Leyden jar - a device that stores electric charge.
Mathematical expression capacity
Are people hating historical excursions, funny anecdotes below are detailed exposition. Visit the internet, fishing formula electric capacity of the Leyden jar, immediately want to see. You are welcome:
C = q / U, q - charge accumulated Leyden jar, U - potential difference between the terminals. Another expression allows us to express electrical capacitance of the capacitor area of the plates, the distance between them:
electrical capacitance of the capacitor increases the growth of the area, a decrease in the gap. ε - dielectric constant of the material between the electrodes, ε (0) - the electric constant equal to 8.85 pF / m.
For these reasons, the largest electric capacity electrolytic capacitors have an oxide type. Plates are flush.
From the history
the engine of progress
Most of the great inventors fond of the history of science. Tesla became interested in electricity, when he saw sparks from an ordinary cat fur. In ancient times, not everyone has an education. Georg Ohm had the misfortune to be born into a poor family, his father dealt bountifully, read books on mathematics, was a mentor. The problem which in the 20s XIX many seemed excessive, is solved to obtain Ohm's law for subcircuit.
After the Second World countries has been excellent development. Russia, unfortunately, not included in the number. Undoubted success is found where the earlier scientific minds laid the foundation. Just look GDP superpowers:
- The first place took the US. Wild land has consistently served as a haven of scientists. Manufacturers are constantly thinking about how to make money. Edison is known, defeated Nikola Tesla, cheated a little earlier head man. Most of the home appliance is patented, invented by the United States. Mixers, blenders, coffee makers. Carol Pollack took on capacitor US Pat.
- China takes the second place. Analysts predict a great future superpower. Another - not like China, constantly copying someone else's equipment. Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union was engaged in release of cars, avoiding to pay a penny for patents of foreign firms. China for the production of capacitors certainly caught up with the top three.
- The third place is occupied by Japan, the bet is made on the policy of big bang. Before World War II the feudal power, the next forty-five years, Land of the Rising Sun has consistently engaged in innovation in knowledge-based industries. The invention came from the islands, because of lack of proper international communication deprived the world of fame.
- The fourth, fifth, sixth places are occupied by Germany, Great Britain, France. Continually quarreling in the past powers have adopted the manner of academia, constantly exchanging experience and ideas. Efforts long trip (remembering Davy and Faraday). Start electrolytic capacitors incorporated by Germany, the Netherlands contested the championship (18th place).
The conclusion is clear: science is more important than short-term gain wealth. Enough to come up with a new capacitor, to come up with ways to use, take out a patent, start earning immediately. God bless America, US residents claim the unofficial anthem. Standing behind the shield acted as promised Old Testament. The inventors of Providence will be profitable.
Rejecting rumors, the first inventor of the Leyden jar, considered Ewald von Kleist. charge accumulation phenomenon discovered for example bottles of wine. Von Kleist lowered into mercury electrostatic generator wire holding capacitor. After breaking the source it has appeared: sticking the tip of beating current. Much stronger electrostatic machine. The effect was evaluated naturalist nervous system.
Draw the right conclusions: the charge manages to store electric capacity, the mechanism remained a mystery. It was assumed that the case in the glass (Benjamin Franklin). Accumulates charge. Actually carried mercury served as one plate of the capacitor formed. There were no tools to evaluate the electrical capacitance of the device. At the time of the middle of the XVIII century there was an electroscope, said: charge is present, ever make the assumption sign (von Guericke discovered: an electrified ball, to draw a human nose, after touching begins a start).
It turned out, alcohol conducts electricity. Inserting an iron nail plug, sealing, von Kleist enjoyed blows the stored current from the electrical capacity of the capacitor. Gradually, the design has become more like a present. The flask was dipped thermometer wire with a lead ball on the end. Capacity was filled with water. It is missing an important detail - the second plate. Electricity could be stored for several hours, to cause light flashes at the demonstrations surrounding impressed.
An electric current was not known absolutely nothing, could help to verify the presence of the charge sparing methods. Von Kleist touching finger contact when tired tolerate, took his hand a piece of gold plate. The events described is October 1745, a month later, von Kleist reports its achievements two other scientists:
- In Berlin Dr. Liberkunu.
- Halle Dr. Krueger.
Proving the viability of the surrounding works, von Kleist made "kiss" with a capacitor, saying: rare masochist wants to continue partying. From excessive zeal terschika bulb sometimes broken. The troops suffered losses of capacitors, Benjamin Franklin coined the term battery. It turned out to be so strong shock charge stored electrostatic generator! Von Kleist at times secretly wondered if the hand does not hold capacitor, the discharge is absent: no concept of an electrical circuit. Items refused to electrify the contact, von Kleist decided: the human body is definitely related to the condenser.
Pieter van Musschenbroek
It should be recalled: the law on hunting for witches recently canceled, Benjamin Franklin could easily hunt for lightning kite, the baton of the German scientist has adopted a certain Pieter van Musschenbroek. Historical sources say, the husband of science invented Leyden jar (capacitor) completely independently of von Kleist. Apparently, the thought filled the air, a man just picked up as the other catches a cold. The result was more impressive than the recovery.
The Leiden University still experiments von Kleist ignore. Pieter van Musschenbroek laurels given, the date of opening of the condenser with a documented demonstration in January 1746 transferred to the mysterious day in 1745. Passing the honor of the invention, Pieter van Musschenbroek mysteriously silent, resembling a fish ...
Scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek
At the beginning of 1746 notified Rene Antoine Reaumur. We can not say that of Science held a prominent position, but the 40 years covered by the presence of circles, could appreciate the significance of the capacitor of the invention. The main thing Reaumur knew personally priest, member of the Academy of Sciences (France) Jean-Antoine Nollet, a great enthusiast, jovial. It is believed the latter would like to measure the monks, guided by the Leyden jar of speed of movement of the electric current. His plan failed: 700 people shouted at once. Instantly believed in science, the existence of electric capacity of the condenser. 180 Royal musketeers could not answer iron resistance, having undergone execution - believed Louis XV. Cadres decide everything - unlike von Kleist, van Pieter van Musschenbroek Nollet found the immediate recognition, the capacitor has gained popularity.
However! Van Pieter van Musschenbroek luckier predecessor. Many claim that the first shock was a student at the January demonstration, the question itself hint: the scientist knew the consequences of the discharge electric capacity of the condenser, a sly smile, watching students. Other sources say the discovery was made earlier. In the laboratory, Pieter van Musschenbroek tried to get a spark, enlisting the help of the barrel of a gun: apparently, quickly learned how to deal with static electric glass ball, to stay alive. Happened by chance, on the table rested a bank filled with water, the trunk for some reason tied copper wire is lowered into the vessel.
Spark somehow absent. Pieter van Musschenbroek, wondering one hand operas table touching banks undertook another trunk shorting circuit of the discharge electric capacity of the capacitor. Instantly understand the real purpose - no wonder they say: an unloaded gun shoots once in a lifetime. You had to be a magician or fakir! It's no joke, do to an ordinary hunting rifle. Giving out a very strong feeling - as if hit by lightning. The scientist came to the opening. He manages to detect: circuit closed through the metal easily countertop. Explain the phenomenon could not.
The design of the Leyden jar
Leyden jar began to resemble a twist. Replaced with a wine bottle. Was wound tightly on top of the metal cap that is included in the electrode. Banks merge steel panels (shown in the figure) placed in the drawer. Pieter van Musschenbroek remarked unattended device loses its charge quickly.
Leyden jar Marconi
Leyden jars used the technique for a simple reason. Gave a strong signal, which allows to operate the telegraph. Charge the device can be manually good alternative. Determination seem strange, early telegraph communication devices equipped ships. Sailors avoid jokes. The displayed image shows the production company Marconi, the equipment was on the sinking of the Titanic.
After a Leyden jar
The devices were used more than a hundred and fifty years with great success. With the help of a Leyden jar, built the first oscillating circuit. As used everywhere DC, did not invent the needs. Content with electrochemical cells, the Leyden jar. Later, there were batteries, a variety of electrochemical current source.
Funny, serious prerequisites appearance of the first capacitor in the present form established again Nikola Tesla. Much has been written about the Serbs, are countless merits. Scientists have begun to use the device modeling oscillatory circuit. Famous tower Vonderkliff - the resonant electrical circuit impressive size.
At the end of the XIX century began to appear in the light of the capacitors of various kinds.