- What to consider when choosing an autonomous source of electricity?
- №1.Generator for the garden: gasoline, diesel, gas
№2.Solar panels for giving №3.Wind generator for giving №4.Inverter batteries for giving In conclusion,
- Diesel generator for the garden
- Gasoline generator for the garden
- Gas generator for the garden
Without electricity, a modern person is like no air, and it does not matter if he is in a city apartment with an abundance of equipment, or in nature. Interruptions in electricity in the country or lack of it makes it necessary to look for alternative sources of electricity. The last mankind has so far invented not so much: liquid fuel engines, solar panels, wind generators and batteries, if you do not take into account more exotic and sophisticated solutions. All existing methods have drawbacks, but if a dacha or a plot is without electricity, and construction work and simple household tasks are necessary, you will have to choose one, and preferably two( for safety purposes), the most suitable option for autonomous power supply of a country house.
What to consider when choosing an autonomous source of electricity?
Many areas of the country, no matter how surprising it may sound, have not yet been connected to the general power supply system. Others suffer from constant interruptions in electricity supply. If there are no power grids in the region, and it’s time to start building a house, what to do: wait for the site to be connected to the network or to look for alternative solutions to ?What if the electricity is turned off in the evenings, and sometimes in the daytime, and often unpredictable at all? Contemplation of the starry sky and warming up food on a fire is, of course, romantic, but it is difficult to do without a refrigerator, a light bulb, a pump and other benefits of civilization in the country.
Sooner or later everyone is trying to find a way to connect electricity to the site. A universal formula for choosing the best source does not exist, since needs to consider a lot of factors:
- is the size of a country house, the frequency of its visits, the usual and maximum number of people staying in it;
- number of appliances consuming energy. It's one thing if it's a pair of light bulbs, a socket and a kettle. It is much more difficult to solve the problem of power supply of a country house if it will run many powerful electrical appliances, ranging from several TVs and a refrigerator, to water heaters and pumps;
- region features. In windy regions, an expensive, at first glance, windmill will be the most economical and quickly recouped source of electricity, and in the Moscow region, for example, the wind will no longer be such a profitable source of energy;
- mains availability. If there are no power grids in the region at all, and their construction is unlikely to be foreseen, experts recommend using two sources of autonomous power supply. This advice can be neglected if you rarely appear in the country.
Naturally, before choosing the type and capacity of an autonomous source of electricity, it is necessary to carefully to calculate the amount of energy consumed by the .Take into account the number of electrical appliances and features of energy consumers. The total power is obtained by adding the needs of all household appliances and equipment. To the value obtained, it is better to throw 15-30% to hedge and not be afraid to turn on the new device. It should be remembered that to ensure maximum durability of work, it is better that the generator functions at 80% of its capacity.
№1.The generator for giving: petrol, diesel, gas
The easiest and most popular way to solve the problem of electricity on a land plot is to use fuel generator .In fact, it is a miniature power plant that operates completely autonomously and turns the energy of combustion of fuel into electrical energy. The fuel used is gasoline and diesel, less gas. To produce 1 kW / hour of energy, on average, between 0.25 and 0.5 liters of fuel is required.
With the help of generators, it is easiest to organize home power supply to : you buy it, plug it in and use it, just remember to add fuel in time. This is the main advantage of the . The main disadvantage is the need to constantly buy fuel, and if the house is large and there are a lot of electrical appliances there, then the costs will be tangible. In addition, the generator itself also costs money, and the higher its power, the higher the price. But if you compare it with a windmill or solar panel, the generator, of course, will be cheaper.
When the generator is a backup source of energy for the , it is important that it not only be turned on at the right time, but also turned off in a timely manner so that no colliding two opposing streams of charged electrons occur. In order to avoid troubles, the algorithm for incorporating a generator into a common system has long been developed. If there is no central power supply network, then it is recommended to use two generators: one is the main one, the second is back-up and is put into operation when the first runs out of fuel. The alternate operation of two generators significantly increases the service life of each.
On what fuel the generator will operate on, its power, durability, noise, and operating costs depend.
The diesel generator for giving
Diesel generators of the electric power best of all are suitable for permanent work of .A long time of continuous operation is provided by the presence of a water cooling system. Among its other advantages, the benefits :
- high strength requirements. On durability the diesel generator wins at petrol;
- among diesel engines are much more powerful models than among gasoline, which allows the use of a similar source of energy, even for the supply of large country houses;
- diesel is a cheaper fuel than gasoline.
Among the downsides:
- high noise at work, so without a separate room with sound insulation and ventilation will be difficult to do. The gasoline generator also has exhaust gases, but they are not so caustic. It is best to put the diesel generator at some distance from the house, but it will have to take care of the canopy and locking system to protect the generator from theft;
- launch is possible at a temperature not lower than -50C, although at the moment diesel generators have appeared in the protective casing, thanks to which the device can be put on the street and operated at any temperature.
Gasoline generator for giving
The gasoline generator is best suited in those cases, when the section is used from time to time .It can also operate as a backup power source when the site is connected to a common network. In the conditions of a small cottage with a minimum set of electrical appliances, a gasoline generator shows itself best. The power of petrol generators is usually no higher than 7-9 kW( but you can find models for 15 or even 20 kW), and they cannot work for more than 8 hours continuously - they get very hot.
Advantages of the :
- is low compared to the diesel equivalent generator cost. The price, of course, depends on the power, but it is, on average, two times lower than on diesel models;
- mobility. Gasoline generators are lighter and more compact than diesel engines, so if necessary, they are easy to move around the site;
- noise level is lower than that of the diesel counterpart;
- able to work at low temperatures.
- low efficiency;
- high cost of gasoline.
The noise level from a diesel and gasoline generator depends on the type of housing and the number of revolutions at which the generator operates: a device with 1500 rpm will produce a much lower noise than the same power, but from 3000 rpm, but it will costexpensive.
Gas generator to give
Gas generators make it possible to get the cheapest energy, while the have the highest efficiency, and the noise is minimal .Power can reach 24 kW, the generator can operate around the clock, and gas will cost less than gasoline and diesel fuel. That's just until such widespread devices are not purchased, as they cost a lot, are complex in operation and require connection to a gas pipeline, which is not everywhere. However, some gardeners connect such generators to gas cylinders.
№2.Solar panels for giving
The main disadvantage of fuel generators is the need to constantly buy fuel for them. Generators who use free energy available to all are deprived of this disadvantage. This is the energy of the sun and wind. To generate electricity, they also use geothermal energy, as well as water, but these options are unlikely to be suitable for supplying electricity to the suburban area.
If it is very simple, then the principle of operation of the solar batteries consists in knocking electrons out of light from photons from semiconductors located in a photocell, and the directed flow of electrons, as known from school physics, is electricity. To ensure the generation of electricity from sunlight, its accumulation and further use for domestic purposes, requires a whole range of equipment:
- directly the solar battery itself is of sufficient area. The efficiency of such systems is still very low, and a battery with an area of about 1 m2 gives an average of 100 watts of electricity with a voltage of 15-25 V. To use solar energy as an independent and main source of energy, it is necessary that the batteries occupy an area of about 10 m2, andlocated at the right angle;
- inverter , responsible for the conversion of electricity;
- batteries for energy storage and uninterrupted supply;
- controller , with which you can control the battery charge.
It is better to take all the elements in a set - it will be much easier.
Prices for solar batteries are highly dependent on their type, size, power and manufacturer's name. Of course, everyone wants to achieve maximum performance and energy independence for his money, so you need to carefully study the weather nuances in the region, and also understand which type of solar cells are best suited for a particular area:
- monocrystal batteries are easily recognized by the black pseudo-squaresand beveled corners. They have the highest efficiency, 15-25%, so if the roof area is small, then it is preferable to install such batteries. On the other hand, for normal functioning, they should always be turned towards the sun, and in conditions of an overcast day, at dawn and at dusk, power will be minimal;
- polycrystalline batteries are distinguished by dark-blue wafers with silicon crystals. Efficiency is lower, about 12-15%, but such batteries are cheaper, so if there is enough space to install them, this is the best option. Their significant advantage is the ability to produce energy on an overcast day, since silicon crystals have a different orientation;
- batteries from amorphous silicon cost the least, but have low efficiency, only about 6%.They look like a film, flexible and best suited in cases where the roof has a complex shape, as they are easily mounted on any surface and do not require the arrangement of additional metal structures. Such batteries most effectively use diffused light, therefore they are suitable for regions where it is often cloudy. Their minus is low durability, since the silicon layers quickly burn through under the sunlight. Not so long ago, a more sophisticated counterpart appeared - micromorphic silicon batteries, which are not so demanding on the angle of inclination and orientation to the cardinal points.
Whatever option you choose, solar panels are always with many advantages:
- the opportunity to get a full source of electricity, and the energy of the sun goes to free. In developed countries, the surplus of such energy homeownership sell energy companies. In the domestic space, the first steps are already being taken in this direction, although the phenomenon is still far from widespread;
- no monthly payments for electricity;
- long service life;
- environmental friendliness.
The cons , of course, are present. First, the inability to use solar energy as a full source of electricity in regions with a large number of cloudy days a year. Snow can also be a hindrance, so it will have to be constantly cleared. In addition, space for the entire set of home solar power will need a lot: it's the batteries themselves and the equipment for them. As for the cost, initially it is high, but in the end it pays off completely.
When choosing a solar cell, pay attention to:
- power. Depends on the needs of a particular house and the characteristics of the region;
- battery life directly affects the duration of the period during which it will be possible to obtain electricity in case of inclement weather;
- installation area;
- performance class. It is better to take batteries of class A;
- manufacturer's name. The products of such companies as Sunpower, Sanyo, Jinko Solar have recommended themselves well.
Calculation of the required power is a painstaking exercise and requires knowledge of the mass of exact parameters. To estimate which batteries will be needed and orient on the price, you can make a simple, but very approximate calculation:
- summarize the energy consumption of all equipment and equipment for a month, taking everything from light bulbs to the refrigerator and pump. The figure will turn out approximate, but nevertheless corresponding to real consumption. Suppose it turns out 100 kW;
- since there are significant energy losses in batteries and at the stage of converting DC to AC, they are important to take into account in the calculation. Approximately 30-40% of energy is lost, and in order to cover it, you will have to install additional batteries. Therefore, in a month we will need not 100 kW, but 140 kW;
- we divide the obtained value by the number of days in the month( 140 kW / 30 = 4.67 kW), and now the most interesting thing is the need to divide by the number of hours of sunshine in the month. For the summer period, this time from 9 am to 4 pm, the rest of the time, the power will no longer be maximum, we get 7 hours total: 4.67 / 7 = 0.67 kW.But an array with a power of 0.7 kW will obviously not be enough, since the calculation does not take into account cloudy days, and there will be a lot of them in the autumn-spring period, and the day length is very low, so the resulting value can be increased to 1.5-2times
To obtain accurate calculations, it is necessary to to examine the weather diaries in the region for the number of overcast and sunny days in recent years in a particular month. Only after that it will be possible to judge the battery parameter and the payback. In most cases, even a large supply makes it impossible to use solar energy as a full-fledged source of electricity in the winter period, so backup power will be required by the gas generator.
№3.Wind turbine for giving
Another free source of electricity is wind, but, like the sun's rays, it is not constant. The main advantages of , as with photocells, are the absence of the need to constantly buy fuel and the environmental friendliness of the energy received. Cons : the high cost of construction, the need to put not only the wind generator, but also additional equipment( inverter and batteries with controllers).
Two types of wind turbines are installed at the dachas today:
- rotary with a vertical axis of rotation have a low noise level, do not require high wind speed and significant installation height, but their efficiency is low;
- wing-mounted windmills with a horizontal axis of rotation are more familiar, have high efficiency, the installation cost is lower, but the consumption of materials, and hence the price, is higher.
The main question that confronts those who decided to install a windmill is not even its type, but its power. Answering a question, it is worth to take into account the generated, accumulated and consumed energy .Therefore, it is important to calculate how much energy is consumed, for example, per day, what is the average and peak load. It is necessary to take into account the average wind speed, the number of days when the wind speed is above 5 m / s( most favorable), as well as the maximum duration of windless weather.
In practice, it turns out that weak winds of 2-3 m / s do not provide enough energy. Therefore, experienced gardeners advise to stock up on high-capacity batteries in order to accumulate the energy received on wind days, and use it during the period of calm and weak winds.
№4.Inverter rechargeable batteries for giving
Rechargeable batteries can be used to store energy from various generators, but is sometimes used as an independent source of energy .Naturally, we should not consider this option as a way to constantly power the site with electricity, but it will use as an backup. If suddenly the light is turned off, the fuel for the generator will end or there will not be sunny days for a long time, then the minimum necessary set of electrical appliances can be powered.
The inverter battery is connected to the general electrical system of the house, it is charged from the central electricity network, and when there are interruptions in electricity, it gives off energy.
Battery parameters are selected depending on the needs, taking into account how much energy is consumed by electrical appliances in the house and for how long a power outage is possible. For example, if you need a battery that will give 3 kW of electricity, and given the losses during conversion in the inverter( 10%), this is 3.3 kW, with a voltage at the output of 12 V, a battery of 275 A * hour or 2 A + 150 A * h will be needed. When choosing a battery, consider the number of charge / discharge cycles( the more, the better), give preference to models with a maximum service life and better not use car batteries, despite the fact that in all respects they would seem to be suitable - they need to be used safelyspecific conditions.
For the production of energy, mini-hydropower plants are also equipped, but this requires access to a water source, so this method has not found distribution. If the country house is used all year round , then it is better to invest money in a wind generator or solar panels( whichever is more profitable), and to make sure the fuel generator. If the cottage is used occasionally for the , then you can get by only with a generator, and if there is still electricity on the plot, but simply supply it on schedule or intermittently with , then the option is a battery or gasoline generator.