High-quality air exchange is essential for any residential or commercial facilities. To do this, perform the calculation of its parameters and chart the passage of air flow through the room. Depending on the complexity of the work, installation of ventilation systems can make your own or order their execution.
We'll show you how to design ventilation systems list, what regulations should be based. From our proposed article, you will learn how to choose the most suitable scheme. Our recommendations will help and those who have decided to do all the work with his own hands, and those who will control the builders.
The content of the article:
Standards for determining air parameters
- Documents and acts of the Russian Federation
- Foreign air quality standards
The main stages of design
- Development of technical specifications
- Choosing the best scheme of ventilation
Installation of the system components
- Installation of ventilation equipment
- air flow organization
- Nuances ventilation device
- Construction of ducts and pre-commissioning tests
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Standards for determining air parameters
Since the ventilation system affects the quality of human life, its allowable parameters prescribed in the regulations. The fulfillment of these requirements necessary in the case of commercial use of the premises, as well as the acceptance of apartment buildings.
In the design of the owner of the ventilation inside the apartment or private home, you can take them to the level of recommendations.
Documents and acts of the Russian Federation
Russian law established different standards for ventilation and air conditioning depending on the type and purpose of the premises. They are included in the codes of practice (COP), state standards (GOST) and sanitary rules and norms (SanPiN).
According to regulations, residential and community purpose room ventilated to achieve the following objectives:
- Maintaining the oxygen regime. Reducing its concentration impairs human health. This problem can best be met by means of the influx of outside air.
- Removing unwanted gases and aerosols. Accumulation of carbon dioxide, combustion products or dust health hazard.
- Regulation microclimate. Maintaining the humidity within the specified range by means of ventilation - a common and effective method, which is often used not only in residential but also in warehouses and basements of various destination.
In the Russian standards of the supply airflow rate is determined by many parameters, and then take the highest possible rate. In practice, often do not use all of them, so this approach raises many questions among experts.
There are 8 documents regulating air standards, the permissible parameters of the microclimate, as well as the installation and operation of the ventilation systems of rules
Foreign air quality standards
when you install ventilation systems for the cottage or your own apartment does not necessarily use the existing Russian regulations. Alternatively, the calculations can be applied in the position of foreign standards that regulate the indoor air quality.
Founded in 1894 by community ASHRAE engineers has extensive scientific and practical experience and a lot of developments in the field of ventilation and air conditioning
ASHRAE organization the following documents were developed:
- ASHRAE 62.1 - requirements for ventilation systems and air conditioning systems;
- ASHRAE 55 - requirements to microclimate and thermal comfort of the room.
Studies of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers often used to calculate the quality standards of the international and national levels.
To determine the minimum performance standard ventilation 62.1 uses techniques based on the following indicators:
- ventilation rate (VRP), which regulate the position of the supply and exhaust devices and power fluxes can vary depending on climate parameters;
- IAQ (IAQP), which provide methods of reducing the concentration of undesirable aerosols by filtering them;
- dimensions and position of the openings for natural ventilation (NVP).
Integrated use of all three approaches can significantly reduce operating costs.
There is also a work of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), dedicated to the ventilation of buildings:
- standard EN 13779 - the requirements for ventilation systems and air conditioning systems;
- Standard EN 15251 - Requirements for climate parameters;
- act of CR 1752 - the criteria for calculating the ventilation of buildings.
Both sets of standards are directly related to the health and comfort of users. The required volume of fresh air is determined by the carbon dioxide emission, since no other significant sources of pollution.
Technical rooms, such as a gas boiler, air volume calculation is made from the standpoint of security, rather than the quality of life
You can order the calculation of the ventilation parameters of the apartment or house by American or European standards. It is reasonable, given the long international experience and more stringent requirements for the quality of life.
The main stages of design
Typical schemes for residential and domestic premises are absent due to the architectural and functional diversity of the buildings.
To make a decision on creation of optimal ventilation system must adhere to the general principles of the organization ventilation, compliance with the air balance of the rules developing technical specifications and recommendations for its practical implementation (+)
Development of technical specifications
Preparation of technical specifications - the first stage of design ventilation. It is necessary to prescribe the requirements for the size and type of ventilation for all rooms of the house.
EXAMPLE technical task (in terms of air) for the development home ventilation systems. Such a document can make yourself
For each individual room depending on its destination is determined ventilation parameters.
So, for apartments and houses is necessary to use ventilation as follows:
- Living rooms, dining rooms, gyms. The constant influx. The volume depends on the average daily number of people in the room. There may be requirements for temperature and humidity of the incoming stream.
- Bathroom, toilet, laundry. Permanent natural hood. Job mechanical devices while using the facilities.
- Kitchen. Permanent natural hood. Inclusion of forced draft gas during intensive use, or in case of significant emissions into the air at the pair of open cooking methods.
- Corridor and hallway. Free movement of air.
- Pantry. Natural ventilation.
- Boiler or fuel. It is necessary in calculating the air balance into account the fact of ventilation due to the removal of the combustion products through the flue.
- Working premises (workshop, garage). Auxiliary ventilation depending on the purpose rooms.
The technical task can be generated internally or by external specialists. In the latter case, the contract designers will be forced to adhere to the Russian regulatory documents governing air velocity in the duct and the ventilation rate.
Choosing the best scheme of ventilation
Based on the technical task creating circuit ventilation system. Plan for the disposition of its elements must be agreed to interior decoration. Otherwise, in case of installation after repair, there will be an additional task for their entry in the home interface.
air turnover in the house. Separate extract from the pool needed to reduce the amount of condensate in the heat exchanger. Separate cycle in the boiler room - fire-safety requirements. A separate loop in the garage - the technical simplicity of the solution
As a rule, any ventilation plan can be implemented in several ways.
The best solution shall fully comply with the technical specifications and consider the following suggestions:
- contain the minimum number of nodes and elements that are likely to fail;
- Regular maintenance should be simple and, if possible, be carried out by the users themselves;
- the use of ventilation in regulating the climate should be understood by people who do not have specific knowledge about the technical nuances of the system;
- availability of backup solutions in case of failure of one of the nodes;
- system should be discreetly inscribed in the interior of the apartment or house.
When financial calculations must be considered as a one-time investment for the purchase of the system components and their installation, and regular periodic maintenance costs and energy expended on heating and humidification air.
Modern solutions for residential ventilation systems provide a compact electronic control unit with which you can easily adjust the climate of any room in the house
Installation of the system components
Like the design, the installation of ventilation systems can be done by yourself or entrust it to professionals. To make a decision on the matter is necessary to determine the list of works and to evaluate the possibility of their implementation on its own.
Installation of ventilation equipment
Under any schemes of ventilation sequence of its installation involves the following steps:
- installation of the equipment inside the building;
- arrangement of supply and exhaust holes;
- system test performance.
There are many types of equipment, which is used in ventilation systems. When using one-piece units, and if possible to group the majority of devices in one place, they are placed in the ventilation chamber - a dedicated room.
Under plenum generally withdrawn warm cellar or attic. Then you can do without having to install sound-absorbing shell
The main internal hardware installation following nuances:
- Close-coupled device, and individual heat recuperators are heavy. Requires their installation and secure attachment to prevent vibrations. In addition, the need to provide access to them to carry out maintenance work.
- Wiring. Heaters and fans better than a separate group from the internal electrical panel. actually provide for autonomous generator connection to a private home.
- Electronic control units need to be connected using a voltage stabilizer.
Thus, for self-installation of ventilation equipment necessary for general skills and practical experience in electrical engineering.
air flow organization
Fence outdoor air can occur in one place or with its subsequent distribution duct system or for each room separately. In the first embodiment, the main branch of the supply and exhaust air ducts are typically located close to each other, separated only in the street.
autonomous individual room forced ventilation implemented in two ways:
- installing a bypass valve window type;
- wall mounting valve.
Ready-made solutions, which are associated with air passing through the window, have a certain specificity. When strong cooling air intake in the ground frost is formed, that rapidly displays such valves fail.
The ventilation duct easy to implement filters mechanical cleaning. This considerably improves the cleanliness of premises and reduce the concentration of dust
Furthermore, cold air and without heating of dispersion is lowered to the floor, creating a vertical temperature gradient. This reduces the level of thermal comfort and increases the risk of colds.
Wall valve is less susceptible frosting and could be provided with a heater for heating the air and a deflector for its dispersion.
When you install such a device is necessary to solve the following questions:
- Drill a hole with a certain slant to the outside. The panel houses it can be done only by applying diamond drilling technology. As a result of the work will be carried out large amounts of dust to be collected using a vacuum cleaner.
- Solve the problem with the valve insulation. Checking the quality will be held at the first severe frosts, when the redo something will be very difficult.
- Set the external grille. This causes problems at the location of the apartment is not on the ground floor. Here it is necessary to observe safety precautions.
- If necessary, the integration of the fan valve, heater, or humidifier will have to ensure the connection of devices to electricity.
Headroom wall valve should be selected taking into account the interior. If necessary, it can be easily painted.
Wall supply valve is much smaller than the system of ducts distributed. If the repair is already held in the apartment, its installation will be much cheaper
Nuances ventilation device
Major work on the installing ventilation in the apartment are as follows:
- summing duct (normally only in the kitchen) to the ventilation shaft;
- installation of exhaust fans in the kitchen and in the bathroom and toilet.
When installing exhaust ventilation in a private house in addition to these works it is necessary to perform more complex:
- laying ducts through their loft insulation;
- venting of the roof with the installation tube.
Warming of channels that are designed to remove air is necessary to prevent condensation and returning it back through the vent into the room. Thus it is desirable to set the shaft section from calculating the average flow rate of at least 1 m / s. It also helps to remove excess moisture.
In the derivation of the ventilation on the roof of the following conditions must be met:
- identify allowable output ventilation space and calculate the length of the tube;
- do passage pipe through the roof with the recovery water and heat insulation;
- well to fix the pipe to the roof to prevent it from tilting or overturning in high winds;
- set the deflector to protect the ventilation of precipitation and increase traction.
All work performed on pitched roofs, should be carried out in a safe manner. You also need to avoid damage to the roof.
If the withdrawal tube through the roof ventilation problems, it is possible to perform side wall variant yard facade
Construction of ducts and pre-commissioning tests
Air transfer between rooms may be ordinary manner, either ventilation ductsWhich installation is a simple task. It can be done by yourself in the presence of a minimum of construction and repair skills.
For household purposes, use plastic, thin-walled metal or flexible corrugated ducts. Compound shaped elements among themselves is straightforward, but not more than an additional sealing docking places with adhesive tape or silicone sealant.
A large variety of shaped elements allows you to perform a duct of any topology, as well as to make the transition between the sections of the standard sizes
parts mounted ducts, Depending on the location, are fixed as follows:
- When attaching to a wall or ceiling using special clamps that sell complete with a duct or separately. They are cheap, so there is no need to invent other ways.
- If the duct is in the kitchen cabinets or shelves, it is secured by any holders. Under parts enclose the foam to avoid rattling when working ventilation.
- Inside the cabinets duct parts are fixed with clamps. In places passing through the partition wall and draped them with foam or foam inserts for noise elimination.
After connecting the duct to the hood supply air valves and ventilation equipment necessary to carry out functional test of the entire system.
This must be done in the following modes:
- maximum power of all the devices;
- maximum power ventilation operation at idle suction devices;
- maximum power operation at idle ventilation supply air devices.
The first mode is used to check the adequacy of power and integrity of the duct system. The last two modes are required to verify the possibility of reverse thrust and intensive air filtration through the walls.
Despite all the calculations, some intake and exhaust fans can not meet the specs, it's hard to identify in the course of their work.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Driving ventilation for standard units. Rules unit supply and exhaust ventilation:
Installation channel systems of air ducts and a selection of their section. The use of heat energy recovery:
The calculation of the required amount of air circulation, ventilation, and scheduling of its installation can be fully or partly perform independently. When ordering such services from the experts, understanding the nuances of these procedures will control the quality of work performed.
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