You thought about the water heating arrangement in the house? It is not surprising, because the one-pipe heating system private homes may be traditional and absolute non-volatile, or, on the contrary, is very modern and fully automatic.
But doubts about the reliability of this option you still there - do not know how to choose the scheme and any "pitfalls" you expect? We will help clarify these questions - in the article describes the arrangement of the circuit pipe system, the pros and cons, waiting for the homeowner with a similar heating system.
Material article with detailed diagrams and visual picture with the image of the individual elements are used in the heating assembly. In addition, selected a video analysis of the nuances of the installation pipe system with underfloor heating.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of the water heating
- Unlike one-pipe and two-pipe systems
Embodiments pipe heating apparatus
- Systems with both natural and forced circulation
- Open or closed heating system?
- An effective scheme of one-pipe system
Ways to connect the radiator to the trunk
- The diagonal or cross connection
- Side or single-side
- Bottom connection of the radiator to a conduit
- Advantages and disadvantages of a one-pipe system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of the water heating
The low-rise buildings, the most widespread is simple, reliable and economical design with a backbone. Single-pipe system remains the most popular way of organizing individual heating. It operates by continuously circulating a heat transfer fluid.
Moving through pipes from the source of thermal energy (boiler) to the heating elements and back, it gives up its thermal energy, and heats the building.
Coolant may be air, steam, water or antifreeze that is used in homes periodic rate. The most common water heating circuit.
A strong advantage for this single-pipe construction of heating systems is the minimum number of tubes for causing economic and aesthetic appeal circuit
When using reinforced plastic pipes and plastic aesthetic appeal one pipe circuits are increased, since loop strip can hide in constructions or at trim
The gravitational heating systems, characterized by the natural movement of the coolant monotube circuits are built solely for the upper wiring
The contours of the upper wiring is located above the feeding tube devices, the coolant flows in series from one to the other along the path and cools. In order to more evenly distribute the heat transfer fluid is set to bypass radiator, partially shut-off the supply of hot water
By the same principle constructed vertical contours forced heating, which stimulate movement of the heated water circulating pump
The direction of travel of the heated and cooled water in the system, they are divided on passing and blind. The deadlock heated and cooled coolant moves in different directions, in passing - in one
In the single-pipe heating circuits with the lower wiring connecting the inlet and outlet pipes is done from below
In systems with horizontal circulation pump necessarily present, without which it would be too complicated coolant motion. To remove excess air set manual or automatic air vent
Aesthetic advantages pipe heating system
Latent laying pipe heating circuit
Gravity pipe heating
Improved circuit with a single pipe closing portion
Vertical heating circuit prunuditelnogo
Blind one-pipe heating system embodiment
Variant pipe heating with lower wiring
Device systems with horizontal
Traditional heating based on the laws of physics phenomena and - the thermal expansion of the water, convection and gravity. Heated by a boiler, heat transfer fluid expands and creates a pressure in the pipeline.
In addition, it becomes less dense and, therefore, easy. Pushed over the bottom of the heavy and dense cold water it directs upwards, so coming from a boiler pipe is always directed upward maximally.
Under the action of the created pressure and convection forces of gravity the water flows to the radiator, heats them up itself while cooled.
Thus coolant heat energy, heating the room. The boiler water is returned already cold, and the cycle begins anew.
Modern equipment that provides heating the house can be very compact. To install it, you do not even need to allocate a special room
system gravity heating also called gravity and gravitational. To ensure fluid movement it is necessary to observe the slope angle of the horizontal branches of the pipeline, which should be 2 - 3 mm per meter.
The volume of the coolant is increased when heated, creating in the line hydraulic pressure. However, since water is incompressible, even a small excess of it will lead to the destruction of the heating structures.
Therefore, any heating system installed compensating device - expansion.
In gravitational boiler heating system is mounted at the lowest point line, and the expansion tank - at the top. All pipelines are doing downhill to the heat transfer fluid gravity could move from one system to another element
Unlike one-pipe and two-pipe systems
water heating systems are divided into two main types - a single-tube and double-tube. The differences of these schemes is the method of connecting the heat emitting cells to the backbone.
single-pipe heating Backbone - a closed annular contour. Paving conduit from the heating unit, radiators is connected thereto in series, and lead back to the boiler.
Heating with a highway easily installed and does not have a large number of components, thus allowing significant savings on installation.
Monotube heating circuits with the natural movement of the coolant satisfied only with the top distributing. A characteristic feature - in the schemes have risers supply line, but no risers for the return
coolant flow two-pipe heating carried out on two routes. The first serves to deliver the hot coolant from the heating device to heat-circuits, the second - to drain cooled water to the boiler.
radiators connected in parallel - a heated fluid enters each of them directly from the supply circuit therefore has practically the same temperature.
The radiator coolant gives energy and cooled down leaves in the outlet circuit - a "return flow". This scheme requires twice the number of fittings, pipes and fittings, but allows to arrange complex branched structure and reduce heating costs due to individual adjustment radiators.
Two-pipe system efficiently heats large areas and high-rise buildings. The low-rise (1-2 floors) buildings area less than 150 m² expedient to arrange single-pipe heat both from an aesthetic and economic perspective.
Double-pipe circuit connecting the radiator was not widely used in the device of the individual heating private houses, because it is more difficult to install and maintain. In addition, twice the number of tubes looks unsightly
Embodiments pipe heating apparatus
Elements of any heating system:
- heat source - boiler (solid fuel, electric, gas boiler;)
- heat-transfer devices – radiators, Underfloor heating circuits;
- device providing coolant circulation - special overclocking section of the highway, water pump;
- compensating device gauge coolant line pressure – expansion tank open or gated;
- pipes, fittings and related plumbing fittings.
Depending on the type of device will depend on the heating circuit.
Heating with solid fuel boiler belongs to the category for the cheapest. But the operation is associated with the formation of soot, burning, need to regularly replenish fuel
Heating with electric boilers easiest device and operation. No soot, no dirt, but not permissible power outages
Heating with gas boiler draws profitable operation and the ability to partially automate the process. Outdoor equipment options are used in the regeneration of large houses with floor space of more than 240 sq.m.
Wall gas is set in small units lodges area of 150 sq or apartments
Solid unit for heating
Electric boiler in the autonomous scheme
Gas boiler floor
Wall-mounted boiler for houses and flats
Systems with both natural and forced circulation
The circulation of the coolant in the heating system can be naturally - under the influence of physical phenomena or forced - by the circulation pump.
In the former case, the motion of heating system is called spontaneous and natural, in the second - forced or artificial.
With reference to structural features monotube heating circuits are divided into two types. Origin - outdated but simple flow diagram of the second - an improved circuit with bypass
To ensure fluid movement in a gravity system requires the speeding-up section. This effluent from the boiler vertical pipe through which heated coolant rises.
At the top of the conduit smoothly rotated downward, whereby water with an acceleration rushes through the pipeline.
For heating circuit with the upper wiring, as well as for two-storey houses such portion serves as a supply pipe as it rises to a sufficient level.
To heat a single-storey building with a lower horizontal wiring arrange booster reservoir, the height of which should not be less than 1.5 m from the level of the first radiator.
The upper portion is a device to allow gravity flow of coolant circulating in the heating system. Straight pipe diameter of the pipe segment must be greater than its core.
For example, when the diameter of the pipe line 25-32 mm is chosen tube 40 mm in diameter for accelerating the reservoir.
The upper point of the booster reservoir satisfied in a convenient location close to the boiler. Dip tube manifold such as to provide an adequate height difference between the lower tap of the booster reservoir and bottom line for the DC bias compliance conduit
The main advantages of a gravitational system - it is a complete non-volatility (in combination with a solid fuel boiler), the simplicity and the lack of sophisticated instruments.
The disadvantage of a lot:
- To minimize flow resistance, the pipe diameter must be large enough.
- Each embedded device and the device impedes fluid movement in the system so the minimum number of valves. This makes it difficult to repair, because it requires a complete system shutdown and emptying the pipeline.
- For reliable operation of a gravitational system must be carefully calculated and balance, selecting the optimal number of pipe diameters and sections radiators. Recent system radiators must be greater than those in which the media to enter after leaving the boiler.
Installing the circulation pump in the system neutralizes virtually all of its shortcomings. The device gives an additional impulse heat carrier, allowing to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the pipe elements.
Forced-pipe heating schemes are implemented in private homes more often.
Thanks to the modernization of the flow system by setting the bypasses, the coolant with a working temperature substantially simultaneously supplied to all devices
The pump can be mounted anywhere on the line. But it is necessary to consider that the hot water reduces its service life by acting on the rubber parts (gaskets and seals).
Therefore it is expedient to set the machine in the return pipe where circulates the cooled coolant. Before him compulsorily include coarse filter to protect against ingress of potential contaminants.
All instruments and devices of heating systems, it is desirable to connect through a shut-off valve and bypass.
This installation will allow for repairs and maintenance of individual elements without having to stop the whole system and complete water drainage.
Bypass is unregulated and regulated. In the first case, it is a simple tube connecting the feed and discharge line. In the second - is equipped with a three-way shut-off valves
Advantages of the heating system with forced circulation:
- It is possible to realize more complex circuits and branched, increase the length of the contours;
- No need of increasing the diameter of pipe - line pump creates a pressure sufficient for the motion and a uniform distribution of the liquid;
- Circulation is carried out at a predetermined speed and is not dependent on the degree of heating the coolant and the presence of the accelerating section;
- It is not necessary to comply with angles for laying the pipeline, because movement stimulated coolant pump.
In addition, you can set the control devices for each radiator and maintain an optimum heating mode, reducing power consumption and heating costs.
Deficiencies in single-pipe heating forced a total of three:
- dependence on power supply;
- noise - some buzz, which makes operating the pump;
- cost of - higher compared to the gravity circuit cost of the device.
Neutralize them just enough. Volatility solved by setting an autonomous power generator or the possibility of switching systems with natural circulation mode.
To make the pump work is almost inaudible, it is sufficient to mount in non-residential premises - bathroom, toilet, boiler room.
In the upper line points, especially under forced heating with a closed expansion tank must be capable of escaping from the air venting water. Radiator this automatic air vent or bleed screw for pipeline - air separator
Open or closed heating system?
To avoid excessive increase of hydraulic pressure in the system and set it jumps expansion tank. It takes the excess water during the expansion, and then returns it to the pipe during cooling, restoring the equilibrium of the system.
There are two fundamentally different structures, which determine the appearance of the whole system.
Expansion tank open type - is partially or fully open vessel which is connected to the backbone at its highest point, immediately after the boiler.
To eliminate the overflow edge of the liquid through on a certain level provide retraction, through which the excess water will be discharged into the sewer or the street.
In the single-storey houses compensating part of the output capacity of the attic - in this case it is necessary to insulate.
Not to monitor constantly the level of coolant expansion tank is fed to the water pipe and install a simple float valve
The heating system with the compensating device is said to open. Used in the regeneration of volatile or combined heating.
It involves the direct contact of the coolant with the hot air, so that it comes natural evaporation and oxygenation.
On this basis, an open heating scheme has the following disadvantages:
- When installing piping systems necessarily gravitational compliance slopes - in this case liberated into the air system will be bled to the tank and the atmosphere.
- Must be checked regularly and in time to fill up the volume of water in the tank, preventing its excessive evaporation.
- Do not use antifreeze as the heat carrier, because when it evaporates, toxic substance.
Contained in the circulating liquid oxygen causes corrosive damage in steel parts of heating devices, reducing their lifetime.
However, it also has advantages:
- No need for constant pressure control in the line;
- Even with small spills system will be properly heat the house while in the line there is a sufficient amount of liquid;
- Replenish the coolant in the system may be even a bucket - just pour the water expansion tank to the required level.
Expansion tank of closed type is a rugged sealed housing interior volume is divided into two membrane parts. One cavity is filled with air, is connected to the second manifold.
By heating the coolant, increasing in volume, pushes the membrane towards the air chamber, which plays the role of a damper. When cooling water is reduced hydraulic pressure, and the compressed air causes the system to equilibrium, squeezing excess water back into the pipeline.
All tanks are equipped with closed-type air valve. In the emergency mode, when the air chamber pressure exceeds the allowable limit, it is depressurized gas and protects the device from destruction
System with membrane-type expansion tank is called closed. This is completely devoid of air closed hydraulic lines.
Compensating container can be inserted anywhere in the system, but more often it is mounted on the return flow around the boiler - to improve the ease of maintenance.
Closed heating system is characterized by having a slight overpressure. Therefore, the binding line element becomes security group.
The node consists of venting, pressure gauge and safety valve to discharge the coolant in the emergency mode. Mounted with shut-off valve on the supply line to be able to suppress the repair case.
If there is a rise in the pipeline, that is disposed in the top spot.
The security group for the heating circuits are three devices: air vent valve, a safety valve and manometer
Grouped devices prevent the occurrence of excessive pressure capable of destroying the pipeline and damage the isolating valves
Most often, the device comprising heating security group, mounted on a common hollow body and have together, but they can be installed separately
If the devices are installed separately from each other, be sure to put the safety valve above the boiler, if together, there are mounted the entire group
Safety Components Group
The functional purpose of the device
An effective scheme of one-pipe system
In designing heating into account many factors - the presence of a stable power supply and a separate premises for the equipment (boiler, boiler room), number of floors and the layout, design aesthetics of the future etc.
In each case, the location of the equipment and how to connect it will be different.
For a very small space - a country house - the most efficient scheme would be simple Gravity series connection of cells directly into the trunk line.
When two or three radiators are not required to establish a large number of valves - in this case it is easier to drain the water from the system when necessary.
In buildings with a larger heating system is complex, sometimes branched structure. In this case, the best option becomes compulsory heating scheme "from Leningrad" with a diagonal connecting the battery and adjustable heat-release bypasses.
This scheme ensures maximum space heating radiators and the ability to adjust and customize the operation mode. To detach any element of the system is not required to empty the entire line
Ways to connect the radiator to the trunk
Heat dissipation radiator depends on the method of their connection to the backbone.
There are three basic types of connections:
Consider the characteristics of each of these methods in more detail.
The diagonal or cross connection
Diagonal or cross, the connection is the most effective. It reached a maximum battery heating on the area, and there is practically no loss of heat.
By this scheme, the supply conduit is fed to the upper radiator pipe and a discharge pipe connected to the lower disposed on the opposite side of the device. For devices with a large number of sections is only applicable diagonal connection type.
Side or single-side
Lateral or unilateral, the connection allows for uniform heating of all the unit sections.
To connect the inlet and outlet piping is supplied with one hand. In most cases, such a compound is used in the heating apparatus with the upper wiring.
Heat transfer heating at lateral connecting radiators, fed with the top down is 97%. During the return coolant flows - from the bottom upwards - this figure is 78%
Bottom connection of the radiator to a conduit
Bottom connection - not the most efficient heating scheme. However arranged quite often, especially when the main pipeline to hide under the floor.
The feed and discharge pipes are fed to the bottom nozzles disposed on different sides of the radiator.
Indicator heat radiators connected with the lower 88%
Advantages and disadvantages of a one-pipe system
Pipe heating has gained wide popularity in the field of private construction.
The main reason - a relatively low cost of construction and the ability to mount it on their own, without the involvement of specialists.
But the one-pipe heating system has other advantages:
- Hydraulic resistance - heat transfer from other elements of the system is not changed by disconnecting the individual circuits, replacing radiators or building sections;
- line apparatus manages minimum number of pipes;
- Characterized by low inertia and warmup time due to smaller than in the double pipe, the coolant in the line number;
- It looks aesthetically and do not spoil the interior space, especially if the main pipe to hide;
- Installation of the latest generation of valves - for example, automatic and manual thermostats - allows fine-tuning operation of the whole structure, as well as its individual elements;
- Simple and rugged construction;
- Simple installation, maintenance and operation.
When connecting the control units and the control to the heating system, it can be converted to fully automatic operation.
Can be integrated with system of "smart house" - in this case, you can ask the program optimal heating modes depending on the time of day, season, and other critical factors.
Magistral-pipe heating can completely hide finishing. Such a device not only does not spoil the appearance of the room, but it becomes a piece - piece of furniture
The main disadvantage of a single-pipe heating is the imbalance of heating heat emitting cells along the length of highway.
Medium cools as you move along the contour. Because of what the radiators installed far from the boiler, heat is less than the closely spaced. Therefore recommended to install slowly cooled cast iron fixtures.
Installation of the circulation pump allows warm coolant heats contours more evenly, but at a sufficient length of the pipe there is a significant cooling it.
Reduce the negative effects of this phenomenon in two ways:
- In remote from the boiler the radiator increases the number of sections. This increases their heat conducting area and the amount of heat given, will evenly heat the premises.
- Components of the project with a rational arrangement of heat emitting devices through the rooms - the most powerful installed in the children's rooms, bedrooms and "cold" (northern corner) rooms. As the cooling of coolant are living room and kitchen, complete non-residential and utility rooms.
These measures minimize disadvantages pipe system, particularly for one- or two-storey buildings, having an area of 150 m². For these homes pipe heating is the most favorable.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
For one-pipe line is connected not only heating, but also the contours of warm floors. The video shows how to carry out such installation.
Pipe heating - is a simple and reliable system. However, some of its elements must be carefully chosen for efficient heating. To this end, it is desirable to seek the advice of a specialist that can help you perform a rough calculation.
You do not agree with the diagrams shown in this article? Or have hands-on experience in one-pipe heating arrangement in a private house? Your experience will be useful to our readers. Do not hesitate to share your knowledge in the comments below.