- Engine types of washing machines
- How to diagnose an electric motor at home?
- The most frequent causes of engine failure
The reasons for the failure of a washing machine can be many. The most common of them are consumer errors made during operation, improper loading of laundry, poor-quality laundry detergents, manufacturing defects during production, tap water too hard, etc.
Any element of a household appliance can fail. Depending on the severity of the malfunction, it may be necessary to simply repair the washing machine, which is made at home by yourself. In more serious cases, you will have to ask for help from a professional master who can establish the cause and make complex repairs.
The most important part of a washing machine is the engine. His main task - the rotation of the drum. Its breakage can lead to a serious problem, up to the failure of the entire washing machine machine.
Types of motors of washing machinesThe simple construction consisting of a starter and a rotor, has the low cost price, works silently. But due to the large size and low efficiency in modern machines, this motor does not apply;
How to diagnose an electric motor at home?
The easiest way to check for proper operation of the collector motor. It is easier to remove it at home and can be checked without the use of professional expensive equipment.
With regard to direct-drive electric motors, a control system is needed for their diagnosis, and it will have to be removed along with the tank, since it is an integral part of it. The stator is fixed to the bolts to the frame of the washing machine itself, the machine, the rotor also has a rigid mount, which in most cases is not folding. Repair of such washing machines is most often carried out only in service centers.
How to test motor with direct drive?
Most often, you can check such an engine only by analyzing the errors displayed on the display or the service menu of the washing machine. By the error code appearing on the display, it is possible to detect a coil closure, diagnose an electrical break, failure of the brushes.
More complex and professional inspection and repair is performed by qualified craftsmen using special laboratory and bench equipment.
How to check the collector engine?
The most common engine used in modern models of washing machines. You can check the collector motor of the washing machine yourself at home. To begin, the electric motor must be removed from the machine body machine. First, the back or front wall of the case is unscrewed( depending on the model of the washing machine).The motor itself is located under the tank from the rear side and is attached to the metal frame with pins or bolts. The electrical connection is equipped with terminals that open easily.
. After the motor is removed, it is necessary to make a serial connection of the stator and the rotor, and apply mains voltage of 220 W to the ends. Best of all, if it will be fed through an additional ballast. As it can be used TEN, the main thing is that the power of equipment with active resistance is not less than 500W.If, after connecting to the power grid, the motor rotates and the autotransformer does not heat up much, at this stage it is possible to diagnose the normal operation of the motor.
The most frequent causes of engine failure
- Faulty electric brushes;
- Breakage of winding in the rotor and stator;
- Manifold lamella.
Replacement of the
electrical outlets These are conductive graphite cubes with wires that rub against the collector.
The reason for replacing the engine brushes may be:
- loss of rotational force of the drum or its complete stop;
- unusual noise during operation of the washing machine.
The most common cause of failure is tank overload. Also, electrical brushes wear out quickly when using spin at maximum speed or due to a short circuit in the windings of the motor, problems with the belt that connects the motor to the drum, it can jump off the pulley or tear.
A visual inspection of the brushes will also help you understand the need for replacement. If in the process of work they spark or there is a black bloom on the surface, the parts need to be changed.
Of course, this is an inexpensive engine component, and repairs can be made at home. It is enough to purchase a suitable model of brushes in a specialty store or service center. The main thing is to choose and replace the brushes on the washing machine, they must fully comply with the type of motor and it is better if it is the original set from the manufacturer of the washing machine.
lamellas need to be replaced. This is precisely the component part of the collector on which the electrical brushes slide. Through them, the current is transmitted through the rotor winding to the engine. The plates themselves are rarely subject to wear, the breakage of the cord in the winding in the places where the lamellae or their detachment are attached can cause the breakage.
This happens, most often, also due to improper use of the appliance, for example, in a top-loading automatic machine, the washing process was started with unclosed drum doors or failure of bearings.
If the detachment is small, repairs are made on a special machine, by grooving the collector. At home, you can do a simple shallow skin. The principle is the same - the lamellae are sharpened, then the space between them is thoroughly cleaned from dust and loose chips.
It is possible to check the motor for the presence of this fault by slowly rotating the rotor, if a characteristic sound appears, then most likely the reason is in the lamellae.
Open circuit or short circuit in the rotor or stator windingThe normal temperature should not be above 80 degrees, if it rises to 90 degrees, the thermostat is triggered, stopping the motor;
A break in the winding can be detected using a multimeter in the mode of measuring resistance between the lamellae. The norm is 0.1-0.4 ohms.
Breakage or short circuit in the electric motor of a washing machine can cause malfunction and other components of the device fail, such as the command device( another expensive part of the machine), a power triac, a reverse relay. As can be seen, the most common causes of breakdowns, failure to smelt exploitation or instability of the electrical network. To increase the service life, it is recommended to use the device according to the instructions, and to protect against power surges, install the difavtomat and connect the washing machine only through this protective device.