- What should be the lining of the fireplace?
- №1.Tile for facing the fireplace
- №2.Natural and artificial stone for cladding fireplace
- №3.Fireplace decoration brick
- №4.Facing the fireplace with
- No. 5 porcelain stoneware. Facing the fireplace with
- No. 6 plaster. Facing tiles
- №7.Facing the fireplace with wood
- №8.Drywall for cladding fireplace
Fireplace. .. At the mere mention of this word immediately blows warmth and comfort. The fireplace is able to become the center of the living room, a place where you can quietly and quietly spend winter evenings. Today, not only the owners of country houses can afford such a pleasure - for ordinary apartments there are false fireplaces that perfectly imitate real hearths and electric fireplaces. When from dreams we turn to the implementation of plans, a lot of questions arise. One of them is the decorative decoration of the fireplace. We understand what materials for lining the fireplace can be used, and what the choice depends on.
What should be the lining of the fireplace?
Since there are a lot of fireplaces, it is difficult to call an ideal finishing material .It all depends on the mass of factors :
- type of fireplace .The material for a wood-burning fireplace should be chosen as carefully as possible, taking into account the constantly affecting heat. If you decide to dwell on imitation fireplaces with candles or on the electric version, then the requirements for decoration will not be so strict;
- fuel type .The temperature of combustion of different types of fuel is different, which must be considered when analyzing the parameters of finishing materials. For example, if you are going to use firewood, then it is important that the lining withstands temperatures of about 9000 ° C, but if we are talking about coal, then it is better to take a material that carries temperatures around 11000 ° C;
- installation location .If you are going to install a fireplace on the terrace, then it is important that the material has excellent frost resistance. Under the condition of use in a heated room such a requirement is not made. If the fireplace is located in the house, where there are only occasionally, then pay attention to such a parameter as moisture resistance;
- material weight .Too heavy material( for example, natural stone) may require strengthening the foundation, which is possible only in a private house and when installed on the first floor. If it comes to an apartment or the upper floors of a private house, then you should definitely take into account how much overlap can withstand;
- Appearance .Cladding - and then facing, to decorate the fireplace, so when choosing a material should take into account its appearance and compliance with the chosen style of the interior and color scheme.
№1.Tile for cladding fireplace
Tile - the most popular way to finish the hearth. It is impossible to use a usual tile - it will not sustain heat. As a rule, for facing the fireplace use these types of ceramic tiles:
- terracotta tiles are made from baked clay, they are distinguished by a beautiful natural reddish tint. In most properties, it resembles a refractory red brick, from which fireplaces are laid, therefore, as the temperature in the fire box increases and decreases, the tile will expand with it. Terracotta tiles have a smooth, coarse-grained structure. Additional pigments are not used in the manufacture, but the natural range of shades ranges from light brown to almost black;
- majolica is also made from baked clay, but is covered with painted glaze on top, so it costs more, but it also looks very beautiful. When finishing with majolica fireplace, it is necessary to carefully consider the sketch, because cutting such a tile is not that impossible, but very stupid. In addition, the installation requires sufficient qualifications from the master, because the slightest flaws will be clearly visible. Due to the high cost and complexity of working with us, fireplaces very rarely are finished only with majolica - usually it is used fragmentary, as an accent and decoration. This solution looks gorgeous;
- clinker tile is made of special refractory grades of clay, therefore it is able to withstand high temperatures, and also has excellent frost resistance and moisture resistance. The color scheme is represented by shades of brown and terracotta, but thanks to various technologies for decorating the surface, you can get very interesting options;
- chamotte tile accumulates heat energy well, cools for a long time, keeps heat well. The material will expand along with the body of the fireplace, can withstand extremely high temperatures. Fireclay tiles are thicker than terracotta.
This group sometimes includes porcelain stoneware and tiles, but the uniqueness of their characteristics makes us consider each of these materials separately.
Facing the fireplace with tiles has the mass of advantages :
- resistance to high temperatures, the ability to "breathe" along with the fireplace;
- high heat transfer and the ability to accumulate heat, which increases heat transfer;
- moisture resistance, frost resistance, resistance to sunlight;
- ease of care;
- environmental friendliness, the absence of odors when heated;
- chic appearance and ample selection.
It is difficult to name the minuses - except that the price of some products may scare away. For the installation of tiles take not the usual adhesive for tiles - is required heat-resistant composition. You can make a special clay composition yourself, but you will need to find suitable clay and experiment with proportions, so it is easier to stay on the finished version.
It is better to buy tiles with a margin of 10-15%, and you can buy not only standard-size products, but also corner elements. Installation of does not require special skills and the use of specific tools:
- The preparatory work for the is to remove the old veneer from the fireplace. After that, it is also advisable to embroider the seams of the masonry 1 cm deep. The dust is thoroughly removed, the brick is moistened with water. With the help of heat-resistant mastic or clay solution eliminate small irregularities. In the presence of significant deformations it is better to use the grinding wheel. If the brick began to crumble, it does not interfere with the installation of a reinforcing metal mesh with a mesh size of 1.5 cm;
- , before starting work, it is necessary to heat the fireplace for several hours so that the brick is sufficiently heated. The very same tile should be 48 hours in the room where the work will take place;
- fireplace surface primer, reducing dust and improving adhesion. The primer should be allowed to dry for about 2 hours;
- tiles can be pre-laid on the floor to understand what elements will have to be cut;
- glue is prepared according to the instructions indicated on the package. Mixing is best done with a construction mixer, but a drill with a suitable nozzle will do;
- masonry start with special corner elements, if used. Then the lower rows are mounted;
- glue solution is applied with a flat trowel, and at the same time for mounting 3-4 elements. To the distance between the tiles was the same, use special crosses;
- after installation of tiles overwrite the seams. To do this, use special store solutions or personally prepared clay mixture with sand and dyes;
- when everything is dry, it is desirable to cover the surface of unglazed tiles with a layer of heat-resistant varnish. This will simplify subsequent care.
Analyzing the numerous advantages of the material and the simplicity of its installation, it is easy to guess why it won such high popularity.
№2.Natural and artificial stone for facing the fireplace
The stone in the decoration of the fireplace looks as organic as possible and may even resemble the Middle Ages, but the portal's perception will largely depend on which rock of the stone is chosen( or which rock imitates artificial stone).
As for natural stone , then uses the following rocks for facing the fireplace:
- granite is hard rock, has a wide range of shades, does not collect scratches, is easy to maintain. The surface can be both wild( with "torn" edges) and smooth polished;
- marble - the most popular stone for finishing the fireplace. It features a huge assortment of shades, it is relatively inexpensive, it looks great;
- Cockleshell impresses with low price and simple processing. It looks great, but does not have high strength. It has a soft porous structure, so gradually soot particles will collect in the pores, spoiling the appearance. If the fireplace you melt infrequently, then the shell rock will fit;
- limestone and limestone sandstone is distinguished by a sufficient number of shades, but cannot boast of strength, and soot can remain in the pores of the material;
- slate is a durable and beautiful material, but its peculiar appearance does not allow to call the breed universal.
Natural stone has a high weight and a relatively high price, so today an artificial analogue is actively used. Natural stone for fireplaces sold in the form of plates .Often this format is called stone tile or flagstone .Since the shape of such tiles is usually different, it is better to pre-lay all the elements on the floor, so that there is an opportunity to select and process all the elements in time. When installing a natural stone without a grid is indispensable, otherwise the finish runs the risk of falling off.
artificial stone is made on the basis of Portland cement with the addition of expanded clay or on the basis of gypsum. The mass is poured into molds that are obtained by making molds from natural stones. Such products cost less, weigh less, can have any color and shape, are almost as good as natural stone in strength and other operational qualities, and even surpass some rocks.
The main advantages of the stone facing fireplace:
- resistance to high temperatures;
- environmental friendliness and safety;
- chic appearance;
- for artificial stone; easy installation and processing; low weight; price;
- for a natural stone - the uniqueness of each element.
The technology of laying stone reminds the installation of tiles, described above. It is not necessary to leave gaps of the same size between the stones( as is the case with tiles), so everything will be even easier. For installation take special heat-resistant glue for a stone. The heaviest stones are recommended to be additionally secured with anchors. For the rest - everything is the same as with the tile. First, the surface is prepared, primed, glue is diluted, then the installation of the stone is started from the bottom row. Before starting work, it is recommended to heat the fireplace and lay the stone on the floor in order to assemble the future “drawing”.In the case of natural stone elements may have a slightly different shade. This must be considered in advance. It looks best when the lower rows are a little darker than the upper ones. If desired, the stone is coated with heat-resistant varnish.
# 3.Decorating a fireplace with bricks
This is not even a decoration in the traditional sense of the word. In this case, it is not a question of mounting some facing material over the fireplace. That brick from which the fireplace is built, properly finished. This is both simplicity and complexity of the method.
If you originally planned not to use any additional cladding materials, then when laying the fireplace, the mortar must be placed so that there is 5-7 mm left to the outer edge of the brick. Later this void will be filled with decorative grout. If the fireplace is already built, then you can perform jointing for the purpose of subsequent use of grout of a certain color. Brick can not touch, but you can grind or chamfer. Such work should be performed by an experienced specialist. Not every stove is ready to take on this, so should not perform the itself. Brick can be treated with hydrochloric acid solution - so the material will become more saturated color.
There is a more standard way. This is an finish with an ceramic facing brick. The material normally withstands high temperatures, looks great and expands the possibilities of decor. Masonry is not much different from the laying of ordinary brick. However, it is necessary to monitor the evenness of the seams( as in the case of tiles), and then seal them with heat-resistant mastic.
№4.Facing the fireplace with porcelain stoneware
Porcelain is not a natural material, but it consists of natural ingredients. A special technology allows you to create a material that strength is not inferior to natural stone. The composition includes clay, mica, sand, metal oxides, feldspar and granite or marble chips. The porcelain stoneware can repeat the pattern of any natural stone, differs by the minimum number of pores , which explains its performance.
- wear resistance and high strength;
- the ability to withstand high temperatures, so that for facing the fireplace porcelain tile exactly fit;
- moisture and frost resistance;
- environmental friendliness;
- ease of care, resistance to mechanical damage and chemically aggressive substances;
- a huge variety of colors and textures. Porcelain tiles can copy ceramic tiles, any kind of stone, majolica and clinker.
It is slightly more expensive than porcelain tiles terracotta tiles and can make it a decent competition. Of the main minuses: higher weight and relative difficulty in processing - cutting porcelain tiles is not as easy as tile. However, for cladding fireplaces use material plates with a small thickness, so there will be no significant load on the floor. If at home cutting is difficult to perform, you can entrust this task to special firms.
Installation of porcelain tiles is carried out on glue or on a metal frame. The first method is actually identical to the tile installation described above, so it makes sense to dwell in more detail on the second option:
- from the metal profile on the perimeter of the fireplace creates a frame for using anchor bolts. Profiles connect screws. The step between the profile must conform to the format of porcelain stoneware;
- with special staples is fixed on the frame;
- the space between the brickwork of the fireplace and porcelain stoneware must be filled with clay mortar with the addition of sand and rubble;
- porcelain stoneware joints are treated with a composition of clay, sand and color pigment;
- after the end of the work, the fireplace needs to be heated for a couple of days - this way the clay is sintered and forms a more dense layer with a high degree of heat capacity.
In this way it is convenient to veneer fireplaces with a mass of irregularities, defects and slopes, because with the help of a metal frame and mortar they are all leveled.
No. 5.Facing the fireplace with
plaster The most is the easiest and budget way to decorate a fireplace is to cover it with a layer of plaster. Moreover, with the help of plaster can form both smooth and decorative relief surface ( using different spatulas, brushes, rollers and even household items such as plastic bags, you can achieve an incredible result).With proper skill, even the texture of the stone can be transferred. plaster can be painted , make drawings on it. The appearance of the plastered fireplace is very easy to change by simply repainting it. In addition, the plaster weighs a little , so it does not carry a significant load on the floor. The finish comes out durable and practical , if, of course, choose the right composition.
For plastering fireplaces is better to take the same composition that is used when working with stoves. The easiest way to buy ready-made material, in which the manufacturer added the necessary additives and additives. For those who know how and love to do everything with their own hands, there is a more complex way - self-preparation of the plaster. It consists of clay, sand and lime, but for the solution to have the necessary performance, it is important to choose the right fat content of the clay and the proportion of clay and sand - all this is done through experimentation. To be sure that this plaster does not crack and will withstand heat, you will need experience.
Many manufacturers offer both basic and finishing plaster. The first is applied with a layer of 10 mm, designed for rough finishing and preparation of a smooth base. The finishing layer is applied with a thickness of 3 mm.
The process of plastering an fireplace is not much different from plastering the walls:
- all the old lining, if any, is removed;
- to increase adhesion, it is better to embroider the seams of the brickwork to a depth of 0.7-1 cm. A chisel or a screwdriver is suitable for scraping the mortar;
- gaps are better to close up with heat-resistant sealant;
- if the walls of the fireplace are relatively even( the height differences and the depth of the depressions do not exceed 5 mm), then it is possible to wet the brick and proceed to the application of plaster. With more significant irregularities, reinforcement with a reinforcing mesh will be needed. It is attached to a brick by masonry nails, on the caps of which they put metal washers;
- before starting work, it is better to heat the fireplace in order for the brick to acquire the dimensions that will be characteristic of the fireplace. If the base is not warm, the plaster may crack at the first fire;
- finished plaster solution is applied with a spatula and leveled at the beacons. It is recommended to apply at least two layers of plaster, and each subsequent one is applied after the previous one has dried completely. The finishing layer can be leveled with a spatula. You can create a certain relief on it.
For additional decoration, you can use paints .Best suited silicone, which are well tolerated by heating to high temperatures. The hearth can be colored monotonously, or you can draw certain patterns on it - it all depends on your imagination, skills and interior.
tiles Tiles are essentially the same terracotta or majolica tiles. The difference lies in the special structure. The tiles have a rump, a square hollow ledge with which the tile is attached during installation. Rumpa is important for another purpose - it helps to retain heat. Tiles can be trimmed fireplace only during his laying. If the moment is missed, then you have to choose another way of finishing.
Tiles have the same advantages as tiles. The choice of colors is huge, there are very sophisticated patterns that will bring a special chic to the interior.
Installation of tiles is carried out in this way. :
- ½ rump is filled with a mixture of clay and broken brick, so-called inserts are inserted into special holes.crutch, thick( 5 mm in diameter) wire with a bend at the top;
- in the middle of the crutch is attached flexible soft wire, which later will be embedded in the brickwork;
- rumpa filled with clay mixture to the brim;
- as the masonry tiles are mounted, the wire hides in the seam. Between the individual parts are connected U-shaped brackets.
It is difficult to make such an installation with your own hands, which makes decorating the fireplace more expensive. In addition, the material itself is more expensive than ordinary tiles.
№7.Facing the fireplace with wood
Probably, such a method of facing may seem impossible to many, because it is no secret to anyone that the tree is very afraid of fire. Nevertheless, with the fulfillment of certain rules of the , can be used to decorate a home with warm and cozy wood - such a fireplace would look great in the living rooms, made in a classic style. Wood is an aesthetic, durable and natural material that has a special aroma. To enjoy these benefits, will have to meet a number of conditions:
- must choose rocks that are as resistant as possible to high temperatures and are not highly susceptible to deformations with constant temperature changes. It is clear that all wood species, without exception, are burning, but those that have a more dense structure, ignite much later. oak, hornbeam, maple, cherry are suitable for finishing the fireplace. Larch has average density, and pine, cedar and linden should not be considered at all;
- requires impregnation special means that will prevent fire. This means on the basis of fire retardants, which penetrate well into the structure of the tree;
- tree is best located as far as possible from the hearth .Therefore, consider a partial wood trim or create a niche for the installation of cladding 5-10 cm more than a brick frame. Then the tree will heat up within acceptable limits;
- furnace in any case it is better to cover the with a protective screen , so that sparks do not fall on the wood.
No. 8.Drywall for cladding fireplace
Drywall is often used for finishing electric fireplaces. The material allows the to create any kind of shape for the hearth .Actually, thanks to this opportunity, drywall has become so widespread. The main advantages of the method include low cost, simplicity installation ( only the lazy today does not know how to work with plasterboard) and, of course, a wide scope for imagination. The disadvantages include , the need for additional decorative finishing and complexity in terms of ensuring the safety of the structure.
The principle of operation looks like this:
- creation of a frame from a metal profile. At this stage, you can create almost any shape;
- inside the frame is upholstered with sheets of magnesite( glass-magnesium sheet ), which can withstand temperatures up to 12000С, can resist open fire for 2 hours, is highly durable and sufficiently flexible. It is waterproof, easy to install, has good thermal insulation properties;
- in a metal frame stacked slabs of basalt wool, which will protect the drywall from overheating;
- cladding takes fireproof plasterboard sheets, which perfectly withstand constant heating to 1300C and above, can resist open fire for 45 minutes. In addition, the crystallized water in the core acts as a fireman for himself;
- mounting sheets and insulation, should provide holes on the edges of the fireplace, which will serve for better air circulation;
- drywall slab joints should fall only on the frame elements;
- when the trim is finished, you can start facing with plaster, tile or artificial stone.
Do not forget that you can always combine several materials.
When it comes to a false fireplace, from which, if heat comes, it is only insignificant, you can use any materials you like.