- №1.Types of sealants
- №2.Acrylic sealants: properties and scope of use
- # 4 Siliconized Sealants. Silicone sealants: types and properties
- №5.Polyurethane Sealants: Benefits and Uses of
- # 6.
- No. 7 Bituminous and Rubber Sealants. Butylrubber sealants
- No. 9 Thiocol Sealants. What is necessary to consider when choosing a sealant?
- No. 10.Manufacturers of sealants
Replacing the sink in the kitchen, installing a faucet, bath, door and window frames is not without the use of sealants. These are special compositions based on polymers that are able to reliably fill gaps, cracks and voids, isolating them from external negative effects. Since there are a lot of areas where such substances are used, compositions have been developed that optimally correspond to certain conditions. Before going to the store and buying does not interfere to decide which sealant to choose, and what types of sealants in general exist. So you protect yourself from the advice of consultants that are not always correct and beneficial for you.
Sealants Sealants are a whole group of materials that are polymer-based compounds that have a paste-like, viscous or strip consistency and are designed to protect and waterproof joints. The remaining properties are highly dependent on the composition. Sealants are used to seal joints between sanitary ware and a wall, when installing windows and doors, to seal cracks between logs, concrete and reinforced concrete structures - and this is not all applications.
Sealants can be divided into:
- with two or more components.
one-component formulations are more convenient, as they are immediately ready for use, and sealants with several components will first require mixing of all components in the required proportions.
According to the type of hardening, sealants are divided into:
- . The drying formulations acquire the necessary properties only after the water or solvent has evaporated. Differ in considerable shrinkage;
- curing formulations become working under the influence of moisture or air, or, if it is a multi-component composition, after mixing all the components. From a pasty mass, such compounds become like rubber;
- non-hardening compounds are produced in the form of mastics, resembling plasticine.
The most important is the classification by chemical composition:
- acrylic sealants;
- silicone sealants;
- polyurethane sealants;
- bituminous sealants;
№2.Acrylic sealants: properties and scope of use of
Acrylic sealants are a mixture of acrylate polymers, used by primarily for internal work of .Can be painted with acrylic paints or varnishes in any color.
Acrylic sealants are:
- non-water resistant .They are odorless, have full environmental safety, almost do not tolerate deformation, so they are best used on surfaces that are not subject to thermal expansion. It is used in the repair of furniture, window frames, as well as when working with dry walls of plasterboard and concrete. Moisture on such compounds will lead to rapid damage to the sealant;
- waterproof compounds have high adhesion to almost all types of surfaces, includingbrick, concrete, tile, PVC and drywall. Can be used in bathrooms and kitchens, but not in pools. If the sealant is used in the bathroom, it is desirable that the composition be antifungal components .
For all types of acrylic sealers, is characterized by the following advantages of :
- good adhesion with brick, concrete, plaster, wood, tile and other surfaces;
- the ability to retain the original properties in a wide range of temperatures( from -20 to + 600C);
- is environmentally friendly and does not contain harmful fumes, therefore, it is possible to work with such sealants without personal protective equipment;
- UV resistance;
- ease of operation;
- price. It is 1.5-2 times lower than silicone sealants. The most expensive are transparent acrylic sealants.
Disadvantages of :
- during long-term exposure to low temperatures, elasticity is lost;
- in terms of moisture resistance, acrylic sealants are inferior to their counterparts, so for premises with a steadily increased level of humidity it is better to choose other compounds.
Acrylic sealants, as a rule, are sold in tubes of 300-500 ml, applied directly from the tube or using a special gun. Within 15 minutes after application they form a film, and finally solidify after 24 hours.
The scope of : filling seams and cracks in stone and concrete surfaces, boards, window and door frames, filling voids around communication pipes, sealing joints in bathrooms and kitchens, less often in bathrooms.
Siliconized Sealants Siliconized sealants largely follow the properties of acrylic, but due to the presence of silicone in the composition, they are more durable, flexible and resistant to temperature changes. In addition, they are more resistant to moisture, can even be used for outdoor work.
Compounds have good adhesion to wood, plaster, chipboard, glass, can also be used to seal window and door frames. After drying, they, as well as acrylic sealants, can be coated with paints, usually using oil and latex compounds.
№4.Silicone Sealants: Types and Properties of
Silicone sealants are universal compounds that can be used in external and internal works of , have excellent adhesion to almost all materials. In terms of performance, silicone sealant can be called a leader among analogues. The basis of such compositions is a silicone polymer( silicone rubber, up to 45%). dyes , which give the sealant a certain shade, fungicides , which prevent the development of mold, and mechanical fillers , which contribute to better adhesion to different surface types, may also be included. Extenders of organic origin, which reduce the viscosity of silicone, are often included.
Silicone sealants are divided into:
- one-component .Harden due to moisture in the air. It is these compounds that are used in everyday life;
- two-component .The basis of such sealants is cured under the influence of special compounds when mixed. Found application in the industry.
Depending on the chemical composition, one-component silicone sealants are divided into the following groups:
- acidic .The composition has acetic acid, as evidenced by the characteristic odor that is released during curing. Acidic silicone sealants can be used to work with wood, plastic, ceramic, but is not suitable for treating metal , glass, marble, granite and cement-containing compounds. For most non-ferrous metals, this sealant causes accelerated rates of corrosion. The main advantage is lower price;
- neutral sealants in the composition instead of acetic acid contain alcohol or ketoxime, thereby achieving universality of their use. Can be used both for work with metal surfaces, and with sanitary ceramics;
- alkaline sealants, produced on the basis of amines, are used in everyday life infrequently and belong to special-purpose materials.
For all types of silicone sealants, the following benefits are characteristic of :
- high elasticity, which allows the use of similar compounds for sealing mobile connections. Sealant will not collapse under the influence of mechanical vibrations;
- tensile strength;
- wide range of operating temperatures( from -50 to + 2000С);
- adhesion to the mass of materials( wood, ceramics, metal, glass, concrete, plastic, etc.);
- resistance to negative environmental influences. Silicone sealant perfectly tolerates exposure to ultraviolet radiation, high humidity, temperature changes and corrosive environments;
- health safety. Since there are no harmful fumes, it is possible to apply sealant without special protective equipment;
- durability, service life 15-20 years.
- seams created with silicone sealant cannot be painted, but manufacturers offer formulations with ready-made shades, the range is sufficient;
- acid formulations are corrosive to metals, but there is only one way out - use neutral compounds for working with metal surfaces;
- poor adhesion to the old layer of silicone sealant, so it will have to be dismantled, which can cause some difficulties.
Silicone sealants are used for interior and exterior applications. can be used when installing doors, window frames, metal structures. sanitary silicone sealant is indispensable for sealing bathtubs and shower enclosures, sealing threaded connections for water supply. Special adhesive sealant can be used to work with glass products. Silicone compounds provide a high level of tightness against odors, water and noise.
Using such a sealant is no more difficult than using acrylic. The surface must be clean, dry and free from grease. The composition is applied using special pistols, it sets in 30 minutes, hardens in 24 hours. Excessive surfaces are wiped with a damp cloth, and they are washed off their hands with soapy water.
It is not easy to remove the old silicone sealant: you will have to either gradually cut it with a sharp knife, or use special chemicals that dissolve the sealant.
№5.Polyurethane Sealants: Advantages and Use of
Polyurethane sealants are very flexible and resistant to deformation, therefore they are often used to seal the foundation and roof. There may be one-component and two-component .The latter are used primarily in industry.
The main advantages of the are the :
- high elasticity and ability to withstand significant deformations;
- excellent adhesion to materials such as reinforced concrete, aluminum, wood, stone, ceramics, plastic. The composition sticks together the surfaces so firmly that even an earthquake of 5 points will not destroy the seam;
- resistance to moisture, temperature, UV, corrosion;
- composition can withstand temperatures from -60 to + 800C, it can be applied when the frost is -100C;
- durability. Service life is 20 years or more;
- the possibility of staining a frozen joint.
- during application releases corrosive toxic substances, therefore, when working with such a sealant, it is necessary to observe security measures;
- insufficient resistance to high temperatures( above + 1200С).
Polyurethane sealants harden under the influence of water, quickly seize, but you can only talk about complete solidification after 7-10 hours. Apply the composition of the tube or using a pistol, it does not drain from vertical surfaces, gives zero shrinkage.
№6.Bituminous and rubber sealants
Bituminous sealant is a paste-like material made on the basis of a modified bituminous binder with the addition of special fillers that provide resistance to negative environmental factors. Rubber compounds obtained on the basis of synthetic rubber
Bituminous and rubber sealants are indispensable for roofing , used for fixing roofing material and other bitumen coatings, for fixing polystyrene foam, polyurethane and other insulating materials, are also used to seal cracks in the foundation and drainage system. In addition, both the composition can be used for sealing joints in rooms with high humidity and even for the repair of rubber products.
For most properties, these two types of sealants are similar, which gives the right to speak about the common advantages of :
- high elasticity;
- resistance to high levels of humidity, sunlight, mechanical damage;
- high adhesive properties, which allow not to clean the original surface before applying a layer of sealant;
- ease of operation.
- can not carry out work on the application of sealant at subzero temperatures;
- bituminous sealant can not be painted, but the rubber can be painted.
butyl rubber sealants Butyl rubber sealants are obtained by copolymerization of isoprene and isobutylene. As a result, a non-curable material is formed, supplied in the form of mounting tapes and seals of various thickness and width. Such tapes are used in the installation of under-roofing materials, for sealing interpanel joints, as well as during installation of roof windows.
Benefits of the :
- elasticity that is not lost over time;
- adhesion to concrete, metal, wood, glass, plastics;
- wide range of working temperatures, from -45 to + 1500С;
- the ability to repeat the deformation distortion of roofing materials.
- low durability, about 5 years;
- low tensile strength.
No. 8.Tiokol sealants
Tiokol( polysulfide) sealants are considered one of the strongest, most durable and expensive compounds. As a rule, such sealants consist of 2-3 components of ( base, curing paste and vulcanization accelerator), which are mixed in predetermined proportions before use. The resulting composition must be used within two hours, full hardening occurs from several hours to a couple of days.
- high elasticity;
- highest resistance to aggressive substances, gasoline, kerosene, oils, which allows the use of sealant in the arrangement of garages, gas stations, laboratories, etc.;
- resistance to precipitation, UV rays, as well as a wide range of temperatures( from -50 to + 1300C);
- high adhesion to concrete, reinforced concrete and metal, which makes it possible to use sealant in the repair of metal roofs;
- high price;
- need to use protective equipment when working;
- the need to perform all the work on applying sealant very quickly.
# 9.What is necessary to consider when choosing a sealant?
Naturally, before going to the store, you must clearly understand where and under what conditions sealant will be used. If it is a bath, then a moisture-resistant composition is necessary, if the floor is wooden, then the sealant must be elastic and not contain solvents. In addition, pay attention to what is indicated on the package:
- scope of application of the composition( exterior or interior work);
- type of work performed( roofing, window, plumbing, etc.);
- manufacturer must indicate for which types of surfaces the sealant is intended, as well as whether it is elastic or not;
- color composition. If the sealant is not to be painted or simply will not be painted, its color is important so as not to suffer aesthetics;
- sealants can be household and professional, the latter is more difficult to use;
- pay attention to the indicated working temperatures of the composition, comparing them with the existing climate features in the region.
No. 10.Manufacturers of sealants
Name of the manufacturer - guarantee of quality sealant. To be 100% confident in the high quality of the purchased composition, trust the products of large companies. sealants from such manufacturers have proven themselves very well:
- Ceresit is a true giant in the field of building materials, part of Henkel Corporation. Among other things, it produces silicone and acrylic sealants. The highest quality;
- "Moment" is one of the brands of the German corporation Henkel, with factories located in 70 countries, and products are sold in 125 countries. Under the trademark "Moment" in the domestic market are silicone, polyurethane, acrylic and bitumen sealants in a wide range;
- CIKI FIX is a Turkish company producing silicone sealants. Quality is decent, prices are reasonable;
- Belinka Belles is a Slovenian manufacturer specializing in the manufacture of paints and protective coatings for wood, but there are also silicone sealants in the range;
- Selena is an international corporation with Polish capital. The group includes 30 companies worldwide, produces a wide range of products. Sealants are manufactured under the trademark TYTAN; specialized professional compositions are offered, silicone, acrylic, bituminous and rubber sealants;
- Krass is a group of companies whose plants are located in the Netherlands, Switzerland and Poland. Among the sealants are silicone, siliconized and acrylic compounds.
Carefully study the descriptions from the manufacturer on the packaging - it is worth spending a little time to study all the characteristics in order to avoid unnecessary expenses and unnecessary purchases or, even worse, a bad result.