- . Staircase made of wood.
- . Metal staircase
- . Forged staircase
- . Concrete staircase
- . Stone staircase
- .Installation location and optimal dimensions of the ladder
- №8.Lighting stairs in a private house
- №9.Styles design stairs in the house
- №10.Designing the space under the staircase
In the private country and country house construction, the tendency to erect houses in two or even three floors has long been overdue, and in single-storey buildings they often equip an attic room. In any of these cases, there is an urgent need for the organization of a staircase, durable, durable, comfortable, safe and at the same time an aesthetic design that will link the different levels of the house to each other. There are many options for decorating stairs in a private house using
of different materials, solutions and styles .Carried away by the aesthetic component, we must not forget that the stairs, first of all, should be convenient for ascent and descent.
№1.The main components of the stairs and their requirements are
The design of the stairs includes the following elements:
- steps - an essential part of any stairs. Consist of treads , horizontal surface, and riser , the vertical part, which serves as an additional support. The risers in some types of stairs may be missing. The width of the tread is selected taking into account the convenience of placing legs on it( the optimal value is 30 cm), the length can vary from 90 to 150 cm and depends on many factors. The height of the riser is usually 15-20 cm. The tread width in the spiral staircases at the two ends is different, it is important that in the central part this parameter is at least 25 cm;
- support beams - elements that serve for mounting steps. For marching ladders are used kosour and string. Kosour - monolithic beam, supporting steps from the bottom, string - end beam. For spiral staircases, the support element is pillar, to which all steps are attached;
- railings provide safe movement of stairs and consist of balusters and handrails. Balusters perform the role of supports, fencing and decoration.
№2.Types of stairs in a private house
The stairs can be classified according to the material, layout, purpose, and other parameters, but the most important is the division according to the type of construction .There are such main types of stairs:
- screw, or spiral;
The choice of type of construction depends on your own preferences, the style of the house, as well as the place that can be allocated to the stairs.
№3.Flight Stairs: Requirements and Features of the
The Flight Staircase - is the most common and easiest to equip option for the staircase. It is a continuous series of steps from one floor to another or to the landing. Such designs most accurately take into account the biomechanics of human movement, therefore, are considered the most convenient and safe for movement. Significant lack of - a lot of space is required for their arrangement, but this disadvantage can be turned into a plus: the space under the stairs can be used with benefit.
A march of is called a continuous series of steps. It is recommended to do no more than 10 steps( maximum 17) in one flight to ensure the most comfortable ascent and descent. If this number of steps is not enough, then it is better to equip two or more marches, and between them make the landing: its width is equal to the width of the steps, and the length should be a multiple of the step. Two- and three-marsh ladders will occupy less space if the marches are located not in one direction, but at an angle.
Depending on the layout of the , the staircase may be:
- Straight - the most convenient and durable option;
- pivoting does not lose much in terms of convenience, but allows you to more efficiently use the space at home, which is very important when it is not in excess.
Rotary stairs are divided into several types:
- L-shaped ( quarter-turn) connects two flights of stairs at a right angle;
- U-shaped ( half-turn) involves connecting marches at an angle of 180 degrees, may be intermediate( if located between floors) or storey;
- 3-section consists of 3 marches, which are angled to each other at 90 degrees;
- Trapezoidal is distinguished by connecting marches not at a right angle. Used in homes of non-standard layout or, if necessary, to embody a bold design idea;
- rounded ( curved);
- combined may include spans connected in different ways.
In addition, the main staircase may be:
If there is a riser under the tread, the staircase is called closed .This is a more durable and safe staircase. Structures without risers are called open : they are lighter and do not visually clutter up the space of the house.
By type of construction, staircases are divided into the following types:
- staircases on kosourians outwardly have a sawtooth shape and are a monolithic beam, on which are placed on top of the finishing material for steps and risers of the
- ladder on the bowstring .A bowstring is a tilted beam that runs along the entire length of the ladder. From its inside there are grooves where steps are mounted.
You can use almost any material for the manufacture of flight stairs: wood, concrete, metal, stone, glass, or combine them.
№4.Ladders on the
Bolts Sometimes the ladders on the Bolts are considered to be one of the variants of the design of the mid-flight ladder, but the originality of the solution makes them stand out as a separate look. The main feature of the design becomes clear when you translate the word "bolz" from German: it means "bolt", "pin".The steps of such a ladder are fastened to the wall with invisible fixings, bolts or with heavy-duty bolts .Outwardly it looks as if the steps hover in the air, which allows you to create durable, but not very massive structures.
Boltsevaya ladder can withstand weight up to 1500 kg, so external fragility is deceptive. Such constructions are compact, but requires the presence of a solid load-bearing wall, because the main load is placed on it. The use of handrails in this case is mandatory.
№5.Spiral staircases: features and advantages of
Spiral, or spiral, stairs look spectacular and immediately attract eyes. Such designs are "tape" steps, twisted around the support pole .Spiral staircases are space for designer imagination, because you can arrange it in the traditional round shape, or you can, for example, make it in the shape of an octagon.
Despite the fact that spiral staircases look very impressive, are much inferior to marching in terms of comfort of movement and are equipped only if necessary, to save space. Often, such designs lead to the attic or attic floor.
Spiral staircase supports are usually made of metal( sometimes wood), but the steps can be glass, wood or stone. The narrow part of the steps is mounted to the rack, and the wide ones are attached to the balusters, the wall or the rail stand. As a rule, spiral staircases are performed without risers. The tread width in the center of the step should be 20-25 cm, in the widest part - 40 cm.
№6.Materials for the manufacture of stairs for home
When designing a staircase one of the first questions arise about the material used. Of course, you must take into account your own budget, tastes and style of the interior of the house, but do not forget that the selected material should be durable, durable and easy to maintain.
The wooden staircase is a classic that never seems to become outdated. Wood can be used for the manufacture of support elements, steps and handrails, and can be combined with other materials. Among the main advantages of are naturalness and environmental friendliness, unique texture and beautiful natural color, warm non-slip surface, pleasant smell, low weight, relative ease of installation and accessibility. The wooden staircase will be an excellent addition to any interior, because due to the simplicity of processing and the presence of a mass of rocks of different shades, it is easy to create an appropriate design.
The wood for the stairs should be well dried and free from defects. As for , it is better to opt for oak or larch: beech can be deformed under the influence of high humidity, maple is prone to cracking and yellowing, and pine is very soft.
Metal wins over wood in terms of durability and wear resistance .Typically, for the manufacture of stairs using stainless steel, which can last up to 40-50 years, is durable and resistant to corrosion. The design can be completely made of metal, but today there are more and more options combined with wood, stone, glass or plastic.
In addition to excellent performance, the benefits of the metal include flexibility and ductility, which makes it possible to create absolutely any form of stairs. Not the highest cost is also attributed to the merits. Among the minuses, the is a cold and “noisy” metal surface, but this will be noticeable when used as an independent material for the decoration of the stairs.
Making metal stairs, as a rule, includes a complex of complex welding works, so it is better to entrust this work to professionals. Today, such designs are made to order, as well as sold as a ready-made prefabricated kit.
Conventional metal stairs do not always fit well into classic interiors, and some of them look too industrial. The way out is the use of forging, which combines with all the advantages of the metal , but it looks delicate and airy. With the help of forging you can create various ornaments, it is suitable for all types of stairs, it is perfectly combined with wood and stone. The only negative is the high cost, because it is always manual labor-intensive work.
Concrete ladder is the most durable and reliable option. Thus, marching ladders are made. Designs are obtained cheap , but very heavy and cumbersome, so they are better to use in large homes. It is better to build concrete stairs from prefabricated elements at the stage of building a house, otherwise it may be difficult to deliver the product to the installation site, and pour the stairs in place for a long time and is laborious. Concrete stairs are often decorated with wood and metal.
Only steps are usually made of stone. Such a design will become an expensive interior decoration, as it looks chic and is, indeed, expensive. Natural rocks use granite and quartzite, less often marble. Durability, durability, resistance to abrasion, moisture and temperature changes, as well as ease of care and chic appearance - main advantages of stone .Cons - a lot of weight and price, so often natural stone is replaced artificial concrete-based .It is almost as good as natural durability.
Glass stairs are airy, almost invisible and stylish. They fit perfectly into the interior in the style of hi-tech and modern , but together with a chic look, you will have to put up with some inconveniences: a slippery surface and the need for constant thorough care. Of course, for the construction of such stairs, uses laminated or tempered glass, , which is highly durable, but even it can crack when struck at the end. Acrylic glass, which is considered stronger and lighter, may turn yellow with time. Glass steps are perfectly combined with chrome-plated metal.
№7.Installation site and optimal dimensions of the staircase
When choosing the design of the staircase, first of all, the parameters of the room are taken into account. It is important to correctly assess the area that is allocated for the organization of the stairs: if it is 3 m2 and more , you can make a flight of steps or a ladder on the stairs, if less, then your option is a spiral staircase.
The width of the spiral staircase should be at least 100 cm, it can be more, but then the space occupied by the structure will increase. The optimum width of the marching and bolsa ladder is 120-150 cm. In this case, the comfort of moving two people at the same time is ensured. As for the handrails, their height should be about 80 cm. If there are children in the house, the distance between the balusters or racks should not be less than 15 cm.
for marching and bolt constructions).Well, if you can reach an angle of 45 degrees - this is the optimal value. The greater the deviation from this number, the less convenient it is to walk on such a ladder. The tread width and the height of the riser depend on the angle of inclination: the greater the angle, the smaller the tread will be and the higher the risers.
# 8.Lighting the stairs in a private house
If moving up the stairs during the daytime does not cause any problems and questions, then at night it can turn into a real test if the backlight is ill-conceived. Lighting the stairs in the house performs, above all, a purely functional role, and only then - a decorative one. Lamps can become an ornament of a design or it is favorable to emphasize its separate details.
Stair lighting can be arranged in one of the following ways:
- The ceiling lighting of the is provided with a regular chandelier or chandelier with suspensions. Such a sufficiently powerful illumination can illuminate all the spans of a large staircase. Chandeliers with suspensions are excellent for overall constructions - they will be a great decoration for the stairs and the interior as a whole;
- Wall lights - the most common and easiest to equip option. Wall sconces in stores represented a huge variety - you can pick up for any style. It is necessary to place such lamps at the level of human height;
- local illumination can be used to illuminate the steps and rails. Often used for these purposes led strip. Such lighting allows you to emphasize the beauty of some elements, and also provides a safer and more comfortable movement on the stairs at night. LED strip offers great opportunities in terms of design, consumes a minimum of energy and does not heat the surrounding surfaces.
For a single staircase, you can combine a couple of lighting options.
Now imagine how much the comfort and safety of moving along the steps is reduced, if the switch is located only in one place. To solve this problem, several interesting ways were invented:
- automatic backlight with an motion sensor. In this case, you will need to purchase and install a ceiling-mounted motion detector with a 360-degree viewing angle and connect it to the general lighting scheme. As soon as someone on the first or second floor produces a movement, the staircase lights will turn on, and after a certain time, turn off. Convenient and economical;
- use of walk-through switches that allow you to turn on and off the lighting from different places, for example, at the bottom and at the top of the stairs. If it is necessary to organize the control of the illumination from other points, then an additional switch is made;
- using the timer. This is not the most convenient option, but still common. Timer settings are set, after what time you can turn off the manually switched on light.
No. 9.Styles design stairs in the house
As interiors and landscapes, stairs can be made out in different styles. Of course, the chosen style should correspond to the overall interior design of the house. Designers distinguish a lot of stylistic trends, of which the main and most common are the following:
- Classic style - these are natural inconspicuous shades, natural materials( stone and wood), carving, curls, decorative balusters;
- neutral style is used in the arrangement of the stairs when it is not intended to fulfill the main or one of the main roles in the interior. In this case, it is assumed that the staircase is a functional and most discreet detail; strict requirements are not put forward for its design;
- modern style , which includes such trends as minimalism, hi-tech, modern and art deco, involves the use of glass, metal and an abundance of lighting elements;
- Country - the perfect style for a country or country house. The staircase in country style is made of wood, made deliberately rough, and from above it can be covered with carpet or carpet overlays on the steps.
No. 10.Designing the space under the stairs
If you chose the mid-flight ladder or the ladder on the boats, then a decent free space will be formed under the structure. Leaving it unused is permissible only when the area of the house is very large. In other cases, it can be used with great benefit. Here are some interesting options:
- walk-in closet or closet with a well-designed system of shelves and cabinets. In some cases, in a small space under the stairs you can place a lot of things or organize a warehouse of bicycles, children's toys, etc.;
- library will be an excellent addition to the living room, located on the first floor;
- office .Under the stairs you can place a small table with a computer, as well as accommodate several shelves for the necessary books and documentation;
- recreation area with a sofa or rocking chair and a coffee table;
- play area for children ;
- bathroom can also be organized under the stairs, only it should be of decent height, and it will be necessary to think over the supply of communications during the construction phase;
- kitchen area with worktop and cupboards;
- green zone, aquarium, a place to store your own collection of wines, dishes, souvenirs, a place for a pet and other unusual options.
It is advisable to decide what the staircase will be like at the design stage of the whole house, in order to avoid difficulties and not be limited in possibilities. It is better to entrust its arrangement to professionals, but the decor can already be done with your own hands by arranging interesting lighting, carefully using the space under the stairs, and decorating the spans with photos, plants and paintings.