By establishing independent heating in the apartment, the owners increase the comfort of home and save on utility bills. Of course, you first have to choose the type of heating system, create a project and obtain the necessary permits from municipal services.
But the effort and labor costs over time are justified, and the room is warm and cozy all year for less money. Which option to choose heating and what is required for its arrangement? That's what matters the subject of our article. Also, we consider in detail the procedure for documenting the transition to independent heating.
The content of the article:
- General description of the autonomous system
- Types of independent heating units
Properties selection heat source
- Heaters for colder regions
- Heating systems in warm regions
Legal nuances of the issue
- Documents for authorization
- The process of registration of independent heating
- How to calculate the heating system for the apartment?
Boilers for individual gas system
- Features single-circuit devices
- Nuances bypass equipment
- Pros and cons of gas installations
Autonomous systems Electrical
- Option # 1 - the benefits of using electric boilers
- Option # 2 - The advantages of the system "warm floor"
- Option # 3 - pros heat pump heating apartments
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
General description of the autonomous system
Independent a heating system - the equipment for the heating of residential premises that is not connected to a common backbone networks.
With proper implementation of the system provides real estate owners optimally comfortable accommodation and makes it possible to be independent of interruptions in the supply of central heating resource.
Among the main advantages of the individual heating systems featured the following positions:
- instantaneous adjustment of the level of heat in the apartment and the ability to set the heating temperature under him personally;
- financial savings on utility bills;
- operational simplicity and accessibility;
- high level of heat transfer efficiency and quality;
- reliability, safety and durability of the equipment.
It is these options attract consumers and make autonomous systems demand.
Abandonment of the centralized heat supply and the transition to an independent heating system in the apartment cost effective. Costs for housing heating reduced by 2-3 times, and to provide hot water - 3-5 times. The level of comfort in the room is higher
Types of independent heating units
The most popular self-contained units are the heating boilers, "Warm floor" systemWe are working on different kinds of resources, solar panels, Collectors and heat pumps. In a private house can arrange any of these heating options or even combine a comprehensive system of 2-3 types of equipment.
Solid fuel boiler - not the best option of heating the apartment. For correct operation of the unit should always have on hand a large number of heating resources (wood, coal, etc.), And it is in the standard of urban real estate just is not enough space
The apartment building is more complicated and the application of most of the above heating units no longer just for objective reasons.
Some types of equipment can not be installed in the apartment either from a technical or practical terms. Using other limit state and municipal laws, and others may prevent the interests and comfort of life of neighbors living nearby.
Radiant Floor Heating - an efficient way of heating, but heating water it takes away from the central communications. As a result, neighboring apartments get less heating resource, and pay for its full amount. Therefore, in the regions of connection to the central water flooring systems is prohibited
These nuances significantly narrow the search for suitable equipment, eventually reducing it to 2-3 by the heating system. Each of them has its own specific merits and small, but significant shortcomings.
Choosing the best option there is for each individual case, taking into account the temperature characteristics of the region, area, and plan to be room heating, heating availability of resources, power density and efficiency of the working units, as well as the total cost of installation and activities installation.
Properties selection heat source
Choosing a suitable heat source for independent heating in the apartment - a responsible and serious question. Inattention to the situation will lead to the fact that a new a heating system simply can not cope with the task and not be able to provide the proper level of comfort in the living room.
Heaters for colder regions
If the property is located in the region, which is characterized by severe winters and aggressively low temperatures, maximum efficiency and a high level of heat compared with the central heating system to ensure only the autonomous equipment operating on the main gas.
Bottled gas to heat the apartment is not economically profitable. Bladder complex consumes 6-8 times more gas than units using mains supply, and store in a confined space fuel reserves uncomfortable and dangerous
All other sources of thermal energy tangible benefits will not give, and effort spent on the purchase of equipment, alterations to premises and obtaining permits, will be in vain.
Heating systems in warm regions
In areas with a soft, warm climate except for the main gas actually used for heating electricity. Systems operating on this resource, different operating convenience and a high level of security, but they can not be called efficient. With direct heating equipment "pulls" a decent amount, and payment for communal flies owners a lot of money.
To use energy wisely and not spend big money on a monthly basis to the accounts, the owner recommended to install heat pumps. The operating principle of these devices is constructed progressive not in direct heating of air, and pumping of low-grade heat source resource.
This functionality can reduce electricity costs by 3-5 times, without lowering at the same level of comfort in residential areas.
Heat pump "air-air" perfectly cope with the heating of a city apartment. Place equipment can be on the supporting wall of the house, after ascertaining whether the design of the building can withstand the extra load
However, due to its specific location and layout, in apartment buildings is objectively not possible to put the pumps using heat or energy geotemalnoe freezing of open waters. Available for installation in apartments remains equipment, space heating by heat extraction from the ambient air.
Another good option for heating city apartments - the system "warm floor", operating on electricity. But its arrangement requires significant financial resources and increases the load on the central grid.
If you intend to use the system as a primary source of heat, it should occupy at least 70% of the total floor space. Otherwise, even comfortable heat can not be achieved throughout the apartment.
Legal nuances of the issue
Just change the way central heating can not be a stand-alone system. First need written notify local authorities of their wish and wait for a reply from them. Will it be positive or unknown. Administration may refer to Art. 190 Law and deny the tenant's request.
In court, a verdict is unfounded, based on a government decree N 307 from 16.04.2012, To consider in detail how to connect the heat supply systems. This document details painted, which local sources of thermal energy are allowed and which are prohibited for installation in apartment buildings.
If the installation of modern boiler is selected, the appropriate requirements for the equipment for the arrangement of your home heating system, for the failure to install the tenant no reason.
Documents for authorization
To correct non-district heating and the transition to a stand-alone, it is necessary to collect the documents.
- a statement of the desired reconstruction of the heating system;
- documents of title to ownership of the apartment, where it is planned to install the new equipment;
- technical passport, clearly describes the parameters and the floor plans (original or notarized copy);
- reconstruction project apartment under the modified heating communications;
- written consent of all registered in the apartment residents;
- expert opinion department on protection of monuments on the admissibility of work on the reconstruction of the premises.
Based on these securities authorities give permission to the client disconnected from the urban communications.
The process of registration of independent heating
Ordering the technical conditions for the resettlement of individual gas heating written permission to shut down the apartment from the central to the local communications sent gazoraspredelyayuschee company.
Within 10 days of technical experts are studying the possibility of installing the equipment and give a good (or refusal) to the actual installation of the system.
Refusal to install a gas boiler due to lack of "technical capability" is allowed only in areas where there is no gas network and the bottled gas is not available for purchase
When the documents are received, the hosts become a certified heating boiler and turn to the Project Office for preparation installation scheme, taking into account all the technical specifications, safety regulations and specific features premises.
In parallel, the organization teplopodayuschey make the project graceful shutdown property of centralized communications. The basis for the procedure in favor of an HOA, confirming the authorities for permission to go to the apartment autonomous heating system.
Possessing all the necessary documentation, property owners are sent to the fire society and there are an act confirming the fire safety developed by the project.
Total transfer scheme apartment with central heating system on the same everywhere. However, in various fields due to regional characteristics may need additional information and documents. Learn their complete list, please contact the local administration
Then the paper is transferred to the coordination and the local administration within 45 days of considering the application, and then enables or disables the rebuilding premises for heating. The reason for the failure is the art. 27 LCD (not the full package of the documents submitted). This decision may be appealed in court or by adding your own certificates, apply for re-approval.
Another serious reason - inability to install a chimney or ventilation systems that meet certain requirements.
How to calculate the heating system for the apartment?
To obtain the optimum temperature in the apartment is also important to install the system correctly calculate the required power density of the heating equipment.
To obtain a correct and consistent with reality as much as possible, it is necessary to take into account the real parameters.
All calculations were performed using the formula:
Boiler = S * Wstr. / 10 m²,
- S - the total area to be room heating;
- W - basic boiler output at 10 m².
The obtained data is compared with an average power density in the actual region, and is selected on the basis of a suitable boiler.
Boilers for individual gas system
Boilers using in the gas, - the most practical embodiment of arrangement autonomous heating systems in urban apartment when properly selecting the power. We recommend you visit power calculation example gas boiler.
The units are characterized by high levels of efficiency, work reliably in an intensive mode of operation for a long time serve their owners.
If the cubic capacity of the apartment allows, it can be equipped with autonomous gas storage water heater system. This will provide an opportunity to stock up a decent amount of hot water and allow, if necessary, at the same time to take a shower and wash the dishes
Current models are equipped with a closed combustion chamber, a convenient electronic ignition and programmable thermostat. Extensive functionality helps maintain the system clock a suitable flow temperature, increasing or decreasing it as personal necessity.
Features single-circuit devices
Single-circuit gas-fired boilers are only for heating. Function of providing housing hot water in them is absent. To be able not only to live in a warm environment, but also to the extent necessary to use hot water, customers buy more capacious tanks with integrated heat exchanger (indirect heating boiler) And attach them to the gas boiler.
Single-loop products are floor and wall. Floor aggregates have impressive volume and weight, and "eat" the large number of useful area. That is why the owners of small apartments prefer wall-hung boilers, takes up little space
Single-boilers are usually connected to a flue with natural draft. The apartments without a chimney set advanced turbo boilers or parapet modules equipped with the forced output function of the resulting carbon monoxide outside the dwelling.
Nuances bypass equipment
Consumers combi boilers are very popular. These units are optional internal heat exchanger and provide a smoothly flat useful not only heat, but also the hot water.
Turbofan boiler - a neat little unit that takes up minimal space. Better install it as close as possible to the hot water withdrawal point. If the distance between the boiler and the tap is too large, it will have a long wait until the warm water "gets" to the mixer
Basic equipment capacity varies from 17 to 35 kW. In the actual power level is affected by the number arranged in the heated room with hot water taps.
In order not to miscalculate with a specific power system and the ability to heat the required space, the boiler always acquire with a reserve. This makes it possible to maintain an adequate level of heat in the apartment and use hot water to maximize the comfort for themselves mode.
The pressure in the domestic gas networks do not always coincide with the European standards. Because of this, the boiler, made in the EU, may not work correctly. Therefore it is better to pay attention to the product, issued by the former Soviet Union. They are adapted to the desired settings and function even with uneven pressure level
Buy equipment is recommended only official producers with quality certificate for the product and provides a guarantee on their products. Serial number, batted on a certified boiler must match the one specified in the accompanying documents. If the numbers on the machine and in the passport differ from the purchase should be abandoned.
Pros and cons of gas installations
Current models of gas boilers is almost completely automated. After installation to the desired location and setting of all the functions they operate entirely autonomously and do not cause any inconvenience to owners.
Embedded security control system nullifies a potential gas leak and all unpleasant moments associated with such a force majeure.
A wide range of equipment available on the market, enables the consumer choose the best and the most convenient option for themselves and get it for a very reasonable price. Dimensions of products allow us to find a suitable device for small apartment with a complex layout as well as for large apartments.
Gas boilers are attractive, easy to fit in a variety of interior solutions, and do not require serious care. Internal problem has been solved master of the timing of the enterprise, and external contamination hostess will clean itself, using a sponge and detergent
The boiler is very quiet and does not disturb any neighbors or apartment owners. The high level of efficiency of the module provides a comfortable dwelling-warm atmosphere and allows always to maintain the selected temperature level.
Among the shortcomings of equipment in the first place mark such items as:
- Potential gas explosion.
- Increased demands on the arrangement of the ventilation system.
- Mandatory periodic cleaning of branch ventilation channels by soot, grime, grease and other combustion products.
- Resolution of the special bodies to be mounted on the facade of an apartment building chimney koksialnogo outputting burned resource from the premises.
- The constant growth of prices for natural gas for the population.
But, despite these drawbacks, many consumers dream to equip the apartment is gas heating. Especially in this endeavor inhabitants of the cold northern regions, where a full-fledged space heating other resources is simply not possible.
Autonomous systems Electrical
Relevant to these types of apartments are considered electric heating equipment, such as the boiler, the system "warm floor" and a heat pump. They can be used individually or combined, achieving maximum heating effect.
Option # 1 - the benefits of using electric boilers
Electric boiler has a small size and compact form. This allows you to place it even in small spaces with a complex internal layout. In the process, it does not emit any harmful substances and does not require separate equipment exhaust system. Easy to assemble and demonstrates a complete fire safety.
We recommend to familiarize with the principles and circuits heating device on the basis of the electric boiler.
Electric boiler can be immediately after the purchase to install in the apartment. To agree with installation and utilities to obtain permits not required
Comfortable control unit provides a thermostat. It allows you to put a certain level of warming and allows heat the room in the most suitable mode for themselves.
The electric boiler has almost no flaws, but showing vulnerability to surges. Therefore, to correct and continuous operation needs a reliable regulator.
Option # 2 - The advantages of the system "warm floor"
Generally, the electrical system "warm floors" is complementary to the main heating equipment. It is mounted in environments with high humidity levels, or placed in children's rooms and bedrooms.
Recommended for instructions on assembling electrical system underfloor heating.
The system "warm floors", which uses as a heating element elektromat, suitable for installation in buildings located in cold temperate climatic zones. For regions with low winter temperatures is better to take a powerful heating cable
To use the "warm floor" as the main heating source, it is necessary to equip them most of the usable area of the apartment. Otherwise, the performance will be too low and will not allow to create a truly comfortable living conditions.
Option # 3 - pros heat pump heating apartments
For heating an apartment suitable for heat pumps "Air-air" or 'Air-water'. They recovered low-grade thermal energy from the environment and convert it into high.
However, the operation of such equipment is only effective in relatively warm regions, where in winter the temperature does not fall below -25 degrees.
In the summer time the heat pump can be used as an air conditioner to cool the air in the room
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Reviews of the autonomous heating system from a real user. The author describes in detail how to get practical and convenient heat and hot water in a three-room apartment by the use of a bypass gas boiler.
Overview auxiliary heating complex consisting of an electric boiler and "Heated floor" system. Pros and cons of the combination of two types of heating equipment.
Useful tips for choosing a gas boiler for arranging the heating system in the apartment. Nuances and features of various heating devices.
Equipping autonomous heating in a city apartment - a long process, requiring considerable effort and financial resources. The most difficult moment - is to obtain permits for disconnection from the centralized network and subsequent redevelopment of the premises under the new system.
But it will have to pass this way only once, and then depend on the disruption in the supply of heat you will not be. In addition, it will be able to more efficiently consume energy, save on utility bills and set in the apartment most convenient for themselves the level of comfort.
Want to go to self-heating type, but you left a number of questions that we have not mentioned in this material? Ask them in the comments below the article - our experts and site visitors, competent in this matter, with pleasure will share with you their knowledge and experience.