- №1. What does polystyrene concrete consist of?
- №2. Pros and cons of polystyrene concrete
- No. 3. Monolithic houses made of polystyrene concrete
- №4. Density, strength and frost resistance of polystyrene concrete
- №5. Types of polystyrene concrete
- №6. What to consider when choosing and buying polystyrene concrete?
- №7. Large producers of polystyrene concrete, or who can be trusted?
- №8. Polystyrene concrete with own hands
- №9. Features of the erection of a house made of polystyrene concrete
Recently, demand for lightweight blocks has increased significantly, catching up and even surpassing the demand for more traditional building material - brick. Within the group of cellular concrete, there is also competition, and aerocrete is still holding the lead. Behind it is foam concrete, but its popularity is about to overtake polystyrene concrete. This building material for about half a century and he demonstrated himself during this time is not bad: at a low price it is durable and provides excellent thermal insulation. Cottage area of 120 m2 when using polystyrene blocks can be built in just 3 months. These advantages are worth considering in detail the properties of the material and to understand whether it is worthwhile to build a house of polystyrene concrete, and with what features of the material will have to face.
№1. What does polystyrene concrete consist of?
Polystyrene concrete arose as an attempt to produce such abuilding material that would not require additional insulation of the walls outside. The polystyrene balls were added to the concrete solution, which provided the material with outstanding thermal insulation properties.The composition of a modern polystyrene concrete block includescement, sand, water, polystyrene pellets, special plasticizing and air-entraining additives and sometimes surface-active substances (surfactants), which increase the adhesion of concrete solution and balls foam.
Depending on the proportions in which the components for the unit were taken, the material can be used for the construction of load-bearing walls, partitions or as a heat insulation material. One block of expanded polystyrene replaces 20 bricks, respectively, the speed of building the building is repeatedly increased.
№2. Pros and cons of polystyrene concrete
Features of production technology and the composition of the blocks allow us to talk about numerousadvantages of the material:
- excellent thermal insulation qualities. According to the manufacturers, a wall 20 cm thick will be enough to provide the required resistance to heat transfer in regions with mild climate. In regions with more severe winters, a wall 30 cm thick is required, but the most common option in this case is 20 cm of polystyrene concrete and insulation with foam plastic. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material depends on the density, but in any case it is several times lower than in many analogues;
- excellent soundproofing qualities. A wall of 20 cm thick can hold 72 dB of sound;
- The small weight of the blocks and its large dimensions make it possible to considerably simplify and speed up the construction of the house. The need for sophisticated heavy equipment is no longer necessary. Moreover, the blocks are simply given the necessary shape, therefore, in fact, it is possible to build a house from them even with complex architectural elements, although the material consumption will increase greatly;
- high resistance to moisture, resistance to mold and rodents;
- high frost resistance. The material can withstand up to 100 cycles of freezing / defrosting, which is three times more than the same foam concrete;
- the material belongs to the flammability class G1, i.e. it is practically not combustible. Experiments confirm: after an hour of exposure to a wall made of polystyrene concrete at a temperature of 10000С, it does not collapse. True, there is another side to the coin. If the building carries a fire, it will withstand a high probability, but will become unsuitable for further operation, since the walls will lose sufficient strength;
- no shrinkage;
- low load on the foundation;
- acceptable strength;
- the possibility to create a monolithic house from polystyrene concrete, without cold bridges;
- low price.
- Low vapor permeability of the material will not allow excessive moisture from passing through it, therefore it is necessary to equip a good ventilation system, otherwise the problem of high humidity and stuffiness inside the house are provided;
- complexity of the device fasteners. Usual nails and screws will be very bad to stay in a wall of polystyrene concrete, they will literally be pull out with your bare hands, so you'll have to stock up with special anchor bolts designed for this material. On the one hand, such a fastening element is tightened by a nut and washer; on the other hand, the outer sleeve is opened in the form of a petal;
- The quality of the unit is highly dependent on the accuracy of the production technology. If the ratio of concrete and pellet of foam has been violated, the strength of the block will be small, and if the adhesion is insufficient, the granules can start falling out of the block altogether. When buying, always be interested in the quality certificate;
- with prolonged exposure to high temperatures, the polystyrene pellets burn out, leaving virtually one concrete skeleton. The strength and thermal insulation of it are not high and do not allow to be used as an external wall. However, the facing of the walls with non-combustible materials and high-quality plaster make it possible to protect the walls from fire, and even the ability of walls to withstand high temperatures is expensive, so this disadvantage is significant it is impossible;
- The low density of the material complicates the installation of windows and doors. If you do not take into account the numerous features of the installation, then in a couple of years you can face the shaky mounts;
- walls must necessarily be plastered. The layer of plaster inside - not less than 20 mm, outside - not less than 15 mm, and the adhesion with the plaster solution is not quite ideal.
The properties of polystyrene concrete allow us to consider it as a material for the construction of bearing walls of a house. It can also be used to build fences, sheds, garages and as a heat insulator.
No. 3. Monolithic houses made of polystyrene concrete
Polystyrene concrete, as well as expanded clay concrete, allows to build houses on monolithic technology. The composition of the material is the same, only from it do not produce individual blocks - it is poured into the finished formwork, forming the walls of the house.
Pros of this decision:
- absence of cold bridges, there are no seams between the blocks;
- high speed of erection of the house;
- minimum shrinkage probability. Blocks polystyrene concrete are not capable of shrinkage - it can occur due to the use of a solution;
- high strength and durability;
- uniformity of load distribution on the foundation;
- possibility to build some communications in a monolithic wall.
The main disadvantage - the complexity of erection. Since the walls need to be poured in one approach, a large amount of solution and a special equipment, so you can not do it on your own, but you can build a house from blocks yourself.
№4. Density, strength and frost resistance of polystyrene concrete
GOST R 51263-99 normalizes the main operational parameters of polystyrene concrete. According to it, thegrades by density fromD150 toD600, where the number means density in kg / m3. The lower the density, the higher the thermal insulation properties of the material and the lower its strength.
Also the standard definescompression strength classesfrom В, to В the higher the coefficient, the greater the load the unit can withstand. Also, the compressive strength is sometimes denoted by the letter M with a coefficient of 2 to 5. Such marking is introduced for a material that is designed without taking into account the requirements of ST SEV 1406, its strength is lower.
Frost resistanceIt is determined by the cycles of freezing and defrosting, which the unit sustains while preserving the basic performance characteristics. For polystyrene concrete, frost resistance ranges from F25 to F100 and increases with increasing material density.
The density and a number of its dependent indicatorspolystyrene concrete is divided into three classes:
- heat-insulating polystyrene concretedensity D150-D200 with low strength and low coefficient of thermal conductivity (, 55 65 W / m * K). Used for insulation of heat conducting systems, external walls and ceilings;
- heat-insulating structural polystyrene concretedensity D250-D350 can be used for thermal insulation of non-bearing and self-supporting walls. In some cases, the D350 can be used even for the construction of external load-bearing walls, provided that the building is low-rise and the exterior facing is light;
- structural and heat-insulating polystyrene concretebrands D400-D600 are used for the construction of load-bearing walls of low-rise buildings (up to 3 floors) and non-bearing walls of multi-storey buildings. Polystyrene concrete of these brands is also erected in monolithic buildings.
For the basement part of the house would come blocks of density D650-D800, but they are not manufactured by manufacturers, so this element of the house is better to erect from brick or concrete blocks. It is worth noting that at their own risk and risk, private builders use the D500-D600 unit to equip plinth of 12-storey buildings and garages, and for the first 10 years of operation no problems with these buildings no.
№5. Types of polystyrene concrete
The polystyrene concrete is manufactured by the manufacturers in the following modifications:
- wall blockUsed for laying walls and partitions, has dimensions of 588 * 300 * 188 mm or 588 * 380 * 300 mm;
- partition blockhigher and thinner, measures 588 * 600 * 92 mm;
- jumper blocks with reinforcementare used, as a rule, for laying in the places of window and door structures, they have dimensions of 380 * 300 * 1300 mm;
- polystyrene concrete solutiondelivered to the site of construction on a special transport, is necessary for the construction of houses on monolithic technology.
№6. What to consider when choosing and buying polystyrene concrete?
Recently, a lot of low-quality product appeared on the market, which is caused by the growing demand for polystyrene concrete. Some companies that previously produced the foam block began to produce polystyrene concrete, and often attempts to quickly cater to the market lead to a deterioration in the quality of products.What should I pay attention to and what should I check when I buy?
- uniformity of filling granules with concrete;
- the identity of the granules;
- the weight of the block of specified density;
- When ordering polystyrene concrete, you need to find out the maximum information about the manufacturer, so you can and It is necessary to ask boldly where the production facilities are located, to be interested in the features manufacturing. A normal manufacturer can invite you to the production and demonstrate the products, and also tell you what wall thickness is best done, what the density of the blocks to choose, advise how best to strengthen the shelves, which glues and mortars are best used in laying - in general, you must answer any question;
- a certificate of quality is another important point. But even his presence is not always a 100% quality guarantee. If you are dealing with a distributor and he shows you the manufacturer's quality certificate, then do not hesitate to make sure from the manufacturer that he is cooperating with this seller.
№7. Large producers of polystyrene concrete, or who can be trusted?
The choice of the manufacturer can be called the cornerstone in the construction of a house made of polystyrene concrete. There are a lot of them in the country, butamong the largest enterpriseswe call the following:
- BlockPlastBeton LLCis a subsidiary of a large manufacturer of building materials LLC GradStroy. Here, modern equipment is used, production is conducted with observance of all technologies. Polystyrene concrete blocks up to D500, heat-insulating slabs and reinforced bridges are produced. Delivery is carried out by motor transport throughout the European part of Russia;
- Polystyrene concrete plant LLCIt was founded in 2001 and over the years has proved itself very well. Polystyrene concrete is used to produce slabs, wall panels, blocks, reinforced bridges and mortar. All products are certified. The enterprise is located in the Sverdlovsk region, but delivery is carried out throughout Russia;
- Polystyrene-concrete-SPb LLCoffers blocks of polystyrene concrete with density from D200 to D500 and partitions with density from D The company has all test reports and corresponding certificates;
- OOO "TEPLYY CONCRETE"- a responsible Novosibirsk producer who offers polystyrene concrete in the form of blocks, bridges and mortar for monolithic construction technology. The material of density D200-D is produced. The products are widely used by private and large developers;
- Baustoff-Polystyrene Concrete LLC- Krasnodar company that produces blocks and reinforced bridges of polystyrene concrete, the quality of the products is constantly improving, the production is being modernized.
№8. Polystyrene concrete with own hands
You can manufacture polystyrene concrete blocks with your own hands. The more carefully you observe the technology, the more durable and durable the products will end up.Set of componentsfor the manufacture of blocks is simple. It will take cement, sifted sand, water and granules of polystyrene. Instead of concrete, the gypsum mixture is sometimes taken as a basis. It is also possible to add special modifying agents to the mixture, for example, air-entraining additive or even tar to increase the moisture-resistant qualities.
Proportions of componentsdepend on what block is planned to receive and what is being accentuated, on thermal insulation or strength. The more there is a part of the cement, the stronger the block will be. For the structural and heat-insulating block, the following proportions are suitable: 1 bucket of cement, 3 buckets of sand, 6-8 buckets of polystyrene in granules, slightly less than 1 bucket of water.The sequence is as follows:
- In a concrete mixer or a stationary mixer, water is poured in, all the additives and half of all the pellets are covered, so that the cement less adheres to the walls. Water can then be added to achieve the necessary consistency;
- cement is added, the mixture is stirred until uniform;
- sand and polystyrene residue are added, everything is well kneaded, the required consistency of the solution is dry, so it will be easier to work with molds;
- casting into molds. In their quality, you can use a metal box, which is welded from metal sheets of 3 mm thickness independently. You can use the matrix form of old boards, but it is important to lubricate the mold with machine oil. On top, the solution is well trampled, it is possible to turn vibration on for 2-3 seconds, but not more - a prolonged vibration breaks the integrity of the blocks;
- The blocks are taken out of the metal form, from the wooden ones - too, but you can leave them for a day inside the mold. The products are allowed to dry for 24 hours in a warm place, the temperature is above + 150 ° C, they can be covered with a polyethylene film. After 4 weeks, the blocks gain the necessary strength for construction.
№9. Features of the erection of a house made of polystyrene concrete
The erection of a house is a complex, multi-stage process that requires at least basic specialized knowledge. In general, the construction of a house made of polystyrene concrete looks like this:
- foundation construction. Since the overall weight of the structure is small, it is possible to use a columnar, unclipped ribbon or pile foundation. For complex soil types, it is better to choose a screw pile;
- wallingon the chosen technology: from blocks, with a removable or non-removable formwork.Building of blocksbegins with waterproofing works and the determination of the highest place from which the masonry begins. When laying, verticality and horizontality are clearly observed with the help of a line and level. To increase the strength of the horizontal, you can lay the reinforcing mesh. If blocks with solid voids are used, vertical reinforcement is performed. The thickness of the seam of the solution is no more than 8 mm, it is better to use a special glue.Monolithic wallserected with a removable formwork of plywood thickness of 15 mm, it is protected with polyethylene film from moisture. Plywood is kept by using metal profiles, they are attached to the foundation by screws or dowels. Plywood sheets are attached to profiles, first create external partitions, then internal ones. The solution when pouring is well rammed, the formwork can be dismantled after a few days. Instead of plywood, you can use brick walls - it'snon-removable formwork, while the facade cladding is not needed;
- ceiling coveringmade of special polystroke concrete panels or also by pouring. The floor screed performs the standard methods;
- exterior finishing with a polystyrene concrete house is necessary. You can use decorative bricks, siding, plastering. Inside, also a layer of plaster is needed first, then - puttying, and then - as you like: wallpaper, painting, decorative plaster.
A house made of polystyrene concrete can be built in a matter of months, and it will stand if all the features of the technology are observed - for dozens of years. The main thing, do not forget about high-quality ventilation and specific fasteners.