamps and low-pressure sodium lamps were extremely good, but they were not solved for everyday use: too poor color reproduction. Human skin simply looked scary in such a neighborhood. Recall that the color reproduction of an optical source is called the degree of similarity of the various color shades illuminated by it with the true position on the spectral scale. By the way, LED lamps give amazing results.
For discharge, the first acceptable effect is obtained with fluorescent fluorescent lamps( low pressure mercury).They appeared in 1938, it became clear that the devices will gradually conquer the home use segment. In the 50s of the XX century, high-pressure mercury lamps( arc DRL) appeared. Then followed high-intensity discharge lamps, where the efficiency of 100 lm / W was first overcome. This greatly increased the attractiveness of devices for the average man. The radiation spectrum is selected by filling the flask( gas, steam, mixtures thereof) or the conditions of the arc.
Fluorescent discharge lamps are widely used, where the spectrum is obtained by ultraviolet irradiation of a special substance( phosphor).There was a lot of confusion. For example, halogen lamps are often ranked as bit. But this is not always correct. For example, filaments are used in quartz heaters, there is no arc there. And the metal halides serve other purposes: tungsten evaporating from the helix immediately enters the compound, which does not precipitate on a glass flask. As a result of the molecule returning to the surface of the hot filament( due to random processes), the metal is restored. So significantly increases the service life.
Halogenides are often used in discharge lamps. And for similar purposes. The key sign of metal halide discharge lamps( appeared in the 60s of the XX century) is considered to be a burning arc. In the latter case, the halides( iodine, bromine, chlorine) play an additional role: they change the emission spectrum, create the desired density of metals in the volume of gases and vapors. As a result, unique properties of light sources arise that are impossible in other conditions. A third property is known that is not so obvious: individual metals with an attractive emission spectrum when they are heated to a quartz bulb up to 300 degrees Celsius behave aggressively. First of all, alkaline, cadmium, zinc. At the same time, their halides are much more inert, the destruction of the quartz bulb no longer occurs.
A particularly remarkable effect is observed when mixing several types of substances. For example, metals of I and III groups of the periodic table give separate spectral bands in the range:
- Sodium - 589 nm( close to orange).
- Thallium - 535 nm( green).Indium
- - 410 and 435 nm( intensely violet).
Scandium, lanthanum, yttrium and rare earth metals provide a spectrum of many bands that fill the visible spectrum. Some readers ask - why is this really necessary? The point here is not only a diverse color rendition. The color temperature of the light bulb is important. In the photo, for example, flaunts the LED at 4500 K. It is a cold shade, but it is far from daylight. The turn begins with 6000 K.
Choosing the right color temperature, it is possible to set the circadian rhythms of the human psyche. Phenomenon means improving daytime performance, good sleep during the night, calming down or exacerbating tension. Below, the authors gave a table showing color rendering indices and other parameters for metal halide lamps with different fillings. To quickly find such a product on the counter will help encoding DID( and other similar ones).
Later we will tell about sodium lamps and ceramic burners, color rendering indices and the effect of temperature on the psyche. Any knowledge is limited, and only ignorance has no limits.