- №1.What is a screwdriver for?
- №2.Household and professional screwdrivers
- №3.Types of screwdrivers by type of power
№4.Torque №5.Rotational speed №6.Type screwdriver chuck №7.Screwdriver complete set and types of bits №8.Ergonomics №9.Additional features №10.The best manufacturers of screwdrivers
- Network screwdrivers
- Cordless screwdrivers
- Combined screwdrivers
. Assembling a cabinet, unscrewing an old screw or screwing a few dozen self-tapping screws into the baseboard using only one screwdriver is a real torture for the master. The case will go much easier if you use a screwdriver. No professional can do without this useful tool, and even a small screwdriver is necessary for small repairs. If you decide to buy this device yourself or as a gift, then you are surely faced with the problem of an indecently huge assortment. How to choose a screwdriver for home and work, to deal with various types of tools and numerous manufacturers. Beginners can also be worried about the question of how a screwdriver differs from a drill. We understand with all the nuances.
№1.What is a screwdriver for?
We will not go into the details of the structure of screwdrivers - our material is not about that. The scope of this tool is quite wide. :
- screwing and unscrewing various fasteners, including bolts, screws, screws and screws. This is the main function of the screwdriver, which allows it to be used during the assembly and disassembly of various kinds of furniture, installation of baseboards and other works;
- strong tightening of anchors and dowels;
- professional screwdrivers can be used for drilling holes in soft materials, here the scope of use is similar to household drills;
- thread cutting;
- some use screwdrivers for mixing liquid solutions and even to create holes in the ice during winter fishing.
Surely, craftsmen from the people came up with about a dozen interesting options for using a screwdriver, but the main thing is still screwing and unscrewing fasteners.
Often the question arises, which is better to choose, a screwdriver or an drill, or a two-in-one tool. If you work with furniture you will be many times more often than drilling holes in metal, brick, concrete and wood, it is better to take a separate screwdriver. If you need the most versatile tool, then a drill-screwdriver will become a good option, where you can change the nozzles and adjust the speed of turns. On the other hand, there are advanced screwdrivers, the design and power of which allow to cope with the drilling of wood, and sometimes even metal, but the drilling function is still secondary for them and is intended for infrequent use.
The design feature of the screwdriver is such that the inertial moment during operation is completely absent. This means that if the master just removes his finger from the switch, the tool stops working, and the drill, if it does not have a brake function( it is found only in expensive models), will continue to function for a few seconds. Not only is it inconvenient, it also risks turning into damage. The screwdriver mechanism stops the chuck when the rotational resistance reaches a maximum, i.e.when, for example, the screw is fully screwed.
A standard household screwdriver has an with a low maximum speed of , since they do not use a rotation frequency of more than 500-600 revolutions / minute to tighten the fasteners. At drills, the maximum rotational speed is much higher, there may be a percussion mechanism for more efficient drilling of hard materials. However, some craftsmen manage to screw in screws and screws with an ordinary drill, but this trick is not for beginners.
With the same power, the screwdriver will be stronger than the drill in the sense that the tightening torque and torque are higher. In addition, in the screwdriver torque can be adjusted. In general, a screwdriver and a drill are completely different tools, and to perform serious repairs it is better to take two separate independent devices. Drills, screwdrivers and screwdrivers with the drill function show themselves well in life, but you will not be able to drill the latter often and much — this is an option for small and rare home repairs.
№2.Household and professional screwdrivers
From the general name it is well understood that household screwdrivers are designed for infrequent household work, and a professional tool is an indispensable assistant to a specialist in construction and repair work. These two types of screwdrivers differ in power, cartridge size, power features, availability of additional functions, weight and, of course, price.
Household( amateur) screwdrivers should be taken when you need a tool infrequently and will use it for a short time. Such devices are lightweight, often performed with battery power, are inexpensive and do a good job with such tasks as assembling furniture or changing the lock. Rotation speed is rarely higher than 400-500 revolutions / minute, and torque is usually around 10-15 N * m.
If you are constantly doing something or professionally engaged in repair, and the screwdriver will be used almost every day and for several hours, then you need to take a more impressive tool. professional screwdrivers are more powerful, easily withstand high loads, they will not replace the drill, but if necessary, they can even cope with drilling hard surfaces. Their rotation speed reaches 1300-1500 revolutions / minute and more, and the torque - 130 N * m.
To determine which screwdriver to choose , it is necessary to soberly assess the future load on it and the type of work being done. Not always more functional professional models are the best option. It is enough to have the simplest screwdriver on the farm to carry out minor repairs, especially since prices for such a tool do not bite.
№3.Types of screwdrivers according to the type of power
. Network screwdrivers
. These screwdrivers are powered from the network, and this results in a number of pros and cons.
The advantages of the network screwdrivers include:
- higher power, so professional tools prevail among the network tools. Household powered screwdrivers are not available from all manufacturers;
- there is no need to constantly monitor the battery level and recharge it - plugged the plug into the outlet and you can proceed;
- operating time is not limited by the duration of the battery, there is no need to come off to recharge the battery;
- less weight compared to battery models, because the design of the tool does not provide for a battery.
- network binding. When assembling furniture, wires only interfere, and during construction work there is not always access to electricity. In addition, the outlet can be located far away, and then you have to additionally use an extension cord. When working at height, network screwdrivers are extremely uncomfortable.
This type of tool has become more widespread. These devices are powered by batteries, the capacity and charging time of which can vary considerably.
- independence from the availability of electricity and the location of the outlet, which gives freedom of action. Works can be performed at height, in hard-to-reach places, and practically in the field, and the wires will not be underfoot;
- scope of application is wider, which follows from the autonomy and mobility of the tool.
- dependence on battery level, the need to constantly monitor this parameter and periodically charge the battery. Experts recommend taking a spare battery with a cordless screwdriver: while one is charging, the second one is working. It is preferable to choose batteries that are quickly charged;
- power tool loses power tool. Torque may not be enough to work with solid materials, but there are exceptions here - professional cordless screwdrivers are quite powerful and reliable.
Professionals know that choosing a cordless screwdriver is even more difficult than a network one, because it is necessary to consider not only the functions of the device, but also the features of the battery.
The first thing worth paying attention to is the battery type:
- lithium-ion batteries, Li- Ion .This is the most popular and modern type of battery, is used everywhere, not only in screwdrivers. From the advantages of , low weight, sufficient power, lack of memory effect, a large resource of charge / discharge cycles ( about 3000 and more), high charging speed. Of the minuses is relatively high cost, so this is a good option for regular, but not one-time work. This battery is not designed to work in frost. In order for the battery to last as long as possible, it is better not to discharge it less than 15% and not to charge more than 90%.Service life about 3 years;
- nickel-cadmium, Ni-Cd .Possess high resistance to low temperatures and power surges. On the other hand, they have a pronounced memory effect, so it is better to discharge such a battery fully and fully charged so as not to reduce its capacity. The battery can withstand about 1000-1500 charge / discharge cycles, but the takes a long time to charge the - about 7 hours, so it’s better to have a spare battery. The weight of the battery is significant, but it costs the cheapest. Service life about 5 years;
- nickel metal hydride, Ni-MH. Such batteries are becoming more and more popular, are distinguished by low weight, low resistance to low temperatures, the memory effect is not expressed. A big plus is the minimum self-discharge, and a minus is the price;
- lithium-polymer batteries, Li- Pol , are rarely used in screwdrivers. These are capacious, but not very durable batteries.
In addition, you should pay attention to the battery capacity in А * h : the higher it is, the longer it will be possible for the screwdriver to work without recharging. Another important parameter is the voltage in Volts. From this indicator directly depends on the maximum power that can be obtained from the cordless screwdriver.
As a rule, the voltage varies from 9 to 36 V .For simple jobs, you can take a 9V model: these are compact tools for rare use. The 12V screwdriver is an excellent household tool, suitable for performing many household repairs. The screwdriver 14 V is the golden mean, screwdrivers for 18 V and more is already a tool for professionals.
If you are professionally engaged in the repair and construction works, then in the arsenal you can have both types of screwdrivers. However, there is an alternative option - the combined models with the ability to power from the network and battery, however, their choice is not very large.
Torque - one of the main characteristics of the screwdrivers .It shows the user what loads the instrument is ready for and what its functionality is. If to simplify, then the torque is the force that the device applies to the wrapped fastener, or the force of its resistance to the load. This indicator is measured in N * m.
- soft torque determines the force with which the tool can tighten screws, self-tapping screws, etc., the speed in this case is minimal;
- hard torque shows the maximum force in the drilling mode, but this feature is not available in all screwdrivers.
To use at home, will use a tool with a torque of 10-15 N * m. If the task is to occasionally make a screwdriver holes in not very dense materials, it is better to take a tool with 30-40 N * m. The professional screwdrivers torque can reach up to 130 N * m and sometimes even more.
The higher the torque, the longer and larger the fastener on the tool can be screwed. For example, the device 25-30 N * m simply enough to cope with screwing screws 70 mm long in a tree, and to work with screws 100 mm have to take a screwdriver from 40 N * m. Sometimes when working with long screws, they pre-make a hole.
The torque of the screwdriver can be controlled by the , and by this it differs from many other tools. The design of the device includes a special limiter located after the chuck, it can be used to set the level of force when twisting. When the fastener is screwed in, the cartridge will stop, even if the engine is still running. This feature reduces the chance of drowning the screw too much or damaging the bat.
If you intend to use the screwdriver for its intended purpose, the number of revolutions is not an interesting indicator. Any household tool easily gives out 400-500 revolutions / minute, which will be quite enough for tightening the screws.
If it is necessary to choose an screwdriver with the drill function, it is best to look towards the tool where the maximum speed reaches 1200-1300 revolutions / minute( usually this is the second speed).This will be enough to work with wood. For drilling metal, an even higher frequency of revolutions is needed( about 3000 revolutions / minute, the third speed in some models), but in this case it is better to use a full-blown drill.
№6.Type of the cartridge of the screwdriver
In screw guns two types of cartridges are used mainly:
To decide which screwdriver to choose, you need to recall the previously defined purpose of using the tool.
Screwdrivers with fast-tightening chuck are more versatile and allow you to install both bits and drills, and even the nozzle-mixer and grinding brush. Changing the nozzle is quite simple and fast, fixation occurs due to rotation of the clamping ring. The mechanism can be two-coupling , when you have to twist two rings at the same time, and with one-lift .The latter allows you to change the equipment more quickly.
The hexagon chuck is designed only for working with bits, but you can contrive and use a drill with a hexagonal shank. An alternative is to use a removable keyless chuck, which are equipped with some models. Hexagonal cartridge allows you to quickly change the bits, they are held by a magnet or a special latch, to change the nozzle you need to make a little effort.
Also when choosing, pay attention to the internal diameter of the chuck, on which it depends on what size the bit or drill can be inserted into the screwdriver. Household models, as a rule, allow to work with nozzles with a diameter of not more than 10 mm, but there are exceptions.
Gears in the gearbox can be plastic and metal. The metallic version is naturally better.
№7.Screwdriver configuration and types of bits
When choosing a screwdriver, it is necessary to take into account its configuration. The cheapest options will be with minimal configuration, i.e.only the screwdriver and all - all the necessary nozzles are selected independently. A tool with an extensive bundle is more expensive, but it is still more profitable than buying all the nozzles separately. The only question is whether you need all those items that are included, and whether it makes sense to pay for them.
As a rule, such bits in the set with a screwdriver are :
- cross-shaped bits labeled PH from No. 0 to No. 4 for self-tapping screws;
- PZ bits for self-tapping screws with Pozidriv slot, also differ in size;
- asterisk bits are marked with the letter T, vary in size from T8 to T40, are used in the repair of vehicles and vehicles;
- bits for nuts and bolts from 6 to 13 mm;
- flat bit for screws and screws;
- bits for drywall, triangular, with limiter and others.
Titanium-coated bits will cost more, but they are also more durable.
Not bad, if the comes with a replacement battery ( for a cordless screwdriver) and a case that will simplify storage and transportation of the tool.
All those who think about the question of how to choose a screwdriver, definitely want to get the most convenient tool for their money. This is banal to logical. That is why it is better to buy a screwdriver after you personally hold it in your hands and make sure that the tool is easy to use, all buttons are located where necessary, and are easily pressed.
The handle can be a pistol type or slightly biased forward. The last option is the most balanced in the center of gravity, and the hand, even after prolonged work, will not get very tired. It is great if the handle is rubberized - the probability that the device drops out of hand is sharply reduced.
Separately, it is worth noting angular screwdrivers with a smooth body and a right-angle chuck. It is a tool for joinery professionals, and at home and at construction such a device is unlikely to be needed.
The presence of specific additional functions makes the device more expensive, but also more versatile. In order not to overpay for unnecessary functionality, it is necessary to soberly assess the scope of use of the tool.
The additional functions of the screwdriver include:
- the impact mechanism practically turns the screwdriver into an impact drill and allows the tool to cope with the creation of holes in concrete and stone. However, for continuous drilling of such solid materials, it is better to purchase a drill or even a puncher, and in a screwdriver it is only a pleasant addition for rare use;
- pulse mode will increase the torque and cope with the tightening of screws in more solid materials. At the same time, the impulse makes it easier to unscrew the fasteners and facilitates work in the absence of a normal support;
- reverse is in the absolute majority of models, allows not only to tighten, but also to unscrew the screws and screws;
- Highlighting will simplify work in hard to reach places, but is not mandatory;
- there is an speed switch on those tools where the speed allows not only to screw in fasteners, but also to drill holes. In the most advanced tools 3 speeds;
- automatic feeding of self-tapping screws allows you to simplify and speed up large-scale work, but this feature is found only in professional screwdrivers.
# 10.The best manufacturers of screwdrivers
We all know well that the actual characteristics of the goods may not coincide with the stated. Often, this is the fault of little-known manufacturers, who are eager for quick benefits, which is why, when choosing a screwdriver for more than one year, it is better to give preference to to the proven companies with the name:
- Bosch is a well-known German company that manufactures power tools, household appliances, and automotive equipment. Screwdrivers are presented in a wide range: there are battery and network models, different in power and set of functions;
- Makita - a large Japanese company that produces both simple household screwdrivers and professional models with a shock function and the ability to produce 3200 revolutions / minute;
- Black & Decker are American tools that combine high reliability and reasonable cost. There are mains and battery models, and screwdrivers are produced that can work with stone;
- Dewalt is a German company that manufactures screwdrivers of various types, only high quality remains unchanged. There are models for home and professional use;
- Metabo is another German company that has been operating in the power tool market for a long time, producing cordless and network screwdrivers;
- Hyundai - the South Korean giant is also engaged in the release of screwdrivers. All his models are equipped with a backlight and a charge level indicator; they have a rubberized handle;
- HITACHI - Japanese screwdrivers with an expectedly high level of quality;
- Sparky - inexpensive Bulgarian screwdrivers with good ergonomics. There are corner models
- Interskol is a domestic manufacturer, one of the ten largest companies in the manufacture of power tools. Product quality is quite high, the price is much lower than on foreign counterparts.
Also do not forget to clarify the warranty terms with the seller.