Every year, on completion of the heating season autonomous water circuits, diligently provides heat owners are exempt from water or substitute its antifreeze. With the arrival of the first cool days again in the filling of the heating system coolant required for its operation.
On the order of execution of this difficult work and the necessary equipment is worth reading, so as not to make mistakes. In this article we will talk about how to properly fill the system with water and antifreeze coolant on rules to be observed in the process, as well as how to properly calculate the amount of coolant.
The content of the article:
How to fill the heating circuit with water?
- Calculation of the coolant to fill the volume
- Dependence on the cause of casting technology
- performing heating feeding rules
Refilling antifreeze coolant
- The cheapest ethylene glycol
- Specificity use propylene glycol
- Feature glycerin coolant
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to fill the heating circuit with water?
Due to the fluidity and high heat capacity, heat transfer from the boiler to consumers apply
It is used to fill even the most capacious heating systems. It is public and is inexpensive, and this determines the widest range of applications.
Filling coolant water heating is performed after the autonomous circuit assembly, launch it before the season or replacement of individual components
Most water heating systems filled ordinary tap water, purified from impurities complex filters. Autonomous systems in northern regions are often filled with antifreeze solution
To accelerate the process of pouring coolant into the heating system of a private house better to use a pump, pumping water from the tank into the circuit
Crane, located in front of the expansion tank both closed and open, to open before pouring
It is mandatory to open the valves, installed next to the circulation pump
It should provide an opportunity to take a coolant put his volume in the boiler and are supplied to him mains by opening valves before and after the heating equipment
Cranes mounted on the inlet and outlet of the radiator, also want to open. Close the bleed screw only
Installed on the risers or at the highest point of the automatic air vent system is also open to air out freely
The reasons for filling the heating circuit
Specificity of the coolant of choice
Hardware acceleration for filling
Crane on the expansion tank
Crane before the circulation pump
Providing free access to the boiler
Bleed screw and ball valves devices
Automatic air vent on the riser
As drawn from the natural reservoirs, or wells, and the tap water has many impurities and mineral inclusions. At boiling impurities deposited scum on the boiler walls and form growths similar in composition to the pipes.
These deposits are extremely harmful system with the latest modifications of the heating units. Therefore, you must first clean the water, boil, or, if resources permit purchase distillate.
A second disadvantage of water is the ability to contain oxygen, causing corrosion of the metal. Because of the high salinity together with the evolved oxygen at heating water is not recommended to change in the heating circuits more than once a year.
water compelling advantages as the optimum coolant are viscosity, specific heat. It accumulates and gives off heat better antifreeze to 15-20%. Them inferior in fluidity, so that the seal does not leak through detachable joints system viscosity, thereby moving faster through the pipes.
The most popular and widely used form of coolant heating systems - water, attracts the low cost and general availability
Calculation of the coolant to fill the volume
In order to properly fill with water own heating system, it is necessary to determine its need in liters. The volume of coolant without any problems, you can calculate yourself.
For this purpose it is necessary to summarize:
Vchem. otopl. = Vboiler + Vrassh.bachka + Vbrandn. + Vpipe
Useful volume of the boiler is usually indicated by the manufacturer in the technical documentation for the equipment manufactured by them. Capacity of sectional radiators too. If such information can not be found, that is, the averages.
V audio radiator sections depending on the housing material:
The table shows the average data on the volume of water in the radiator. The actual amount will vary depending on the dimensions of the heating device
The total volume of the heat sink is by multiplying this figure by the number of sections.
Vrassh.bachka gated before purchasing selected so that its useful volume equal or slightly superior to the volume of water due to thermal expansion. So, this option must also be known.
As a simplified scheme volume expansion tank membrane structure is calculated by multiplying the volume of water in the system by a factor of 0.03
For heating the open type with expansion tank, freely communicating with the atmosphere, the amount taken in accordance with the actual size.
The volume of the pipes:
V pipe = 0.786 × D2× L
where D - internal diameter of pipe, L - the length of the tubes.
Volume systems will then be:
System V = V + V tube boiler expansion tank + V + V consumers.
Where V consumers - is the sum of the volumes, boiler and other devices. Their volume can be found in the technical documentation or calculate. Estimated amount of tedious to increase by 15 to 20 percent, i.e., multiplying by 1.15 or 1.20.
The easiest way to determine the volume of water in the heating pipe will provide a table with existing data
More time-consuming method is to fill the system with tap water and then drain by measuring the volume meter or measuring cup.
Sometimes it used tap water, but it strongly reduces the heating operation. Save the ruble, we lose thousands. Better in this case water through special chemical or cationic membrane filters.
To fill the heating, we need the same transitional hoses and a pump for pumping fluid.
Dependence on the cause of casting technology
Pritsipe filling influence the sequence of work. If this is a new system, then we check it visually and conducting tests, pressure test overpressure uploading air or liquid around 2-2.5 atmosphere (normal 1.25 part of the working pressure but not less than 2 atmospheres). Gauge control absence of pressure drop.
You can take a car instead of a compressor pump for filling small heating circuits. Sometimes performed directly molding fluid using a centrifugal pump, after connecting expansion tank to the system. When small amounts, you can use the hand pump to the compartment for the liquid.
For the filling of small heating circuit coolant is better to rent a hand-pump devices monitor the state of the system to be filled
If the wire is periodic cleaning system with water change, it must be drained first, preparing for her place or container. After waiting for cooling coolant overpressure reset by unscrewing the nipple.
At the top or open the valve Majewski valve for communication with the atmosphere. At the lowest point gradually open the drain valve. With a sharp opening hammering occur, resulting in damage. Here you need to be careful.
Draining, fill system and the washing liquid by a pump provide its circulation.
Flushing chemical additives dissolves limescale and rust precipitation, pieces which are eliminated through the filter and deposited in the storage tank
Then washed with pure water with additives and neutralizer designed to neutralize the first washing additives.
After these operations, as in the first case, heating pressurization is performed. Identified leaks and loose places are usually in places of welding and threaded connections.
Cast-iron batteries are equipped with the connecting pads, which will eventually shrink, stiffen or during the cooling flow. They should be replaced and to carry out additional tightening of the battery. After repair and pressure test again with a positive result of the transition to the next stage.
Multiple independent heating crimping network ensures that after the washing and other operations contour remains in working condition
Filling heating water takes place through the lowest point at the open top. By connecting the electric pump, through the valve pump water into the system. Moreover, the tap is opened half or less to avoid hammer. Gradually, the system fills up, which confirms the noise from the movement of water and mild gurgling. Ends when the top point of the water will begin to flow.
Then we begin to bleed the air from the connected consumer appliances, boilers, expansion tank with membrane and batteries with the help of available taps and valves. Next to the upper point of the system connect a transparent hose dipped in a container of coolant.
Turning on a pump to further fill heating until a transparent hose in the tank does not flow water without air bubbles.
If it is possible, after the can is pumped looped hose system and expel coolant several times. This will provide additional degassing. Finally, air is pumped over the membrane extender ensuring the necessary pressure for the operation of the circulation pump heating systems, which include for sweep without heating.
For a complete check of quality filling system requires a trial basis include heating and heating, to determine the absence of air pockets and heating uniformity using a thermal or infrared temperature gauge.
At the end of the work it is necessary to check the temperature, which supplies the heating system. Initial temperature should be such that the building could warm up
Simultaneously, via valves or thermostats held modern installation and adjustment of the room temperature. Evaluated and the effectiveness of insulation. It is necessary to provide a stock of purified water and its refill funds to the system, to avoid losses due to evaporation. All of these actions are designed to ensure trouble-free operation of heating in the winter.
performing heating feeding rules
In recent years, not only in homes but also in the apartment began to arrange individual heating. usually set combi boilersHaving a feeding unit.
And easier to learn how to produce a recharge, you call the wizard for this:
- Open the valve at the bottom of the boiler, then at the top air release valve systems and the appearance of water close it and make-up valve.
- Turn pot and if the pump is heard gurgling and bubbling, then remove from the boiler outer skin and find it.
- ease, but do not remove the screws a screwdriver, for venting air therefrom until the moisture. At the pump to have this cover, bolted screws. Although written in the instructions that the boilers have automatic venting device, they can not remove all of it.
Especially at the first start of heating should be gradually smoothly produce coolant heating to avoid damage from water hammer. It is impossible to turn on the boiler at full capacity. When the heating is stopped, so it is important to lower the temperature slowly.
This is especially important for a long distance heating networks, which have a significant deformation, thermal expansion. From this expansion or contraction, the holding bracket, or forms, are formed voltage, which abruptly discharged, passing blow fluid.
Liquid, depending on the flow sections, can increase the force of impact and produce destruction elsewhere, usually on bends. If resonance occurs, the load increases and at times even fall from the pipe fastenings. Begin to "play" and "dance."
During rapid filling of liquids in pipes because of air pockets formed in the same pressure rise Discharging hydraulic shocks. That's where comes the recommendation to drain and fill the heating system slowly, a quarter or half of the spigot.
Resonance phenomena that depend on the size, weight, fasteners, sediment thickness, and other factors change. This imposes additional restrictions. It is necessary not to hurry and to be careful.
That's why the design of heat networks of enterprises and apartment buildings do experts consider many factors. Heating individual houses on standard projects do.
Water has many advantages. But it freezes and thaws pipes at low temperatures, limiting its application
Technological advances and cheaper equipment smart home allows you to use your smartphone to control and modify the heating parameters remotely.
The main thing is to be in the area of mobile and Internet activities. This further extends the use of water, because you can take timely measures to prevent it and defrosting.
Device equipping the heating system for the remote control can control its operation through GSM distance
Other facilities, such as raising the temperature in the room before you arrive and economy mode at the time of departure, are included.
Selection of water for heating, useful if provided backup heating system. If heating in the winter is used intermittently or is likely to disable and thawing equipment, it is best to use a non-freezing liquid. For example, in the country with his characteristic villa winter life short visit.
Refilling antifreeze coolant
Before figuring out how to fill a variety of heating-freezing liquid or antifreeze, should understand their varieties.
For normal operation of heating systems Antifreeze (anti - anti, freeze - freeze) should be:
- non-toxic, Excluding the possibility of the slightest threat to humans;
- nonflammableAnd a pair of Ex;
- inert the materials from which the heating system is arranged;
- have a heat capacity of not less than its rated value;
- different fluidity.
In "pure" form of antifreeze aggressive, capable of destroying pipes, boilers and heating appliances. To reduce or even eliminate the adverse properties freezing liquids they are diluted with water in the proportions indicated by the manufacturer compositions.
Antifreezes released in two versions, differentiated by the temperature of freezing. This concentrated agent -65 ° C and diluted - 30 ° C
Use and additives: corrosion, stabilizing, purifying, and other anti-foam. The less water, the lower the freezing temperature and the higher the cost. Upon dilution of the antifreeze is usually necessary to add and additives, which are included. Additives are working at a certain concentration.
Without complex additives, formulations can not be used, since they provide the specified parameters. For the same reason it is not recommended to mix different coolants especially with different basis. Sharply reduced their lifespan. Antifreezes have high viscosity and can not be used in heating with natural circulation.
The average shelf life of organic heat carriers 3 - 5 years, through which the additives lose their properties, and the liquid becomes aggressive. When replacing an old antifreeze need to be pumped and transported for recycling, which further increases costs.
Once cars and water is used for cooling, but now it is a rarity. Now the world is more than 70 percent of the heating systems working on the water, but the percentage of all time is reduced. The reason for holding back widespread anti-freeze is their high cost, as well as increased demands on the hardware, the toxicity and the need for recycling.
Spent his life antifreeze, for a more complete removal of fuses in a heated to 45 degrees condition.
Now the main equipment is designed for water and valuing the reputation of manufacturers, often indicate that they are not guaranteed to work on anti-freeze. Or authorized type of coolant indicated under certain conditions. Very dangerous experiment.
Antifreeze compositions critical overheating. They began to disintegrate and gas formation, solid deposits. Form air pockets, burn-in boilers and equipment failure.
At temperatures above 80 degrees and starts evaporation, however, modern boilers are heated to 75 degrees supported by automation. If you exceed the boiler is switched off. With organic coolants temperature was lowered to 70 degrees.
In gravitational heating is undesirable to use antifreeze. They have too high viscosity for spontaneous movement through the pipes. The outdoor expansion tank liquid will evaporate freely, making regularly replenish the volume and emit corrosive volatiles
For safe operation of the heating circuit with antifreeze required equipment, interrupting the heating unit at excess temperature. If the circuit of the heating system there is no such device, antifreeze as coolant should not be used.
Typically, in the technical documentation on the boilers and equipment specified coolant appearance. Applying a different coolant removes the responsibility of the manufacturer's warranty, and stops its service.
For the filling of heating systems produce heat transfer fluids based on - ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerin.
The cheapest ethylene glycol
The drawback is the toxicity, the dose of 100 - 250 grams is lethal to humans. It has a third class of danger according to GOST. Toxic as well and couples. Allowable rate of MPC - 5 mg / cu. meter. Therefore, in open heating systems can not be used. Prohibited and combi boilersBecause possible leakage means in the hot water pipe.
To avoid this, the craftsmen make the water supply pressure is higher than the heating. But this does not give a full guarantee and can cause, in case of damage, the boiler failure. Use ethylene glycol is only allowed for closed heating systems.
Fill heating circuit nezamerzayku ethylene glycol should wear gloves and a respirator. Toxic liquid, in contact with the skin may cause burns
Leaks and heating breakthroughs are very likely. If the system is filled with inexpensive, but toxic agent based on ethylene glycol, leakage may pose a danger to the health of home owners. The relatively low price is the reason for the application. Health also can not buy, like antifreeze. Therefore, the choice is yours.
Ethylene glycol is 1.5 to 3 times greater penetrating ability and aggressiveness to the seals.
Increased fluidity antifreeze requires paronitovye or teflon seals and special sealing pastes and seals a plug connection. Standard versions are not suitable for water circuits
Automotive antifreeze, antifreeze, absolutely can not be used, as containing a toxic additive.
We glycol coolants:
- The maximum temperature should not exceed 70 degrees, which further increases the size of the battery.
- Viscosity at 40 to 60% and above is required for pumping at 1.5 - 2 times high power motor and minimize bends, elbows and increased size pipes.
- Volumetric expansion on heating to 140 to 150% more than is required by the same amount, the increased volume of the expansion tank.
- Density at 15 - 20% higher strength properties are increased.
Construction of a new system designed for the use of synthetic coolants, respectively manages 1.3 - 1.5 times more expensive than the construction of a water analogue. About the considerable cost of the antifreeze, too, do not forget.
Alteration of liquid water just is not being used, as operating times are reduced and as a result more expensive. Just glycol mixture aggressive to zinc, calling delamination and sludge, clogging pipes completely. In older constructions galvanized pipes distributed.
Nevertheless it, taking into account the above-mentioned drawbacks of ethylene glycol still applies. Fill the system it is necessary only after all equipment heating systems will be adapted to fill antifreeze.
A special feature is the need for the location of equipment for refueling on impermeable surfaces, to prevent ingress of glycol in the living quarters and carefully monitored transition hose connections. While this is a neat wizard makes when filling any antifreeze.
Specificity use propylene glycol
In recent years, actively displaces other types of heat transfer, although its physical and technical parameters is not very different from ethylene glycol and requires almost the same hardware changes heating systems.
GOST refers to the second class of danger and also requires disposal. MPC pair - 7 milligrams / cubic meter. meter.
Antifreeze this group are produced on the basis of pharmacological propylene, did not have such a harmful effect on the body as the previous option
The advantages of this non-freezing heat transfer medium:
- relatively environmentally friendly and harmless to humans. This is the main reason why today many manufacturers it is recommended for single and double-circuit boilers;
- It has lubricating propertiesThat facilitates the operation of the pumps;
- the complete evaporation of the water does not freezeWhile retaining fluidity;
- very low corrosivityAnd more improved with additives;
- Spill sufficient rinse water and dry.
Have liquid on the polypropylene glycol disadvantages. it
its value, which is 1.5 - 2 times higher than ethylene glycol because it is made mostly abroad. The liquid is aggressive towards metal pipes, not compatible with the pipelines, construction of galvanized pipe, since in contact with the zinc composition of the additives lose their properties.
At temperatures higher than permitted begins decomposition to form a gas, foam and solid insoluble precipitate.
Despite all these shortcomings, it is considered one of the best coolants.
Feature glycerin coolant
The same innocuous as propylene glycol and, when the permissible temperatures. Their historically before all steel used for these purposes, obtaining glycerin from fat. Strait is not dangerous. The advantage is the price, which is lower than that of propylene, remaining above ethylene glycol. Therefore counterfeiters used for diluting polypropylene.
Antifreeze based on glycerol belongs to the category of elite. It is safe for others and the environment. The pouring of such coolant can be performed as well as filling the system with water
Even some European manufacturers add it to about 10%, so you need to be careful and read the composition. On the other hand, in the European Union, as the main component of the heat carrier, glycerol is not applicable.
Glycerin has greater - up to 105 degrees, extreme temperatures. Hazard class or two.
- When exceeding the maximum temperature during the decomposition is released poisonous gas having unpleasant odor.
- By evaporation, it becomes a gel, starting Prigara and corruption, it is necessary regularly to compensate for evaporation, adding distillate.
- Have higher viscosity and requires larger pipes.
- It is easy to foam that is partially retracted additives.
- It has a high penetrating ability and require the use paronitovye and teflon gaskets.
It has significant corrosion activity and long rejected automakers. Due to modern additive is decreased and reduced to nothing. Yes, even under normal use.
Glycerol coolants, however, recommend a greater extent than ethylene glycol due to their harmlessness and additives complex work satisfactorily in thermal networks. The trouble is that in the pursuit of money, produce products without a full range of additives or completely without them. You must be careful when buying.
In particular kind of heating system can be attributed to electrode boilers, in which the coolant is the heating element. Heating occurs when a current flows through the solution when it is ionized.
The solution, in addition to the above, should have the calculated resistivity of the order of 3.5 - 4 ohms × cm. To apply this solution or aqueous propylene glycol solution containing additives that create the required electrical characteristics.
This option is more expensive, more difficult to find for sale, cans are not always labeled. Manufacturers with an impeccable reputation in the mark indicates the "elite"
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Movie to visualize the process of filling the heating circuit and the setting of the expansion tank:
Common to all is gradual heat transfer during system startup. The temperature necessary to increase slowly, step by step, not only because of the heat transfer medium, but also additives that with temperature as well change their properties.
The process of filling systems, such as water and antifreeze is similar, but the demands on the quality of work and safety when filling antifreeze, increase. Spent his life antifreeze require disposable packaging and disposal for recycling.
If you have any questions regarding the article or already have experience of filling the coolant heating systems, please share it with our readers. Leave your comments below the article.