- №1.Basement insulation: outside or inside?
- №2.Is it necessary to warm the basement of the house?
- №3.Materials for warming the base
- №4.Basement insulation with extruded polystyrene foam
- №5.Polyurethane foam for insulating base
- №6.Mineral wool for basement insulation
- №7.Insulation with expanded clay
- №8.Thermal insulation with
- №9 thermopanels. Warming by warm plaster
- №10.Basement insulation with primer
Not so long ago, in the 80s of the last century, utility payments made up only 3-4% of the total family income. Today, the share of a communal flat on average already reaches 10-15% of family income, and the payment for heating - 30% of this amount. It is not surprising that the majority of Russian citizens prefer to closely monitor costs, and especially for heat leaks in their homes. It has been established that about 20% of heat losses fall on the plinth and foundation, therefore the insulation of the plinth of the house is as important and necessary as the insulation of the walls. Properly performed insulation will not only save expensive heat, but also to avoid moisture condensation on the walls of the basement, the formation and development of mold, as well as protect the structure from freezing.
№1.Basement insulation: outside or inside?
The basement is called one of the most vulnerable parts of the house, because not only a large load is imposed on it in the form of the weight of all the walls and floors, but also often high humidity. A plinth is called the continuation of the foundation, which rises above the ground level and passes into the outer walls of the house. Simply put, it is a connecting element of the foundation and walls of the building, starting from the floor level of the first floor. It protects the house from the penetration of moisture and cold, and also plays a decorative role, as the house without a socle looks like something squat.
Theoretically, the basement basement can be warmed both from the inside and outside of the , but the efficiency will be very different. If you carry out internal insulation , then to a certain extent you can achieve isolation of the room from low temperatures, but condensate will accumulate between the wall and the insulation, from which the basement will suffer. In addition, the latter will not be protected from the damaging effects of cold. The result is not long in coming - the appearance of microcracks from freezing, their expansion, constant wetting, and later deformation and crumbling, reduction in strength characteristics.
external insulation protects both the room and the basement material from the cold, and the dew point shifts towards the insulation, which is much more resistant to moisture and low temperatures than the basement. As a result, we get a warm room and extend the life of the structure. Insulation work is best done at the stage of building a house, but even after its construction it is possible to perform effective insulation, although it will be a bit more difficult.
№2.Is it necessary to warm the basement of the house?
The peculiarity of the national mentality is that I want to save on everything. Hence the popular question: Is it always necessary to warm the basement of a private house? Thermal insulation may not really be necessary in such cases:
- if the house is intended only for summer living;
- if there is no basement in the house, and the base is small( 0.5 m) and is arranged to avoid flooding;
- if the house is located in an area where there is no harsh winter.
In all these cases, you can get warm floor. If the climate in the region is harsh, the house is used for permanent residence, and in the basement it is supposed to store food, arrange a garage, boiler room or other utility rooms, then we cannot do without insulation.
№3.Materials for warming the basement
For warming the basement base in the recent past, a mixture of clay and straw was used. Over the past few decades there have been many new, more advanced and convenient ways to perform thermal insulation. The range of requirements is advanced to them:
- low thermal conductivity .Insulating properties are better for those building materials that have a lower thermal conductivity;
- low water absorption. .When the insulation absorbs moisture, it loses some of the important performance characteristics. The accumulation of moisture is especially dangerous during the frost period, when the water increases in volume and can disrupt the structure of the insulation;
- high compressive strength , because the material must withstand the pressure of the soil.
In addition, the insulation must be durable, vapor-permeable, resistant to mold and rodents.
Today, the following materials are used for thermal insulation:
- insulation boards( polystyrene foam, extruded polystyrene foam, mineral wool);
- polyurethane foam, which is applied by spraying;
- expanded clay - the most popular option of bulk insulation;
- warm plaster;
№4.Basement insulation with extruded polystyrene foam
Extruded polystyrene foam - is the most popular material for warming the foundation base. Often, it is also called the penfolex by the name of the company that produces the material under the same trademark. Insulation reminds us foam, familiar to all of us, but more rigid and durable, it well withstands the pressure of the soil, does not wrinkle and does not sag.
The advantages of :
- excellent thermal insulation qualities and low thermal conductivity;
- moisture resistance and inability to absorb it, which is explained by the closed cellular structure;
- sufficient compressive strength;
- high durability, which reaches 50 years or more;
- material is not damaged by rodents and is not affected by mold;
- ease of installation and processing, the ability to carry out work on the insulation of its own and without the use of mechanical fasteners;
- reasonable price.
Moreover, penoplex has soundproofing properties, and thanks to impregnation, it is resistant to fire by fire retardants. disadvantages of include a large number of joints - minus all tile materials. Even the largest sheets of polystyrene foam do not allow you to create a monolithic structure of insulation, and the joints will have to carefully smear or zapenivat. It is better to take sheets with a lock, thanks to which they fit more tightly, reducing the risk of cold bridges. In regions with a harsh climate, the installation of penoplex in two layers may be necessary, and the plates of the second layer should cover the seams between the plates of the first.
In addition, the material, although not as fragile as polystyrene, withstands decent loads, but crumbles when cut. Installation is simple, but requires care and attention, takes a long time. It is better to do this summer, in warm, dry weather.
A more accessible analogue of the material is polystyrene foam , which is obtained in a non-extrusive manner. It keeps warm well, but has a lot of flaws. Firstly, it is brittleness, therefore, to protect the material from the pressure of the soil, they build a wall half a brick thick. Secondly, it is damaged by rodents. Moreover, the material is able to absorb moisture, so you cannot do without high-quality roll-over or bitumen-polymer waterproofing, and the need to carry out all these works nullifies all the benefits from the purchase of foam plastic, so the material is less and less used for wall and basement insulation.
No. 5.Foamed polyurethane foam for insulation
basement Foamed polyurethane foam can be safely called the ideal for the performance of insulation. The application of the material is carried out by special installations in which polyol and isocyanate are mixed under pressure, which leads to polymer synthesis and the formation of carbon dioxide. The latter creates isolated from each other bubbles. Spraying is carried out with a thin layer on a previously prepared base.
Advantages of :
- high thermal insulation properties, which are ensured, in particular, due to carbon dioxide bubbles, because its coefficient of thermal conductivity is lower than that of air;
- resistant to mold and mildew;
- monolithic layer of insulation, filling all cracks and defects, no seams;
- strength, stiffness, elasticity and lightness of the material;
- high degree of maintainability. In which case the damaged area can be sealed with a new portion of the polymer;
- high speed of work - basement insulation is performed in one day.
Among the deficiencies of the , the high price of the material and the inability to perform the work on its own - special equipment, reagents and the use of them are needed. In addition, the heater is afraid of sunlight, so it is better to try as soon as possible to complete the finishing of the facade.
№6.Mineral wool for insulation
basement Under the mineral wool understand a number of materials, but for insulation basement basement is usually used basalt wool. Rocks are used as raw materials, which melt and pull into thin threads, and a heater is created from them. It is produced in rolls and slabs, and you can use one and the other: rolls allow you to get the minimum number of seams, and the plates are characterized by high strength.
Advantages of :
- low thermal conductivity coefficient achieved due to the fibrous structure;
- fire resistance, since it is based on mineral substances;
- high vapor permeability;
- strength and resistance to mechanical damage;
- mold resistance;
- high durability;
- easy installation.
Manufacturers say that mineral wool leaks water well and does not absorb it, but this is not entirely true. The material has the property to accumulate moisture , which significantly reduces its insulating properties, so they began to add special water-repellent substances to it. But even this does not exempt from the need to make a powerful waterproofing, and this is tedious, time consuming and expensive, so mineral wool is used for insulation of the basement very rarely - but for walls and balconies, it is perfect.
№7.Insulation with expanded clay
Expanded clay - light material, having the form of fairly large granules. It is made from fusible clays in drum sets, in which the swelling and hardening occurs. It comes out eco-friendly and completely safe material, which is called one of the most budgetary insulation. It is usually used for thermal insulation of the basement plinth in houses that are not used for year-round living.
Advantages of :
- porous structure provides good thermal insulation and sound insulation;
- low weight;
- refractory, because at the heart - clay, and cold resistance;
- environmental friendliness;
- low price.
The porous structure leads to the ability to absorb moisture, which is just not recommended for the socle. However, if you try and perform insulation according to science, then the effect of this property can be negated. Insulation with expanded clay requires the drainage system to be installed in an obligatory way: a ditch is dug deeper than the foundation, one is laid with geotextiles, crushed stone is poured and a pipe is installed with holes to drain moisture. Rubble is poured on top, geotextiles are laid again and covered with sand. After the preparatory work, a wooden formwork is installed at a distance of about 1 m to the depth of the plinth, the roofing material is laid so that it covers both the walls of the house and the trench wall, the seams are glued. Expanded clay poured heterogeneous fraction, as it falls asleep rammed. After the formwork is completely filled with expanded clay, it is covered with a lid at an inclination of at least 45 degrees - this is done to protect the basement from the accumulation of sediment.
# 8.Warming by
Thermopanels are a German invention, based on rigid polyurethane foam with properties already known to us, on top of which decorative covers are mounted imitating any noble material: stone, brick, tile, etc. It turns out the most natural sandwich panel, which greatly simplifies installation and copes with several functions at once.
The advantages of :
- good thermal insulation and moisture resistance;
- excellent appearance;
- resistance to mold and rodents.
Modern and seemingly perfect material has some drawbacks, and it’s not just a high price. First of all, special care and meticulousness are required during installation: you should carefully fasten the panels with strong glue, some also use dowels for the guarantee. Secondly, the thermopanels can be mounted only on a perfectly flat base, and otherwise you will need to fit the battens. But all these difficulties are more than offset by excellent energy efficiency.
# 9.Warming by warm plaster
Warm plaster is called dry adhesive mixtures, which have little in common with the decorative counterpart. The composition of the insulator may include sawdust, vermiculite or polystyrene foam.
Advantages of :
- solid insulation;
- ease of installation, because you can start applying a warm plaster immediately after the pre-primer layer dries. If you plan to apply heat insulation in one layer, you can even do without a reinforcing mesh;
- relatively low price.
There are a lot of disadvantages of :
- is water-absorbing, so careful waterproofing is necessary;
- it is impossible to make a layer thicker than 5 cm, otherwise it will be necessary to apply insulation not only outside, but also inside;
- heavy weight;
- warm plaster can not play the role of a finishing material.
No. 10.Ground insulation with
soil Ground or sand can also be used as heat insulators, but this is an option in case there are very few funds, or it is necessary to equip a temporary insulation with .The essence of the method is simple: the basement is covered with a thick layer of soil, which forms a shaft up to the ground floor level. In a similar way you can achieve good results, but still the thermal conductivity of the earth is far from ideal, so the basement will still miss the cold, albeit in smaller quantities. Other disadvantages include the need for a large amount of soil, the attraction of help from outsiders, since it is impossible to cope with such physically hard work alone. Moreover, if you plan to make the ground floor residential, then the windows will not work, and the ventilation ducts will have to be output above the earthen shaft.
Of course, extruded polystyrene foam and polyurethane foam are considered to be the best options for thermal insulation, but, as you can see, under certain circumstances other thermal insulation materials have the right to use.