- №1. The basic requirements for brick for masonry stoves
- №2. Elements of the furnace and a suitable brick
- Brick for furnace base
- Bricks for furnaces for furnaces
- Brick for chimneys
- Bricks for chimneys
- Brick for facing the oven
Despite the extensive existing opportunities to organize a heating system for a country house, many still stop at the brick oven. It would seem that this is a conservative and very outdated way, but in the house with furnace heating in the cold season the optimum level of humidity is maintained. In addition, a brick oven is a special comfort and an expressive detail of the interior, and in some cases the only way to organize heating of the house. Creating a brick kiln is a whole science, the cornerstone of which is the right choice of material. Which brick for the furnace is better to use, what are the requirements for it, and what material should not be used in any case?
№1. The basic requirements for brick for masonry stoves
The furnace must cope with a mass of complex negative factors affecting it, including a very high temperature and sharp changes in temperature up to negative values, if in a country house in winter there are only occasionally. A chimney that directly contacts the environment is also affected by sudden temperature changes. Consequently, the brick that is used to furnish the furnace in the house,must meet the following general requirements:
- resistance to high temperatures and open flame;
- high mechanical strength;
- resistance to temperature fluctuations;
- the ability to store heat and store it.
For the brickwork of a single furnace, brick of different types is used, and each is used in the construction of a specific part of it.
№2. Elements of the furnace and a suitable brick
A solid-fuel furnace is a complex construction, each element of which operates under different conditions, so it is unlikely to be able to lay out all its constituent elements with one brick. Conditionally in the design of the furnace can be identified such parts:
- smoke channels;
1 - foundation, 2 - furnace, 3 - smoke, - cladding, 5 - chimney
Brick for furnace base
Natural brick requirements for the foundation -strength, moisture resistance and frost resistance, since some of it can cool down to negative temperatures. For furnishing the stove base they useceramic or clinker brick. A universal option is ceramic brick of the first grade, which can be used even for the construction of massive two-story furnaces. It is allowed to use ceramics of lower quality if the load on the foundation of the furnace is not high. Clinker brick is used in regions with a harsh climate, as it shows exceptional frost resistance.
Bricks for furnaces for furnaces
The combustion chamber of solid fuel, as a rule, hasdouble-skinned walls: the interior is constructed offireclay bricks, and the outer (facing) - fromceramic. The temperature in the furnace reaches 1100 ° C, and the ceramic brick starts melting at 1150 ° C, so the inside of the furnace is spread out with fireclay bricks, for which such temperatures are not destructive. Moreover, the material perfectly copes with the accumulation of heat. It is worth noting that sometimes a furnace is spread fromheat resistant ceramic bricks, but it is possible only for furnaces with a non-stressed thermal regime (for example, a Russian oven). Since such high temperatures do not affect the exterior finish, it can be arranged fromfacing ceramic bricks.
Brick for chimneys
Smoke ducts are a large heat exchanger for the furnace. The temperature in it though and below, than in a firebox, but nevertheless is high and it is better for a laying of its elements to usechamotte brick. Outside, the smoke channels can be lined with ceramic bricks.
Bricks for chimneys
The temperature in the chimney can range from -400C to + 4000C, i.e. the material must befrost-resistant and withstand temperature changes. In addition, the pipe should heat up sufficiently quickly so that the furnace can increase the draft - if this will happen slowly, we will deal with fuel overexpenditure and increased precipitation soot. Take into account and the mechanical loads, which, in general, are the effect of wind in any direction. Consequently, for the arrangement of the chimney of the furnace is suitableceramic brickwith a maximum index of frost resistance. In regions with a harsh climate it is possible to lay out pipes with two layers of bricks: the first - clinker, the second - hollow ceramic. By the way, this is the only case that allows the use of hollow bricks in the arrangement of the furnace.
Brick for facing the oven
Depending on the idea and the design decision, the facing of the oven is performed in one of the following ways:
- building ceramic brickssecond grade, which is characterized by the presence of a sufficient number of pores, ensuring the breathing of the furnace. Its rough surface will be a good basis for facing material;
- ceramic facing bricksplastic molding provides the necessary breath of the furnace, gives it an aesthetic appearance, turning it into an interior decoration, and the whole structure comes out as durable as possible due to the ligation of the seams;
- clinker tilesmeets the requirements put forward to household furnaces, looks excellent, but costs not cheap, therefore it is infrequent.
No. 3. What should be the ceramic brick for the furnace
Ceramic brick actually underlies the construction of the furnace and also serves for its facing. It is easy to guess that the durability, safety and correct functioning of the furnace depend on its quality and compliance with the requirements. For masonry is betterchoose a brick with such characteristics:
- brand of durabilitysays how much pressure the material can withstand (kg / cm2). On the market there is a brick from M75 to M300 and even higher brands. The denser the brick, the slower it cools, but at the same time, it also heats up more slowly, so it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. It's better to stay on brick marksnot lower than M150 and not higher than M250, and for a two-story oven it is better to use M200-250. Brick M100 and below is not suitable, because it does not have sufficient strength and heat engineering properties, and the brick is higher than M300 from It is impossible to obtain natural raw materials - additives are used for its production, which justify themselves in housing construction, but are harmful for furnaces;
- frost resistanceis indicated by the letter F followed by a digit indicating the number of freezing and thawing cycles that a brick can withstand. This parameter is especially important in the arrangement of the chimney, which will be constantly in the conditions of temperature difference. Choosing a brick is better with frost resistancenot less thanF75;
- fullness. For masonry and facing the furnace useonly solidceramic brick(with the exception of the above-described case of pipe arrangement in cold regions);
- preparation method. For bricklaying and facing the oven is suitable ceramic brickplastic molding, which involves extruding the clay mass with a moisture content of about 20% through the die and further cutting the formation into modules of the right size. Bricks of a semi-dry and dry formation are made from pre-dried clay, which makes it possible to obtain the product with the most accurate dimensions, but this brick is inferior in plasticity to strength. You can find a brick of dry and semi-dry forming on an even cut on all sides.
Ceramic brick is divided into varieties, and each of the three varieties has the right to be used in the construction of the furnace, but only in certain jobs:
- first grade- a brick with a precise geometry, moderately burned, uniform bright color, when tapping gives ringing metallic sound, the edges do not crumble, the traces of the cut have no scoring, the strength and size of the pores sufficient. Such a brick is used for building and facing the furnace;
- second grade- a slightly unbaked brick with a light tint, with a tapping gives a clear, but a deafening sound, can be used for cladding;
- third grade- this is a burned brick, in which the frost resistance and heat capacity do not meet the requirements for masonry and facing the furnace, but the foundation for it from such material can be done.
№4. Refractory bricks for furnaces
A furnace top is laid out with a special refractory brick,it is allowed to use such types of it:
- quartz brickmade of sandstone with the addition of a small amount of clay. The result is a solid glazed brick, a bit like a fireclay brick. He exclusivelyheat-resistant, but expensive, does not withstand the impact of corrosive chemicals and metal oxides. Its use is justifiedwhen laying heat-reflecting arches of stoves and fireplaces. Often from quartz bricks spread so-called. The tooth of the fireplace is a figured masonry element that reflects infrared rays into the room. For the arrangement of chimneys is not suitable, since condensate can easily destroy the material. Apply only solid bricks;
- chamotte brickhas received a higher popularity than quartz, because it is much cheaper and more resistant to negative impacts. It is produced in the same way as ceramic, but refractory grades of clay are used, and roasting takes place at a temperature of 15000С, so it is not afraid of temperatures up to 13000С.
In view of the described featuresChamotte brick was the most widely used for laying firebox, they lay out the combustion chamber of the furnace and the initial parts of the chimney channels, where the afterburning processes are still possible. Fireclay bricks are suitable for creating all the elements of the furnace, but its use is limited by the high price and specific appearance.
When choosing fireclay bricks for a stove, pay attention to the following points:
- products should be strong, with a small porosity, have a uniform color;
standard sizesare presented in a wide variety and can correspond or differ from the typical dimensions of ceramic bricks. Narrow, shortened, elongated, shaped bricks and bricks with a reduced width of blocks and complex configuration are easier to lay out the furnace;. . . . .
- thatcheck for durability, enough to throw a brick from a height of about 1 m to the stone floor. If the product breaks into large parts, then it is of high quality, and a bad brick crumbles into a bunch of small elements. Thus, quality is checked in production. It is clear that not every seller agrees to such experiments, so you can rub the edge of the brick, and if there is no dust and crumbs, then the product can be used for masonry. Continuous sound with tapping is a sign of qualityfirst-class fireclay bricks, which can be used in furnaces with a stressed thermal regime.The second gradegives a gentle, but clear sound when tapping, it is suitable for all other furnaces. A dull sound is a sign of marriage, such a brick is not recommended.
№5. Clinker brick for oven
In the arrangement of the kiln, clinker bricks are allowed. It is produced on the basis of special refractory grades of clay (clinker), which are fired at temperatures up to 1300-15000С. With this temperature effect, the clay is sintered with mineral additives into the vitreous mass, and on the spoons even traces of streaks are visible. Clinker brick is differentthe highest strength(M300 and even higher),frost resistance(F100 and above), standstemperature influence up to 12000Сandis not afraid of aggressive substances.
So why such products are not so often used in furnishing furnaces? It's all abouthigh price, because there are almost no deposits of suitable raw materials in Russia, andbig weightbrick. In addition, clinker brickis not able to provide the correct "breath" of the furnace, and for heat resistance is inferior to chamotte.
Sometimes thoughThe use of clinker bricks for masonry stoves is justified:
- when building a large heavy furnace, the starting rows of the foundation can be made from a strong clinker;
- for the internal chimney duct with its temperature differences and high concentration of combustion products;
- to create compact stoves, such as burzhuek, especially for the bath.
№6. Which brick can not be used for the oven?
It is not superfluous to enumerate which brick for the furnace can not be used, since this is a responsible and demanding safety equipment. So,absolutely not suitable:
- silicate brick, which is afraid of high temperatures and moisture. In frequency construction, unfortunately, they still use it at their own peril;
- raw brick;
- brickslip casting, which can disintegrate from temperature differences;
- hyperpressed brickAlso, it can not withstand temperature fluctuations.
№7. The size and shape of the brick for the furnace
When laying stoves today, as a rule, they usestandard single brickwith dimensions of 250 * 120 * 65 mm, but some masonry schemes are designed for so-called.furnace moduledimensions of 230 * 125 * 65 mm. This is already an outdated format, but the manufacturers, as a rule, have a whole line of products oriented it is on the furnace module, so before buying a brick you need to understand exactly what type of design bake.
For the erection of a stove, you may need a bricknon-standard form - shaped. It is necessary for a more simple and qualitative formation of the furnace, as well as for external finishing. To create decorative arches, arches and other curly elements, you can use wedge-shaped bricks with an end or edge taper. Parameters in this case are recorded in this way 230 * 114 * 64/45 mm. Bricks with rounded corners, arc-shaped and others can also be used.
№8. Brick for a stove in a bath
The oven in the bath works at high humidity, so the general principles of the arrangement can not be used here. It is best to equip a small sauna oven suitableclinker brick, but chamotte and quartz are not suitable, as their use at a humidity of more than 60% is not allowed. Another option is to create a furnace fromceramic refractory bricks, and the lining is made of ceramic bricks of the first grade.
№9. Exterior examination of bricks
When choosing a brick for an oven, it is necessary to watchcertificate of conformity, where the main properties of the material must be indicated and the fact that this brick can be used in the construction of the furnace is necessarily emphasized. In addition, visual inspection is essential:
- brick must haveexact geometrywith a maximum deviation of 2 mm;
- if you take a brick in your hand and, holding its canopy, apply a weak blow with a hammer, then the tool should bounce off the surface with a ringing. This indicates the absence of cracks inside the brick;
- crash testcan not always be fulfilled, but how the brick is broken, and what its internal structure can say about a lot. Inadmissible crumbling and uneven coloring of the cut;
- fireclay brick must contain a minimum of shells formed when gases are released during firing. They should be no more than 4, and on different faces.
№10. Manufacturers of bricks for furnaces
The best guarantee of the quality of the brick is the name of the manufacturer. Refractory brick is represented by products of foreign and domestic enterprises, among which the largest and most proven ones are:
- LODE - Latvian company, which specializes in the production of a wide range of bricks. Oven brick is the most important part of production and is widely distributed in the domestic market;
- Wienerberger AG- a huge concern that grew out of a smallAustriancompany. Now it is the world leader in the production of bricks and tiles, which has 230 plants in 30 countries around the world, incl. and in Russia. For furnaces facilities, the company offers a refractory facing brick of the trade mark Terca;
- OJSC "Ceramics"-Belarusiancompany, produces oven bricks under the trade mark "Vitebsky brick". This ceramic brick, which is suitable for facing the oven or fireplace, and there is a large selection of shaped products. The manufacturer indicates that his brick can be used for furnishing the furnace;
- ZAO BKSM(Borovichi brick factory) is an enterprise with long-standing traditions, its products are presented in all regions of the country with ceramic refractory and fireclay bricks;
- OJSC BKO(Borovichi Refractories Plant) specializes in the production of refractory materials, incl. produces fireclay bricks.
Of course, the quality of the furnace depends on the project, the solution, the technique of erection, but the decisive factor has what kind of brick for bricklaying the furnace is chosen, so treating this issue is extremely attentively.